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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Antibiotic-impregnated shunts: effects in pediatric population

bactiseal2

J Neurosurg Pediatrics 13:101–106, 2014

Infection after both primary and revision shunt surgeries remains a major problem in pediatric neurosurgical practice. Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) tubing has been proposed to reduce infection rates. The authors report their experience with AIS catheters in their large pediatric neurosurgery department.

Methods. The authors conducted a retrospective case review of consecutive shunt operations performed before (1993–2003) and after (2005–2009) introduction of AIS tubing, with analysis of shunt infection rates and causative organisms identified.

Results. The historical control group consisted of 1592 consecutive shunt operations (657 primary insertions), and the AIS study group consisted of 500 consecutive shunt operations (184 primary insertions). Patients ranged in age from 0–17 years. In the historical group, 135 infections were identified (8.4%). In the AIS study group, 25 infections were identified (5%), representing a significant reduction (p < 0.005). The latency to diagnosis of infection was 23 days in the historical group and 139 days in the AIS study group. The infection rates in infants 0–6 months of age were 12.2% (historical group) and 6.7% (AIS group, p < 0.005), and in infants 7–12 months of age the rates were 7.9% (historical group) and 2.7% (AIS group, p < 0.005). In the historical control group, the frequency rank order of causative organisms was coagulase-negative staphylococcus (51.9%), Staphylococcus aureus (31.6%), streptococcus or enterococcus spp. (8.8%), gram-negative organisms (4.4%), and Propionibacterium acnes (2.2%). Organisms responsible for infections in AIS were S. aureus (40%), followed by streptococcus or enterococcus spp. (20%), P. acnes and coagulase-negative staphylococcus (both 16%), and gram-negative organisms (4%). No unusually antibioticresistant bacteria were identified in either group. The authors further subdivided the AIS group into those undergoing primary AIS insertion (Subgroup 1), those undergoing revision of non-AIS systems using AIS components (Subgroup 2), and those undergoing revision of AIS systems using AIS components (Subgroup 3). Infection rates were 1.6% in Subgroup 1, 2.5% in Subgroup 2, and 11.7% in Subgroup 3. Staphylococcus aureus was the most common organism identified in infections of the Subgroups 2 and 3.

Conclusions. Use of AIS tubing significantly improves shunt infection rates in both general pediatric and infant populations with no evidence of increased antibiotic resistance, which is in agreement with previous studies. However, the increased infection rate in revision surgery in children with AIS catheters in situ raises questions about their long-term application.

Category: hydrocephalus, Pediatrics

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