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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Imaging of Intracranial Pressure Disorders

Neurosurgery 80:341–354, 2017

Intracranial pressure (ICP) is the pressure inside the bony calvarium and can be affected by a variety of processes, such as intracranial masses and edema, obstruction or leakage of cerebrospinal uid, and obstruction of venous out flow. This review focuses on the imaging of 2 important but less well understood ICP disorders: idiopathic intracranial hypertension and spontaneous intracranial hypotension. Both of these ICP disorders have salient imaging findings that are important to recognize to help prevent their misdiagnosis from other common neurological disorders.

An update on idiopathic intracranial hypertension

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:491–499

Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is still a grey area in the knowledge of the aetiology, diagnosis and management of neurosurgical diseases. The definition of IIH has been reviewed over time and many hypotheses have been expressed as cause of the disease. The literature supplies very little evidence-based information to guide our decision-making process when it comes to treat the disease. In this review we sum up the latest information regarding the aetiology and therapy of IIH. Additionally, we make an attempt to unify the diagnostic criteria of Dandy, Friedman and Wall established from 1937 to date.

Method

In this narrative review, we attempt to update the current standpoint to IIH, evaluate the input until now and consider future directions for research. The vast majority of the literature consisted of cohort studies, case control studies, systematic reviews and other narrative reviews.

Results

Pathophysiology: The incidence of IIH is steadily in- creasing. Several pathophysiological theories have been pro- posed in the literature based on the flow of cerebrospinal fluid.

Diagnosis: We attempt to fuse all the three diagnostic ap- proaches published in the literature that detect IIH, while pre- serving the individual characteristics of each approach.

Treatment:

Based on evidence-based trials, the current use of acetazolamide in comparison with placebo or with topiramate has been evaluated. In the interventions’ field, there seems to be a consonance about the alarming symptoms and what the most suitable operation is in each case. There is some disagreement about the indications for venous sinus transversus stenting and its risk/benefit ratio.

Conclusions

Until now there is no class I guideline to which our decision-making can be based on for the management of IIH. A lack of systematic reviews and randomised control trials has been noted. If we focused our research on that, we could develop a standardised treatment protocol.

 

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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