Neurosurgery 71:877–884, 2012
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) remains a poorly understood and therapeutically challenging disease. Enthusiasm has emerged for endovascular therapy with stent reconstruction of dural sinus narrowing; however, a complete understanding of the hydrodynamic dysequilibrium is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: To review and characterize catheter manometry findings including pulsatility changes within the venous sinuses in IIH.
METHODS: Cases of venous sinus stent implantation for IIH were retrospectively reviewed.
RESULTS: Three cases of venous sinus stent implantation for treatment of IIH are reported. All cases demonstrated severe narrowing (>70%) within the transverse sinus and a high pressure gradient across the lesion (>30 mm Hg). Stent implantation resulted in pulsatility attenuation, correction of pressure gradient, and improvement of flow.
CONCLUSION: We report the finding of high venous sinus pulsatility attenuation after stent implantation for dural sinus narrowing and propose the hypothesis that this finding is a marker of advanced dural sinus incompetence. This characteristic may be useful in identifying patients who would benefit from endovascular stent remodeling.
Neurosurgery 71:785–794, 2012
Endovascular therapy is now the preferred treatment option for basilar tip aneurysms (BTAs).
OBJECTIVE: To compare the safety and efficacy of common endovascular techniques in the treatment of BTAs.
METHODS: A retrospective review was conducted of 235 patients with BTAs treated with endovascular means in our institution between 2004 and 2011. Categorization was based on the presence and type of stent assistance (none, single, and Y stenting). The rates of perioperative complications, recanalization, rehemorrhage, and retreatment were analyzed.
RESULTS: A total of 147 patients were treated with coil embolization and 88 patients with stent-assisted coiling (72 single stents, 16 Y stents). Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6.8% of patients in both groups. There was no associated mortality. Angiographic follow-up (mean, 23.5 months) was available in 172 patients (77.1%). Stented patients had significantly lower recanalization (17.2% vs 38.9%; P = .003) and retreatment (7.8% vs 27.8%; P = .002) rates compared with nonstented patients. Four rehemorrhages (2.7%) occurred in the coiled group, whereas none were noted in the stented group (P = .3). In paired comparisons, lower recanalization (8.3% vs 19.2%; P = .21) and retreatment (0% vs 9.6%; P = .19) rates were seen in the Y-stent group compared with the single-stent group. Thromboembolic complications occurred in 6.9% and 6.2% of patients in the single-stent and Y-stent groups, respectively (P = .91). In multivariate analysis, larger aneurysms, nonstented aneurysms, incomplete initial occlusion, and subarachnoid hemorrhage were predictors of aneurysm recanalization.
CONCLUSION: Stent-assisted coiling has significantly lower recurrence, retreatment, and rehemorrhage rates than coiling alone for the treatment of BTAs. Y stenting has the highest efficacy with low complication rates.
Neurosurgery 71:E509–E513, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318258e1f8
The Pipeline Embolization Device (PED) is a flow diverter designed to treat intracranial aneurysms through endoluminal parent vessel reconstruction. The role of adjunctive coil embolization is unknown.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: This report details the authors’ experience with the PED in 2 patients with symptomatic, giant distal intracranial aneurysms (1 basilar artery and 1 M1 segment middle cerebral artery). Both patients had successful parent vessel reconstruction. In the first patient, the basilar artery aneurysm was treated with PEDs alone, and the patient experienced early fatal brainstem hemorrhage from aneurysm rupture. In the second patient, the M1 aneurysm was treated with 2 PEDs along with dense coil embolization, with a good initial angiographic result. This patient experienced acute thrombosis of the PED post-procedure, likely related to mass effect and thrombogenicity of the dense coil mass.
CONCLUSION: Flow diversion is an evolutionary step in the treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms. However, complete aneurysm occlusion occurs over a delayed period. The authors recommend placement of coils in addition to PED in the treatment of large or giant distal intracranial aneurysms in an attempt to protect the dome. However, robust packing is to be avoided because it can lead to acute PED thrombotic or compressive occlusion.
Neurosurgery 71:239–244, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182571953
The Enterprise Vascular Reconstruction Device and Delivery System (Cordis; the Enterprise stent) was approved for use in conjunction with coiling of wide-necked aneurysms in 2007. No published long-term aneurysm occlusion or complication data exist for the Enterprise system.
OBJECTIVE: We compiled data on consecutive patients treated with Enterprise stent-assisted coiling of aneurysms from 9 high-volume neurointerventional centers.
METHODS: A 9 center registry was created to evaluate large volume data on the delayed safety and efficacy of the Enterprise stent system. Pooled data were compiled for consecutive patients undergoing Enterprise stent-assisted coiling at each institution prior to May 2009.
RESULTS: Two-hundred twenty-nine patients with 229 aneurysms, 32 of which were ruptured aneurysms, were included in the study. Mean clinical and angiographic follow-up was 619.6 ± 26.4 days and 655.7 ± 25.2 days, respectively. Mean aneurysm size was 9.2 ± 0.4 mm. Fifty-nine percent of patients demonstrated 100% coil obliteration and 81% had 90% or higher occlusion at last follow-up angiography. A total of 19 patients (8.3%) underwent retreatment of their aneurysms during the follow-up period. Angiographic in-stent stenosis was seen in 3.4% and thromboembolic events occurred in 4.4%. Overall, 90% of patients who underwent Enterprise-assisted coiling had a modified Rankin Scale score of 2 or less at last follow-up. A poor modified Rankin Scale score was strongly associated with rupture status (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Although this study is limited by its retrospective nature, the Enterprise stent system appears to be an effective, safe, and durable treatment for intracranial aneurysms when used in conjunction with coiling.
Neuroradiology (2012) 54:597–606. DOI 10.1007/s00234-011-0945-0
Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms includes follow-up imaging to identify aneurysms that may need retreatment. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1 year after endovascular coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms.
Methods In 129 patients of the Prospective Registry of Subarachnoid Aneurysms Treatment cohort, ruptured aneurysms were coiled within 14 days of onset and both initial post-coiling and 1-year follow-up digital subtraction angiography or magnetic resonance angiography were obtained. Factors predicting 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion (retreatment within 1-year or residual aneurysms at 1 year) were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results One-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion was identified in 59 patients, including ten patients who were retreated within 1-year post-coiling. Dome size ≥7.5 mm (P=0.007, odds ratio (OR)=5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.55– 16.15), pre-treatment aneurysm re-rupture (P=0.023, OR= 3.50, 95% CI=1.19–10.31), non-small size/small neck aneurysm (dome size, ≥10 mm or neck size, ≥4 mm; P= 0.022, OR=3.26, 95% CI=1.19–8.96), and residual aneurysms on immediate post-coiling angiograms (P=0.017, OR= 1.43, 95% CI=1.07–1.93) significantly predicted incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1-year post-coiling.
Conclusions In addition to the characteristics of aneurysm and initially incomplete aneurysm occlusion, this study showed pre-treatment aneurysm re-rupture to be a predictor that favors closer imaging follow-ups for coiled aneurysms.
J Neurosurg 116:538–548, 2012. DOI: 10.3171/2011.10.JNS101410
The use of unilateral dural sinus stent placement in patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) has been described by multiple investigators. To date there is a paucity of information on the angiographic and hemodynamic outcome of these procedures. The object of this study was to define the clinical, angiographic, and hemodynamic outcome of placement of unilateral dural sinus stents to treat intracranial venous hypertension in a subgroup of patients meeting the diagnostic criteria for IIH.
Methods. Eighteen consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of IIH were treated with unilateral stent placement in the transverse-sigmoid junction region. All patients had papilledema. All 12 female patients had headaches; 1 of 6 males had headaches previously that disappeared after weight loss. Seventeen patients had elevated opening pressures at lumbar puncture. Twelve patients had opening pressures of 33–55 cm H2O. All patients underwent diagnostic cerebral arteriography that showed venous outflow compromise by filling defects in the transverse-sigmoid junction region. All patients underwent intracranial selective venous pressure measurements across the filling defects. Follow-up arteriography was performed in 16 patients and follow-up venography/venous pressure measurements were performed in 15 patients.
Results. Initial pressure gradients across the filling defects ranged from 10.5 to 39 mm Hg. Nineteen stent procedures were performed in 18 patients. One patient underwent repeat stent placement for hemodynamic failure. Pressure gradients were reduced in every instance and ranged from 0 to 7 mm Hg after stenting. Fifteen of 16 patients in whom ophthalmological follow-up was performed experienced disappearance of papilledema. Follow-up arteriography in 16 patients at 5–99 months (mean 25.3 months, median 18.5 months) showed patency of all stents without in-stent restenosis. Two patients had filling defects immediately above the stent. Four other patients developed transverse sinus narrowing above the stent without filling defects. One of these patients underwent repeat stent placement because of hemodynamic deterioration. Two of the other 3 patients had hemodynamic deterioration with recurrent pressure gradients of 10.5 and 18 mm Hg.
Conclusions. All stents remained patent without restenosis. Stent placement is durable and successfully eliminates papilledema in appropriately selected patients. Continuing hemodynamic success in this series was 80%, and was 87% with repeat stent placement in 1 patient.
Neurosurgery 70:141–149, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31822ec19e
Giant perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas (GPMAVFs) located in the cervical region are a rare pathology with distinctive characteristics.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical presentation and different endovascular treatment options of cervical GPMAVFs and review previously published data in the literature regarding cervical GPMAVFs.
METHODS: Six patients with cervical GPMAVFs were found in the spinal vascular malformations database of our group collected between 1990 and 2009. Endovascular techniques and treatment outcomes were evaluated and compared with other published series.
RESULTS: Clinical presentations were progressive motor deficit (5 patients), hematomyelia (1 patient), meningeal syndrome (1 patient), and respiratory arrest and gait apraxia (1 patient). Three patients were treated by the transarterial approach. One patient was treated by the transvenous approach due to previous embolizations resulting in a proximal occlusion and preventing a safe transarterial approach. A transvenous approach was used in another patient due to complex arterial anatomy. In 1 patient, direct percutaneous puncture of the venous pouch was necessary because of previous proximal occlusion of the arteries. All embolizations resulted in complete occlusions with clinical improvement, and there was no recanalization during a mean follow-up of 21 months.
CONCLUSION: Transarterial embolization of cervical GPMAVFs is safe and effective when it is done in highly experienced centers. Cervical GPMAVFs that cannot be accessed by the transarterial technique due to their complex angioarchitecture can be treated by transvenous embolization or direct puncture of the venous pouch.
J Neurosurg 116:135–144, 2012.DOI: 10.3171/2011.8.JNS101767
The purpose of this ongoing study is to compare the safety and efficacy of microsurgical clipping and endovascular coil embolization for the treatment of acutely ruptured cerebral aneurysms and to determine if one treatment is superior to the other by examining clinical and angiographic outcomes. The authors examined the null hypothesis that no difference exists between the 2 treatment modalities in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). The current report is limited to the clinical results at 1 year after treatment.
Methods. The authors screened 725 patients with SAH, resulting in 500 eligible patients who were enrolled prospectively in the study after giving their informed consent. Patients were assigned in an alternating fashion to surgical aneurysm clipping or endovascular coil therapy. Intake evaluations and outcome measurements were collected by nurse practitioners independent of the treating surgeons. Ultimately, 238 patients were assigned to aneurysm clipping and 233 to coil embolization. The 2 treatment groups were well matched. There were no anatomical exclusions. Crossing over was allowed, but primary outcome analysis was based on the initial treatment modality assignment. Posttreatment care was standardized for both groups. Patient outcomes at 1 year were independently assessed using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS). A poor outcome was defined as an mRS score > 2 at 1 year. The primary outcome was based on the assigned group; that is, by intent to treat.
Results. One year after treatment, 403 patients were available for evaluation. Of these, 358 patients had actually undergone treatment. The remainder either died before treatment or had no identifiable source of SAH. A poor outcome (mRS score > 2) was observed in 33.7% of the patients assigned to aneurysm clipping and in 23.2% of the patients assigned to coil embolization (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.08–2.61; p = 0.02). Of treated patients assigned to the coil group, 124 (62.3%) of the 199 who were eligible for any treatment actually received endovascular coil embolization. Patients who crossed over from coil to clip treatment fared worse than patients assigned to coil embolization, but no worse than patients assigned to clip occlusion. No patient treated by coil embolization suffered a recurrent hemorrhage.
Conclusions. One year after treatment, a policy of intent to treat favoring coil embolization resulted in fewer poor outcomes than clip occlusion. Although most aneurysms assigned to the coil treatment group were treated by coil embolization, a substantial number crossed over to surgical clipping. Although a policy of intent to treat favoring coil embolization resulted in fewer poor outcomes at 1 year, it remains important that high-quality surgical clipping be available as an alternative treatment modality.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:869–878. DOI 10.1007/s00701-010-0848-6
Onyx has emerged in recent years for the endovascular treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). However, the role of Onyx embolization is still under discussion. We report our initial experiences in the treatment of brain AVMs with Onyx embolization.
Methods Between January 2004 and December 2007, 86 patients with brain AVMs were embolized with Onyx. Clinical presentation included intracerebral hemorrhage in 32 patients, seizures in 25 patients, headaches in 20 patients, neurologic deficits in 3 patients, and in 6 patients the AVM was an incidental finding. According to the Spetzler–Martin scale, three AVMs were grade I, 13 were grade II, 45 were grade III, 19 were grade IV, and 6 were grade V. Seventy-four AVMs were located in eloquent regions.
Results Initial complete obliteration after final embolization was achieved in 16 patients (18.6%), with an average of 80.5% (range, 30–100%) volume reduction. Partial embolization was followed by surgery in 18 patients, whereas 17 AVMs were cured. In 48 patients treated by embolization and radiosurgery, four patients were lost to follow-up. Three-year follow-up angiography was performed on 30 patients and showed complete obliteration after radiosurgery in 23 patients. The remaining 14 patients are awaiting 3-year postradiosurgery results. Embolization-related permanent morbidity was 3.5%, whereas mortality was 1.2%.
Conclusions Although Onyx allows moderate obliteration rates, combined management, such as adjunctive embolization with microsurgery or radiosurgery, may be effective for selected large AVMs.
Neurosurgery 68:731–737, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182077373
Intraprocedural rupture is a dangerous complication of endovascular treatment. Small ruptured anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms and microaneurysms present a challenge for both surgical and endovascular therapies to achieve obliteration. An understanding of the complication rates of treating ruptured ACoA microaneurysms may help guide therapeutic options.
OBJECTIVE: To report the largest cohort of ACoA microaneurysms treated with endovascular therapy over the course of the past 10 years.
METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of 347 ACoA aneurysms treated in 347 patients at Cleveland Clinic and Emory University over a 10-year period. Patient demographics, aneurysmal rupture, size, use of balloon remodeling, patient outcomes, intraprocedural rupture, and rerupture were reviewed.
RESULTS: Rupture rates were examined by size for all patients and subgroups and dichotomized to evaluate for size ranges associated with increased rupture rates. The highest risk of rupture was noted in aneurysms less than 4 mm. Of 347 aneurysms, 74 (21%) were less than 4 mm. The intraprocedural rupture rate was 5% (18/347) for ACoA aneurysms of any size. There was an intraprocedural rupture rate of 2.9% (8/273) among ACoA aneurysms greater than 4 mm compared with 13.5% (10/74) in less than 4-mm aneurysms. Procedural rupture was a statistically significant predictor of modified Rankin score after adjusting for Hunt and Hess grades (HH).
CONCLUSION: ACoA aneurysms less than 4 mm have a 5-fold higher incidence of intraprocedural rerupture during coil embolization. Outcome is negatively affected by intraprocedural rerupture after adjusting for HH grade.