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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Outcomes After Endoscopic Endonasal Resection of Craniopharyngiomas in the Pediatric Population

World Neurosurg. (2017) 108:6-14.

Craniopharyngiomas have traditionally been treated via open transcranial approaches. More recently, endoscopic transsphenoidal approaches have been increasingly used; however, few case series exist in the pediatric population.

METHODS: A retrospective review of patients (aged <18 years) undergoing endoscopic transsphenoidal resection of craniopharyngiomas between 1995 and 2016 was performed. Preoperative data included presenting symptoms, tumor size, location, and components. Postoperative outcomes included symptom resolution, visual outcomes, endocrine outcomes, disease recurrence, and major complications.

RESULTS: Sixteen pediatric patients with mean age of 11.0 years (range, 5-15 years) were included. The median follow-up time was 56.2 months. Mean maximal tumor diameter was 3.98 cm. Most of the tumors had suprasellar (93.8%) and intrasellar (68.8%) components. The gross total resection rate was 93.8%. The most common presenting symptoms were vision changes (81.3%) and increased intracranial pressure (56.3%). Most patients (66.7%) had their presenting symptoms resolved by their first postoperative visit. Vision improved or remained normal in 69.2% of patients. Postoperatively, new incidence of panhypopituitarism or diabetes insipidus developed in 63.6% and 46.7% of patients, respectively. New hypothalamic obesity developed in 28.6% of patients. The postoperative cerebrospinal fluid leak rate was 18.8%. One patient died of intraventricular hemorrhage postoperatively. The major complication rate was 12.5%. Disease recurrence occurred in 1 patient with gross total resection (6.3%).

CONCLUSIONS: Endoscopic transsphenoidal resection for craniopharyngiomas can achieve high rates of total resection with low rates of disease recurrence in larger tumors than previously described. However, hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and cerebrospinal fluid leak remain significant postoperative morbidities

A novel weighted scoring system for estimating the risk of rapid growth in untreated intracranial meningiomas

J Neurosurg 127:971–980, 2017

Advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the increased detection of asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas (IMs). Despite several studies on the natural history of IMs, a comprehensive evaluation method for estimating the growth potential of these tumors, based on the relative weight of each risk factor, has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a weighted scoring system that estimates the risk of rapid tumor growth to aid treatment decision making.

METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 232 patients with presumed IM who had been prospectively followed up in the absence of treatment from 1997 to 2013. Tumor volume was measured by imaging at each follow-up visit, and the growth rate was determined by regression analysis. Predictors of rapid tumor growth (defined as ≥ 2 cm3/year) were identified using a logistic regression model; each factor was awarded a score based on its own coefficient value. The probability (P) of rapid tumor growth was estimated using the following formula:

[Eq. 1]

RESULTS Fifty-nine tumors (25.4%) showed rapid growth. Tumor size (OR per cm3 1.07, p = 0.000), absence of calcification (OR 3.87, p = 0.004), peritumoral edema (OR 2.74, p = 0.025), and hyperintense or isointense signal on T2- weighted MRI (OR 3.76, p = 0.049) were predictors of tumor growth rate. In the Asan Intracranial Meningioma Scoring System (AIMSS), tumor size was categorized into 3 groups of < 2.5 cm, ≥ 2.5 to < 4.0 cm, and ≥ 4.0 cm in diameter and awarded a score of 0, 3, and 6, respectively; the parameters of calcification and peritumoral edema were categorized into 2 groups based on their presence or absence and given a score of 0 or 2 and 1 or 0, respectively; and the signal on T2-weighted MRI was categorized into 2 groups of hypointense and hyperintense/isointense and given a score of 0 or 2, respectively. The risk of rapid tumor growth was estimated to be < 10% when the total score was 0–2, 10%–50% when the total score was 3–6, and ≥ 50% when the total score was 7–11 (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, p = 0.9958). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86.

CONCLUSIONS The authors suggest a weighted scoring system (AIMSS) that predicts the specific probability of rapid tumor growth for patients with untreated IM. This scoring system will aid treatment decision making in clinical settings by screening out patients at high risk for rapid tumor growth.

Correlation of volumetric growth and histological grade in 50 meningiomas

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2169–2177

Advances in radiological imaging techniques have enabled volumetric measurements of meningiomas to be easily monitored using serial imaging scans. There is limited literature on the relationship between tumour growth rates and the WHO classification of meningiomas despite tumour growth being a major determinant of type and timing of intervention. Volumetric growth has been successfully used to assess growth of low-grade glioma; however, there is limited information on the volumetric growth rate (VGR) of meningiomas. This study aimed to determine the reliability of VGR measurement in patients with meningioma, assess the relationship between VGR and 2016 WHO grading as well as clinical applicability of VGR in monitoring meningioma growth.

Methods All histologically proven intracranial meningiomas that underwent resection in a single centre between April 2009 and April 2014 were reviewed and classified according to the 2016 edition of the Classification of the Tumours of the CNS. Only patients who had two pre-operative scans that were at least 3 months apart were included in the study. Two authors performed the volumetric measurements using the Slicer 3D software independently and the inter-rater reliability was assessed. Multiple regression analyses of factors affecting the VGR and VDE of meningiomas were performed using the R statistical software with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant.

Results Of 548 patients who underwent resection of their meningiomas, 66 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cases met the exclusion criteria (NF2, spinal location, previous surgical or radiation treatment, significant intra-osseous component and poor quality imaging). Forty-two grade I and 8 grade II meningiomas were included in the analysis. The VGR was significantly higher for grade II meningiomas. Using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal threshold that distinguishes between grade I and II meningiomas is 3 cm3/year. Higher histological grade, high initial tumour volume, MRI T2-signal hyperintensity and presence of oedema were found to be significant predictors of higher VGR.

Conclusion Reliable tools now exist to evaluate and monitor volumetric growth of meningiomas. Grade II meningiomas have significantly higher VGR compared with grade I meningiomas and growth of more than 3 cm3/year is strongly suggestive of a higher grade meningioma. A larger, multi-centre prospective study to investigate the applicability of velocity of growth to predict the outcome of patients with meningioma is warranted.

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Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation for glioma removal- prognostic value in motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits

J Neurosurg 127:877–891, 2017

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the usefulness of navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) as a prognostic predictor for upper-extremity motor functional recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

METHODS Preoperative and postoperative nTMS studies were prospectively applied in 14 patients (mean age 39 ± 12 years) who had intraparenchymal brain neoplasms located within or adjacent to the motor eloquent area in the cerebral hemisphere. Mapping by nTMS was done 3 times, i.e., before surgery, and 1 week and 3 weeks after surgery. To assess the response induced by nTMS, motor evoked potential (nTMS-MEP) was recorded using a surface electromyography electrode attached to the abductor pollicis brevis (APB). The cortical locations that elicited the largest electromyography response by nTMS were defined as hotspots. Hotspots for APB were confirmed as positive responsive sites by direct electrical stimulation (DES) during awake craniotomy. The distances between hotspots and lesions (DHS-L) were measured. Postoperative neurological deficits were assessed by manual muscle test and dynamometer. To validate the prognostic value of nTMS in recovery from upper-extremity paresis, the following were investigated: 1) the correlation between DHS-L and the serial grip strength change, and 2) the correlation between positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery and the serial grip strength change.

RESULTS From the presurgical nTMS study, MEPs from targeted muscles were identified in 13 cases from affected hemispheres. In one case, MEP was not evoked due to a huge tumor. Among 9 cases from which intraoperative DES mapping for hand motor area was available, hotspots for APB identified by nTMS were concordant with DES-positive sites. Compared with the adjacent group (DHS-L < 10 mm, n = 6), the nonadjacent group (DHS-L ≥ 10 mm, n = 7) showed significantly better recovery of grip strength at 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). There were correlations between DHS-L and recovery of grip strength at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery (r = 0.74, 0.68, and 0.65, respectively). Postsurgical nTMS was accomplished in 13 patients. In 9 of 13 cases, nTMS-MEP from APB muscle was positive at 1 week after surgery. Excluding the case in which nTMS-MEP was negative from the presurgical nTMS study, recoveries in grip strength were compared between 2 groups, in which nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery was positive (n = 9) or negative (n = 3). Significant differences were observed between the 2 groups at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery (p < 0.01). Positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery correlated well with the motor recovery at 1 week, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery (r = 0.87, 0.88, and 0.77, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS Navigated TMS is a useful tool for identifying motor eloquent areas. The results of the present study have demonstrated the predictive value of nTMS in upper-extremity motor function recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits. The longer DHS-L and positive nTMS-MEP at 1 week after surgery have prognostic values of better recovery from postsurgical neurological deficits.

 

Surgical management of spinal osteoblastomas

J Neurosurg Spine 27:321–327, 2017

Osteoblastoma is a rare primary benign bone tumor with a predilection for the spinal column. Although of benign origin, osteoblastomas tend to behave more aggressively clinically than other benign tumors. Because of the low incidence of osteoblastomas, evidence-based treatment guidelines and high-quality research are lacking, which has resulted in inconsistent treatment. The goal of this study was to determine whether application of the Enneking classification in the management of spinal osteoblastomas influences local recurrence and survival time.

METHODS A multicenter database of patients who underwent surgical intervention for spinal osteoblastoma was developed by the AOSpine Knowledge Forum Tumor. Patient data pertaining to demographics, diagnosis, treatment, crosssectional survival, and local recurrence were collected. Patients in 2 cohorts, based on the Enneking classification of the tumor (Enneking appropriate [EA] and Enneking inappropriate [EI]), were analyzed. If the final pathology margin matched the Enneking-recommended surgical margin, the tumor was classified as EA; if not, it was classified as EI.

RESULTS A total of 102 patients diagnosed with a spinal osteoblastoma were identified between November 1991 and June 2012. Twenty-nine patients were omitted from the analysis because of short follow-up time, incomplete survival data, or invalid staging, which left 73 patients for the final analysis. Thirteen (18%) patients suffered a local recurrence, and 6 (8%) patients died during the study period. Local recurrence was strongly associated with mortality (relative risk 9.2; p = 0.008). When adjusted for Enneking appropriateness, this result was not altered significantly. No significant differences were found between the EA and EI groups in regard to local recurrence and mortality.

CONCLUSIONS In this evaluation of the largest multicenter cohort of spinal osteoblastomas, local recurrence was found to be strongly associated with mortality. Application of the Enneking classification as a treatment guide for preventing local recurrence was not validated.

The Survival Advantage of “Supratotal” Resection of Glioblastoma Using Selective Cortical Mapping and the Subpial Technique

Neurosurgery 81:275–288, 2017

A substantial body of evidence suggests that cytoreductive surgery is a prerequisite to prolonging survival in patients with glioblastoma (GBM).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the safety and impact of “supratotal” resections beyond the zone of enhancement seen on magnetic resonance imaging scans, using a subpial technique.

METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 86 consecutive patients with primary GBM, managed by the senior author, using a subpial resection technique with or without carmustine (BCNU) wafer implantation. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression was used to analyze clinical, radiological, and outcome variables. Overall impacts of extent of resection (EOR) and BCNUwafer placementwere compared using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis.

RESULTS: Mean patient age was 56 years. The median OS for the group was 18.1 months. Median OS for patients undergoing gross total, near-total, and subtotal resection were 54, 16.5, and 13.2 months, respectively. Patients undergoing near-total resection (P = .05) or gross total resection (P<.01) experienced statistically significant longer survival time than patients undergoing subtotal resection as well as patients undergoing≥95% EOR (P<.01) when compared to <95% EOR. The addition of BCNU wafers had no survival advantage.

CONCLUSIONS: The subpial technique extends the resection beyond the contrast enhancement and is associated with an overall survival beyond that seen in similar series where resection of the enhancement portion is performed. The effect of supratotal resection on survival exceeded the effects of age, Karnofsky performance score, and tumor volume. A prospective study would help to quantify the impact of the subpial technique on quality of life and survival as compared to a traditional resection limited to the enhancing tumor.

 

Preserving normal facial nerve function and improving hearing outcome in large vestibular schwannomas with a combined approach

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:1197–1211

To perform planned subtotal resection followed by gamma knife surgery (GKRS) in a series of patients with large vestibular schwannoma (VS), aiming at an optimal functional outcome for facial and cochlear nerves.

Methods Patient characteristics, surgical and dosimetric features, and outcome were collected prospectively at the time of treatment and during the follow-up.

Results A consecutive series of 32 patients was treated between July 2010 and June 2016. Mean follow-up after surgery was 29 months (median 24, range 4–78). Mean presurgical tumor volume was 12.5 cm3 (range 1.47–34.9). Postoperative status showed normal facial nerve function (House– Brackmann I) in all patients. In a subgroup of 17 patients with serviceable hearing before surgery and in which cochlear nerve preservation was attempted at surgery, 16 (94.1%) retained serviceable hearing. Among them, 13 had normal hearing (Gardner–Robertson class 1) before surgery, and 10 (76.9%) retained normal hearing after surgery. Mean duration between surgery and GKRS was 6.3 months (range 3.8–13.9). Mean tumor volume at GKRS was 3.5 cm3 (range 0.5–12.8), corresponding to mean residual volume of 29.4% (range 6– 46.7) of the preoperative volume. Mean marginal dose was 12 Gy (range 11–12). Mean follow-up after GKRS was 24 months (range 3–60). Following GKRS, there were no new neurological deficits, with facial and hearing functions remaining identical to those after surgery in all patients. Three patients presented with continuous growth after GKRS, were considered failures, and benefited from the same combined approach a second time.

Conclusion Our data suggest that large VS management, with planned subtotal resection followed by GKRS, might yield an excellent clinical outcome, allowing the normal facial nerve and a high level of cochlear nerve functions to be retained. Our functional results with this approach in large VS are comparable with those obtained with GKRS alone in small- and medium-sized VS. Longer term follow-up is necessary to fully evaluate this approach, especially regarding tumor control.

 

The Cost of Brain Surgery: Awake vs Asleep Craniotomy for Perirolandic Region Tumors

Neurosurgery 81:307–314, 2017

Cost effectiveness has become an important factor in the health care system, requiring surgeons to improve efficacy of procedures while reducing costs. An awake craniotomy (AC) with direct cortical stimulation (DCS) presents one method to resect eloquent region tumors; however, some authors assert that this procedure is an expensive alternative to surgery under general anesthesia (GA) with neuromonitoring.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the cost effectiveness and clinical outcomes between AC and GA patients.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a cohort of 17 patients with perirolandic gliomas who underwent an AC with DCS were case-control matched with 23 patients with perirolandic gliomas who underwent surgery under GA with neuromonitoring (ie, motor-evoked potentials, somatosensory-evoked potentials, phase reversal). Inpatient costs, qualityadjusted life years (QALY), extent of resection, and neurological outcome were compared between the groups.

RESULTS: Total inpatient expense per patient was $34 804 in the AC group and $46 798 in the GA group (P = .046). QALY score for the AC group was 0.97 and 0.47 for the GA group (P = .041). The incremental cost per QALY for the AC group was $82 720 less than the GA group. Postoperative Karnofsky performance status was 91.8 in the AC group and 81.3 in the GA group (P=.047). Length of hospitalization was 4.12 days in the AC group and 7.61 days in the GA group (P = .049).

CONCLUSION: The total inpatient costs for awake craniotomies were lower than surgery under GA. This study suggests better cost effectiveness and neurological outcome with awake craniotomies for perirolandic gliomas.

A prospective randomized trial of the optimal dose of mannitol for intraoperative brain relaxation in patients undergoing craniotomy for supratentorial brain tumor resection

J Neurosurg 126:1839–1846, 2017

Mannitol is used intraoperatively to induce brain relaxation in patients undergoing supratentorial brain tumor resection. The authors sought to determine the dose of mannitol that provides adequate brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

METHODS A total of 124 patients were randomized to receive mannitol at 0.25 g/kg (Group A), 0.5 g/kg (Group B), 1.0 g/kg (Group C), and 1.5 g/kg (Group D). The degree of brain relaxation was classified according to a 4-point scale (1, bulging; 2, firm; 3, adequate; and 4, perfectly relaxed) by neurosurgeons; Classes 3 and 4 were considered to indicate satisfactory brain relaxation. The osmolality gap (OG) and serum electrolytes were measured before and after mannitol administration.

RESULTS The brain relaxation score showed an increasing trend in patients receiving higher doses of mannitol (p = 0.005). The incidence of satisfactory brain relaxation was higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (67.7% and 64.5% vs 32.2%, p = 0.011 and 0.022, respectively). The incidence of OG greater than 10 mOsm/kg was also higher in Groups C and D than in Group A (100.0% in both groups vs 77.4%, p = 0.011 for both). The incidence of moderate hyponatremia (125 mmol/L ≤ Na+ < 130 mmol/L) was significantly higher in Group D than in other groups (38.7% vs 0.0%, 9.7%, and 12.9% in Groups A, B, and C; p < 0.001, p = 0.008, and p = 0.020, respectively). Hyperkalemia (K+ > 5.0 mmol/L) was observed in 12.9% of patients in Group D only.

CONCLUSIONS The higher doses of mannitol provided better brain relaxation but were associated with more adverse effects. Considering the balance between the benefits and risks of mannitol, the authors suggest the use of 1.0 g/kg of intraoperative mannitol for satisfactory brain relaxation with the fewest adverse effects.

Clinical trial registration no.: NCT02168075 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Cyst Fluid From Cystic, Malignant Brain Tumors: A Reservoir of Nutrients, Including Growth Factor-Like Nutrients, for Tumor Cells

Neurosurgery 80:917–924, 2017

Brain tumors may have cysts, whose content of nutrients could influence tumor cell microenvironment and growth.

OBJECTIVE: To measure nutrients in cyst fluid from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and metastatic brain tumors.

METHODS: Quantification of nutrients in cyst fluid from 12 to 18 GBMs and 4 to 10 metastatic brain tumors.

RESULTS: GBM cysts contained glucose at 2.2 mmol/L (median value; range <0.8-3.5) and glutamine at 1.04 mmol/L (0.17-4.2). Lactate was 7.1 mmol/L (2.4-12.5) and correlated inversely with glucose level (r = –0.77; P < .001). Amino acids, including glutamate, varied greatly, but median values were similar to previously published serum values. Ammonia was 75 μmol/L (11-241). B vitamins were present at previously published serum values, and riboflavin, nicotinamide, pyridoxal 5 -phosphate, and cobalamin were higher in cyst fluid than in cerebrospinal fluid. Inorganic phosphate was 1.25 mmol/L (0.34-3.44), which was >3 times higher than in ventricular cerebrospinal fluid: 0.35 mmol/L (0.22-0.66; P < .001). Tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates were in the low micromolar range, except for citrate, which was 240 μmol/L (140-590). In cystic metastatic malignant melanomas and lung tumors values were similar to those in GBMs.

CONCLUSION: Tumor cysts may be a nutrient reservoir for brain tumors, securing tumor energy metabolism and synthesis of cell constituents. Serum is one likely source of cyst fluid nutrients. Nutrient levels in tumor cyst fluid are highly variable, which could differentially stimulate tumor growth. Cyst fluid glutamate, lactate, and phosphate may act as tumor growth factors; these compounds have previously been shown to stimulate tumor growth at concentrations found in tumor cyst fluid.

 

A method for safely resecting anterior butterfly gliomas

J Neurosurg 126:1795–1811, 2017

Gliomas invading the anterior corpus callosum are commonly deemed unresectable due to an unacceptable risk/benefit ratio, including the risk of abulia. In this study, the authors investigated the anatomy of the cingulum and its connectivity within the default mode network (DMN). A technique is described involving awake subcortical mapping with higher attention tasks to preserve the cingulum and reduce the incidence of postoperative abulia for patients with so-called butterfly gliomas.

METHODS The authors reviewed clinical data on all patients undergoing glioma surgery performed by the senior author during a 4-year period at the University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center. Forty patients were identified who underwent surgery for butterfly gliomas. Each patient was designated as having undergone surgery either with or without the use of awake subcortical mapping and preservation of the cingulum. Data recorded on these patients included the incidence of abulia/akinetic mutism. In the context of the study findings, the authors conducted a detailed anatomical study of the cingulum and its role within the DMN using postmortem fiber tract dissections of 10 cerebral hemispheres and in vivo diffusion tractography of 10 healthy subjects.

RESULTS Forty patients with butterfly gliomas were treated, 25 (62%) with standard surgical methods and 15 (38%) with awake subcortical mapping and preservation of the cingulum. One patient (1/15, 7%) experienced postoperative abulia following surgery with the cingulum-sparing technique. Greater than 90% resection was achieved in 13/15 (87%) of these patients.

CONCLUSIONS This study presents evidence that anterior butterfly gliomas can be safely removed using a novel, attention-task based, awake brain surgery technique that focuses on preserving the anatomical connectivity of the cingulum and relevant aspects of the cingulate gyrus.

 

Degree of Vascular Encasement in Sphenoid Wing Meningiomas Predicts Postoperative Ischemic Complications

Neurosurgery 80:957–966, 2017

Sphenoid wing meningiomas (SWMs) can encase arteries of the circle of Willis, increasing their susceptibility to intraoperative vascular injury and severe ischemic complications.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the effect of circumferential vascular encasement in SWM on postoperative ischemia.

METHODS: A retrospective review of 75 patients surgically treated for SWM from 2009 to 2015 was undertaken to determine the degree of circumferential vascular encasement (0◦-360◦) as assessed by preoperativemagnetic resonance imaging (MRI). A novel grading system describing “maximum”and “total” arterial encasement scores was created. Postoperative MRIs were reviewed for total ischemia volume measured on sequential diffusionweighted images.

RESULTS: Of the 75 patients, 89.3% had some degree of vascular involvement with a median maximum encasement score of 3.0 (2.0-3.0) in the internal carotid artery (ICA), M1, M2, and A1 segments; 76% of patients had some degree of ischemia with median infarct volume of 3.75 cm3 (0.81-9.3 cm3). Univariate analysis determined risk factors associated with larger infarction volume, which were encasement of the supraclinoid ICA (P < .001), M1 segment (P < .001), A1 segment (P = .015), and diabetes (P = .019). As the maximum encasement score increased from 1 to 5 in each of the significant arterial segments, so did mean and median infarction volume (P < .001). Risk for devastating ischemic injury >62 cm3 was found when the ICA, M1, and A1 vessels all had ≥360◦ involvement (P = .001). Residual tumorwas associated with smaller infarct volumes (P=.022). As infarction volume increased, so did modified Rankin Score at discharge (P = .025).

CONCLUSION: Subtotal resection should be considered in SWM with significant vascular encasement of proximal arteries to limit postoperative ischemic complications.

 

Putamen involvement and survival outcomes in patients with insular low-grade gliomas

J Neurosurg 126:1788–1794, 2017

Insular glioma has a unique origin and biological behavior; however, the associations between its anatomical features and prognosis have not been well established. The object of this study was to propose a classification system of insular low-grade gliomas based on preoperative MRI findings and to assess the system’s association with survival outcome.

METHODS A total of 211 consecutively collected patients diagnosed with low-grade insular gliomas was analyzed. All patients were classified according to whether tumor involved the putamen on MR images. The prognostic role of this novel putaminal classification, as well as that of Yaşargil’s classification, was examined using multivariate analyses.

RESULTS Ninety-nine cases (46.9%) of insular gliomas involved the putamen. Those tumors involving the putamen, as compared with nonputaminal tumors, were larger (p < 0.001), less likely to be associated with a history of seizures (p = 0.04), more likely to have wild-type IDH1 (p = 0.003), and less likely to be totally removed (p = 0.02). Significant favorable predictors of overall survival on univariate analysis included a high preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale score (p = 0.02), a history of seizures (p = 0.04), gross-total resection (p = 0.006), nonputaminal tumors (p < 0.001), and an IDH1 mutation (p < 0.001). On multivariate analysis, extent of resection (p = 0.035), putamen classification (p = 0.014), and IDH1 mutation (p = 0.026) were independent predictors of overall survival. No prognostic role was found for Yaşargil’s classification.

CONCLUSIONS The current study’s findings suggest that the putamen classification is an independent predictor of survival outcome in patients with insular low-grade gliomas. This newly proposed classification allows preoperative survival prediction for patients with insular gliomas.

Cystic Craniopharyngiomas: Microsurgical or Stereotactic Treatment?

Neurosurgery (2017) 80 (5): 733-743

Prognosis and treatment of cystic craniopharyngiomas are poorly defined.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze progression-free survival (PFS) and safety profile of cystic craniopharyngiomas undergoing resection or minimally invasive drainage procedures. We compared further outcome measurements for cystic and solid tumors undergoing resection to elucidate the impact of the initial tumor composition on both PFS and the toxicity profile.

METHODS: All patients with craniopharyngiomas consecutively treated between 1999 and 2014 were included. A treatment decision in favor of microsurgery or stereotactic treatment was made interdisciplinarily. For stereotactic drainage, a catheter was implanted, allowing both permanent upstream (into ventricular spaces) and downstream (into prepontine cistern) drainage. Study endpoints were tumor progression, functional outcome, and treatment toxicity. Functional endocrinological and visual outcome analyses referred to data obtained preoperatively and 6 weeks after treatment. The Kaplan-Meier method was used for survival analysis. Prognostic factors were obtained from proportional hazard models.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine patients were included. The distribution of clinical and tumor-related data was well balanced among patients with solid (n = 35) and cystic (n = 44) tumors and those undergoing microsurgical or stereotactic treatment. Cystic tumors had shorter PFS (5-year PFS: 53.6% vs 66.8%, P= .10) and needed significantly more therapeutic interventions, which was independent of the initial treatment mode. The endocrinological deterioration rate was high for both solid and cystic tumors after microsurgery (59.4% and 85.7%, respectively), whereas it was significantly lower for cystic tumors undergoing stereotactic treatment (23.1%, P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Stereotactic bidirectional drainage of cystic craniopharyngiomas is effective and provides a better endocrinological outcome than conventional microsurgery.

Craniotomy for perisellar meningiomas: comparison of simple (appropriate for endoscopic approach) versus complex anatomy and surgical outcomes

J Neurosurg 126:1191–1200, 2017

Microsurgical resection of perisellar meningiomas has remained the gold standard for treatment, with extended endoscopic endonasal surgery emerging as a viable alternative. Historical microsurgical series do not distinguish based on tumor anatomy, but are being used as a comparison against endonasal surgery. In this study, the authors retrospectively reviewed and compared the anatomy of perisellar meningiomas seen at their institution. The tumors were separated into 2 groups based on whether they would be appropriate for endoscopic resection, and the authors compared the surgical outcomes.

METHODS Between 2001 and 2013, 53 patients (73.6% women) with perisellar meningiomas underwent open microsurgical resection at Vancouver General Hospital performed by the senior author (R.A.). These tumors were separated into 2 groups based on their anatomy, and the authors analyzed the resection rates, surgical results, patient quality of life, and complications.

RESULTS Among the 53 patients who presented with perisellar meningiomas, the authors were able to identify 18 lesions with “simple” anatomy suitable for endoscopic resection and 35 lesions with “complex” anatomy suitable for craniotomy resection. The mean age of patients in the study cohort was 57.4 years (range 33–91 years), and most patients presented with visual loss (68.0%) and visual field restriction (64.2%). There were no major differences in patient demographic data between the 2 groups. Patients with simple anatomy had smaller lesions (2.1 vs 3.5 cm; p = 0.004), no optic canal invasion (89% vs 26%; p < 0.0001), minimal vascular encasement (cortical cuff 83% vs 9%; p < 0.0001), and a rounded tumor shape (100% vs 31.8%; p = 0.0001) when compared with those with complex anatomy. The majority of lesions originated from the tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale. A greater degree of resection was achieved in the favorable anatomy group (99% vs 87.1%; p < 0.0001). Vision was improved or normalized in 96.6% of patients. Patients in the cohort with complex anatomy had more transient complications; there were no incidents of surgical-site infection, meningitis, or death in this series. One patient who underwent removal of a recurrent lesion experienced a CSF leak that required endoscopic repair. The overall persisting complications rate was higher in the group with complex anatomy (11.1% vs 37.1%; p = 0.0498); overall, 28.3% of patients experienced disabling complications. Patient-perceived quality of life improved in the simple anatomy group following surgery (DSF-36 +16.6 vs -8.4; p = 0.0045).

CONCLUSIONS Extended endoscopic surgery is emerging as a viable alternative to microsurgical resection of perisellar meningiomas. The authors identified 2 patient groups based on tumor anatomy, with distinctly separate surgical outcomes. In the future, patients considered for endoscopic resection should be compared against the surgical group with simple anatomy that includes smaller tumors, no vascular encasement, and limited optic canal invasion.

 

 

Three-Dimensional Printed Modeling of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas and Associated White Matter Tract Anatomy

Neurosurgery 80:635–645, 2017

Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) represent several pathological entities that infiltrate and invade cortical and subcortical structures in the brain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe methods for rapid prototyping of DLGGs and surgically relevant anatomy.

METHODS: Using high-definition imaging data and rapid prototyping technologies, we were able to generate 3 patient DLGGs to scale and represent the associated whitematter tracts in 3 dimensions using advanced diffusion tensor imaging techniques.

RESULTS: This report represents a novel application of 3-dimensional (3-D) printing in neurosurgery and a means to model individualized tumors in 3-D space with respect to subcorticalwhite matter tract anatomy. Faculty and resident evaluations of this technology were favorable at our institution.

CONCLUSION: Developing an understanding of the anatomic relationships existing within individuals is fundamental to successful neurosurgical therapy. Imaging-based rapid prototyping may improve on our ability to plan for and treat complex neuro-oncologic pathology.

Three-Dimensional Printed Modeling of Diffuse Low-Grade Gliomas and Associated White Matter Tract Anatomy

Neurosurgery 80:635–645, 2017

Diffuse low-grade gliomas (DLGGs) represent several pathological entities that infiltrate and invade cortical and subcortical structures in the brain.

OBJECTIVE: To describe methods for rapid prototyping of DLGGs and surgically relevant anatomy.

METHODS: Using high-definition imaging data and rapid prototyping technologies, we were able to generate 3 patient DLGGs to scale and represent the associated whitematter tracts in 3 dimensions using advanced diffusion tensor imaging techniques.

RESULTS: This report represents a novel application of 3-dimensional (3-D) printing in neurosurgery and a means to model individualized tumors in 3-D space with respect to subcorticalwhite matter tract anatomy. Faculty and resident evaluations of this technology were favorable at our institution.

CONCLUSION: Developing an understanding of the anatomic relationships existing within individuals is fundamental to successful neurosurgical therapy. Imaging-based rapid prototyping may improve on our ability to plan for and treat complex neuro-oncologic pathology.

Volumetric growth rates of meningioma and its correlation with histological diagnosis and clinical outcome

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:435–445

Tumour growth has been used to successfully predict progression-free survival in low-grade glioma. This systematic review sought to establish the evidence base regarding the correlation of volumetric growth rates with histological diagnosis and potential to predict clinical outcome in patients with meningioma.

Methods This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Databases were searched for full text English articles analysing volumetric growth rates in patients with a meningioma.

Results Four retrospective cohort studies were accepted, demonstrating limited evidence of significantly different tumour doubling rates and shapes of growth curves between benign and atypical meningiomas. Heterogeneity of patient characteristics and timing of volumetric assessment, both pre- and post-operatively, limited pooled analysis of the data. No studies performed statistical analysis to demonstrate the clinical utility of growth rates in predicting clinical outcome.

Conclusion This systematic review provides limited evidence in support of the use of volumetric growth rates in meningioma to predict histological diagnosis and clinical outcome to guide future monitoring and treatment.

Surgical treatment of brain metastases in the central region

J Neurosurg 126:698–707, 2017

Brain metastases are the most frequent intracranial malignant tumor in adults. Surgical intervention for metastases in eloquent areas remains controversial and challenging. Even when metastases are not in ltrating intra- parenchymal tumors, eloquent areas can be affected. Therefore, this study aimed to describe the role of a functional guided approach for the resection of brain metastases in the central region.

METHODS Thirty-three patients (19 men and 14 women) with perirolandic metastases who were treated at the authors’ institution were reviewed. All participants underwent resection using a functional guided approach, which consisted of using intraoperative brain mapping and/or neurophysiological monitoring to aid in the resection, depending on the functionality of the brain parenchyma surrounding each metastasis. Motor and sensory functions were monitored in all patients, and supplementary motor and language area functions were assessed in 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Clinical data were analyzed at presentation, discharge, and the 6-month follow-up.

RESULTS The most frequent presenting symptom was seizure, followed by paresis. Gross-total removal of the metastasis was achieved in 31 patients (93.9%). There were 6 deaths during the follow-up period. After the removal of the metastasis, 6 patients (18.2%) presented with transient neurological worsening, of whom 4 had worsening of motor function impairment and 2 had acquired new sensory disturbances. Total recovery was achieved before the 3rd month of follow-up in all cases. Excluding those patients who died due to the progression of systemic illness, 88.9% of patients had a Karnofsky Performance Scale score greater than 80% at the 6-month follow-up. The mean survival time was 24.4 months after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS The implementation of intraoperative electrical brain stimulation techniques in the resection of central region metastases may improve surgical planning and resection and may spare eloquent areas. This approach also facilitates maximal resection in these and other critical functional areas, thereby helping to avoid new postoperative neurological deficits. Avoiding permanent neurological de cits is critical for a good quality of life, especially in patients with a life expectancy of over a year.

Foramen magnum meningiomas: surgical results and risks predicting poor outcomes based on a modified classification

J Neurosurg 126:661–676, 2017

This study aimed to evaluate neurological function and progression/recurrence (P/R) outcome of foramen magnum meningioma (FMM) based on a modified classification.

METHODS This study included 185 consecutive patients harboring FMMs (mean age 49.4 years; 124 females). The authors classified the FMMs into 4 types according to the previous classification of Bruneau and George as follows: Type A (n = 49, 26.5%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows below the vertebral artery (VA); Type B (n = 39, 21.1%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows above the VA; Type C1 (n = 84, 45.4%), the VA courses across the lesion with or without VA encasement or large lesions grow both above and below the bilateral VA; and Type C2 (n = 13, 7.0%), Type C1 plus partial/total encasement of the VA and extradural growth.

RESULTS The median preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 80. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 154 patients (83.2%). Lower cranial nerve morbidity was lowest in Type A lesions (16.3%). Type C2 lesions were inherently larger (p = 0.001), had a greater percentage of ventrolateral location (p = 0.009) and VA encase-ment (p < 0.001), lower GTR rate (p < 0.001), longer surgical duration (p = 0.015), higher morbidity (38.5%), higher P/R rate (30.8%, p = 0.009), and poorer recent KPS score compared with other types. After a mean follow-up duration of 110.3 months, the most recent follow-up data were obtained in 163 patients (88.1%). P/R was observed in 13 patients (7.2%). The median follow-up KPS score was 90. Compared with preoperative status, recent neurological status was improved in 91 (49.2%), stabilized in 76 (41.1%), and worsened in 18 (9.7%) patients. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model demonstrated Type C2 (HR 3.94, 95% CI 1.04–15.0, p = 0.044), nontotal resection (HR 6.30, 95% CI 1.91–20.8, p = 0.003), and pathological mitosis (HR 7.11, 95% CI 1.96–25.8, p = 0.003) as independent adverse predictors for tumor P/R. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified nontotal resection (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.16–14.2, p = 0.029) and pathological mitosis (OR 6.29, 95% CI 1.47–27.0, p = 0.013) as independent risks for poor outcome (KPS score < 80).

CONCLUSIONS The modified classification helped to predict surgical outcome and P/R in addition to the position of the lower cranial nerves. Preoperative imaging studies and neurological function should be reviewed carefully to establish an individualized management strategy to improve long-term outcome.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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