Neurosurgery Blog

Icon

Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Critical review of brain AVMsurgery, surgical results and natural history in 2017

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:1457–1478

An understanding of the present standing of surgery, surgical results and the role in altering the future morbidity and mortality of untreated brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is appropriate considering the myriad alternative management pathways (including radiosurgery, embolization or some combination of treatments), varying risks and selection biases that have contributed to confusion regarding management. The purpose of this review is to clarify the link between the incidence of adverse outcomes that are reported from a management pathway of either surgery or no intervention with the projected risks of surgery or no intervention.

Methods A critical review of the literature was performed on the outcomes of surgery and non-intervention for bAVM. An analysis of the biases and how these may have influenced the outcomes was included to attempt to identify reasonable estimates of risks.

Results In the absence of treatment, the cumulative risk of future hemorrhage is approximately 16% and 29% at 10 and 20 years after diagnosis of bAVM without hemorrhage and 35% and 45% at 10 and 20 years when presenting with hemorrhage (annualized, this risk would be approximately 1.8% for unruptured bAVMs and 4.7% for 8 years for bAVMs presenting with hemorrhage followed by the unruptured bAVM rate). The cumulative outcome of these hemorrhages depends upon whether the patient remains untreated and is allowed to have a further hemorrhage or is treated at this time. Overall, approximately 42% will develop a new permanent neurological deficit or death from a hemorrhagic event. The presence of an associated proximal intracranial aneurysm (APIA) and restriction of venous outflow may increase the risk for subsequent hemorrhage. Other risks for increased risk of hemorrhage (age, pregnancy, female) were examined, and their purported association with hemorrhage is difficult to support. Both the Spetzler-Martin grading system (and its compaction into the Spetzler-Ponce tiers) and Lawton-Young supplementary grading system are excellent in predicting the risk of surgery. The 8-year risk of unfavorable outcome from surgery (complication leading to a permanent new neurological deficit with a modified Rankin Scale score of greater than one, residual bAVM or recurrence) is dependent on bAVM size, the presence of deep venous drainage (DVD) and location in critical brain (eloquent location). For patients with bAVMs who have neither a DVD nor eloquent location, the 8-year risk for an unfavorable outcome increases with size (increasing from 1 cm to 6 cm) from 1% to 9%. For patients with bAVMwho have either a DVD or eloquent location (but not both), the 8- year risk for an unfavorable outcome increases with the size (increasing from 1 cm to 6 cm) from 4% to 35%. For patients with bAVM who have both a DVD and eloquent location, the 8-year risk for unfavorable outcome increases with size (increasing from 1 cm to 3 cm) from 12% to 38%.

Conclusion Patients with a Spetzler-Ponce A bAVM expecting a good quality of life for the next 8 years are likely to do better with surgery in expert centers than remaining untreated. Ongoing research is urgently required on the outcome of management pathways for bAVM.

Endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal puncture of the cavernous sinus for embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula

J Neurosurg 127:327–331, 2017

Endovascular embolization is the treatment of choice for carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs), but failure to catheterize the cavernous sinus may occur as a result of vessel tortuosity, hypoplasia, or stenosis. In addition to conventional transvenous or transarterial routes, alternative approaches should be considered. The authors present a case in which a straightforward route to the CCF was accessed via transsphenoidal puncture of the cavernous sinus in a neurosurgical hybrid operating suite.

This 82-year-old man presented with severe chemosis and proptosis of the right eye. Digital subtraction angiography revealed a Type B CCF with a feeding artery arising from the meningohypophyseal trunk of the right cavernous segment of the internal carotid artery. The CCF drained through a thrombosed right superior ophthalmic vein that ended deep in the orbit; there were no patent sinuses or venous plexuses connecting to the CCF. An endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal puncture created direct access to the nidus for embolization. Embolic agents were deployed through the puncture needle to achieve complete obliteration.

Endoscope-assisted transsphenoidal puncture of the cavernous sinus is a feasible alternative to treat difficult-to-access CCFs in a neurosurgical hybrid operating suite.

 

Relationship of A1 segment hypoplasia to anterior communicating artery aneurysm morphology and risk factors for aneurysm formation

J Neurosurg 127:89–95, 2017

Hypoplasia of the A1 segment of the anterior cerebral artery is frequently observed in patients with anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The effect of this anatomical variant on ACoA aneurysm morphology is not well understood.

METHODS Digital subtraction angiography images were reviewed for 204 patients presenting to the authors’ institution with either a ruptured or an unruptured ACoA aneurysm. The ratio of the width of the larger A1 segment to the smaller A1 segment was calculated. Patients with an A1 ratio greater than 2 were categorized as having A1 segment hypoplasia. The relationship of A1 segment hypoplasia to both patient and aneurysm characteristics was then assessed.

RESULTS Of 204 patients that presented with an ACoA aneurysm, 34 (16.7%) were found to have a hypoplastic A1. Patients with A1 segment hypoplasia were less likely to have a history of smoking (44.1% vs 62.9%, p = 0.0410). ACoA aneurysms occurring in the setting of a hypoplastic A1 were also found to have a larger maximum diameter (mean 7.7 vs 6.0 mm, p = 0.0084). When considered as a continuous variable, increasing A1 ratio was associated with decreasing aneurysm dome-to-neck ratio (p = 0.0289). There was no significant difference in the prevalence of A1 segment hypoplasia between ruptured and unruptured aneurysms (18.9% vs 10.7%; p = 0.1605).

CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that a hypoplastic A1 may affect the morphology of ACoA aneurysms. In addition, the relative lack of traditional risk factors for aneurysm formation in patients with A1 segment hypoplasia argues for the importance of hemodynamic factors in the formation of ACoA aneurysms in this anatomical setting.

 

Results of the ANSWER Trial Using the PulseRider for the Treatment of Broad-Necked, Bifurcation Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 81:56–65, 2017

The safety and probable benefit of the PulseRider (Pulsar Vascular, Los Gatos, California) for the treatment of broad-necked, bifurcation aneurysms was studied in the context of the prospective, nonrandomized, single arm clinical trial— the Adjunctive Neurovascular Support of Wide-neck aneurysm Embolization and Reconstruction (ANSWER) Trial.

OBJECTIVE: To present the results of the United States cases employing the PulseRider device as part of the ANSWER clinical trial.

METHODS: Aneurysms treated with the PulseRider device among sites enrolling in the ANSWER trial were prospectively studied and the results are summarized. Aneurysms arising at either the carotid terminus or basilar apex thatwere relatively broad neckedwere considered candidates for inclusion into the ANSWER study.

RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were enrolled (29 female and 5 male) with a mean age of 60.9 years (27 basilar apex and 7 carotid terminus).Mean aneurysm height ranged from 2.4 to 15.9 mm with a mean neck size of 5.2 mm (range 2.3-11.6 mm). In all patients, the device was delivered and deployed. Immediate Raymond I or II occlusion was achieved in 82.4% and progressed to 87.9% at 6-month follow-up. A modified Rankin Score of 2 or less was seen in 94% of patients at 6 months.

CONCLUSION: The results from the ANSWER trial demonstrate that the PulseRider device is safe and offers probable benefit as for the treatment of bifurcation aneurysms arising at the basilar apex or carotid terminus. As such, it represents a useful addition to the armamentarium of the neuroendovascular specialist.

Preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma using 3D imaging

 

J Neurosurg 127:139–147, 2017

Successful resection of hemangioblastoma depends on preoperative assessment of the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins. Simultaneous 3D visualization of feeding arteries, draining veins, and surrounding structures is needed.

The present study evaluated the usefulness of high-resolution 3D multifusion medical imaging (hr-3DMMI) for preoperative planning of hemangioblastoma. The hr-3DMMI combined MRI, MR angiography, thin-slice CT, and 3D rotated angiography. Surface rendering was mainly used for the creation of hr-3DMMI using multiple thresholds to create 3D models, and processing took approximately 3–5 hours. This hr-3DMMI technique was used in 5 patients for preoperative planning and the imaging findings were compared with the operative findings. Hr-3DMMI could simulate the whole 3D tumor as a unique sphere and show the precise penetration points of both feeding arteries and draining veins with the same spatial relationships as the original tumor.

All feeding arteries and draining veins were found intraoperatively at the same position as estimated preoperatively, and were occluded as planned preoperatively. This hr-3DMMI technique could demonstrate the precise locations of feeding arteries and draining veins preoperatively and estimate the appropriate route for resection of the tumor. Hr-3DMMI is expected to be a very useful support tool for surgery of hemangioblastoma.

Impact of Weekend Presentation on Short-Term Outcomes and Choice of Clipping vs Coiling in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Neurosurgery 81:87–91, 2017

Presentation on a weekend is commonly associated with higher mortality and a decreased likelihood of receiving invasive procedures.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weekend presentation influences mortality, discharge destination, or type of treatment received (clip vs coil) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

METHODS: We performed a serial cross-sectional retrospective study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All adult discharges with a primary diagnosis of SAH (ICD-9-CM 435) from 2005 to 2010 were included, and records with trauma or arteriovenous malformation were excluded. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between weekend presentation and 3 outcomes (in-hospital mortality, discharge destination, and treatment with clip vs coil) were estimated using chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression.

RESULTS: A total of 46 093 admissions for nontraumatic SAH were included in the sample; 24.6% presented on a weekend, 68.9% on a weekday, and 6.5% had unknown day of presentation. Weekend admission was not a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (25.4% weekend vs 24.9% weekday; P = .44), or a combined poor outcome measure of mortality or discharge to long-term acute care or hospice (30.3% weekend vs 29.4% weekday; P = .23). Among those treated for aneurysm obliteration, the proportion of clipped vs coiled did not change with weekend vs weekday presentation (21.5% clipped with weekend presentation vs 21.6% weekday, P = .95; 21.5% coiled with weekend presentation vs 22.4% weekday, P = .19).

CONCLUSION: Presentation with nontraumatic SAH on a weekend did not influence mortality, discharge destination, or type of treatment received (clip vs coil) compared with weekday presentation.

 

Transdural arterial recruitment to brain arteriovenous malformation

J Neurosurg 127:51–58, 2017

The occurrence of transdural arterial recruitment (TDAR) in association with brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is uncommon, and the reason for TDAR is not understood. The aim of this cohort study was to examine patient and bAVM characteristics associated with TDAR and the implications of TDAR on management.

METHODS A prospective surgical database of bAVMs was examined. Cases previously treated elsewhere or incompletely examined by digital subtraction angiography (DSA) assessment were excluded. Three studies of this cohort were performed, as follows: characteristics associated with TDAR, the relationship between TDAR and neurological deficits unassociated with hemorrhage (NDUH), and the impact of TDAR on outcome from surgery. Regression models were performed.

RESULTS Of 769 patients with complete DSA who had no previous treatment, 51 (6.6%) were found to have TDAR. The presence of TDAR was associated with increasing age (p < 0.01; OR 1.05; 95% CI 1.02–1.07); presentation with NDUH (p < 0.01; OR 2.71; 95% CI 1.29–5.71); increasing size of the bAVM (p < 0.01; OR 1.57; 95% CI 1.29–1.91); and combined supply from both anterior and posterior circulations (p = 0.02; OR 2.37; 95% CI 1.17–4.78). Further analysis of TDAR cases comparing those with and without NDUH found an association of larger size (6.6 cm [2.9 SD] compared with 4.7 cm [1.8 SD]; p < 0.01) and combined supply from both anterior and posterior circulations (relative risk 2.5; 95% CI 1.0–6.2; p = 0.04) to be associated with an NDUH presentation. For the 632 patients undergoing surgery there was an increased risk of complications (where this produced a new permanent neurological deficit at 12 months represented by a modified Rankin Scale score of > 1) with the following variables: size; location in eloquent brain; deep venous drainage; increasing age; and no presentation with hemorrhage. The presence of TDAR was not associated with an increased risk of complications from surgery.

CONCLUSIONS The authors found that TDAR occurs in older patients with larger bAVMs, and that TDAR is also more likely to be associated with bAVMs presenting with NDUH. The likely explanation for the presence of TDAR is a secondary recruitment arising as a consequence of shear stress, rather than a primary vascular supply present from the earliest development of the bAVM.

Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma: unilateral or bilateral drainage?

J Neurosurg 126:1905–1911, 2017

Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality.

METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between retreatment of bCSDH and clinical, radiological, and surgical variables.

RESULTS Two hundred ninety-one patients with bCSDH were identified, and 264 of them underwent unilateral (136 patients) or bilateral (128 patients) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed that a separated hematoma density and the absence of postoperative drainage were independent predictors of retreatment.

CONCLUSIONS In bCSDHs bilateral surgical intervention significantly lowers the risk of retreatment compared with unilateral intervention and should be considered when choosing a surgical procedure.

 

Radiosurgery for Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations: An International Multicenter Retrospective Cohort Study

Neurosurgery 80:888–898, 2017

The role of intervention in the management of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is controversial.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze in a multicenter, retrospective cohort study, the outcomes following radiosurgery for unruptured AVMs and determine predictive factors.

METHODS: We evaluated and pooled AVM radiosurgery data from 8 institutions participating in the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Patients with unruptured AVMs and ≥12 mo of follow-up were included in the study cohort. Favorable outcome was defined as AVM obliteration, no postradiosurgical hemorrhage, and no permanently symptomatic radiation-induced changes.

RESULTS: The unruptured AVM cohort comprised 938 patients with a median age of 35 yr. The median nidus volume was 2.4 cm3, 71% of AVMs were located in eloquent brain areas, and the Spetzler-Martin grade was III or higher in 57%. The median radiosurgical margin dose was 21 Gy and follow-up was 71 mo. AVM obliteration was achieved in 65%. The annual postradiosurgery hemorrhage rate was 1.4%. Symptomatic and permanent radiation-induced changes occurred in 9% and 3%, respectively. Favorable outcome was achieved in 61%. In the multivariate logistic regression analysis, smaller AVM maximum diameter (P = .001), the absence of AVM-associated arterial aneurysms (P = .001), and higher margin dose (P = .002) were found to be independent predictors of a favorable outcome. A margin dose ≥ 20 Gy yielded a significantly higher rate of favorable outcome (70% vs 36%; P < .001)

CONCLUSION: Radiosurgery affords an acceptable risk to benefit profile for patients harboring unruptured AVMs. These findings justify further prospective studies comparing radiosurgical intervention to conservative management for unruptured AVMs.

 

The Superior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm: A Posterior Circulation Aneurysm with Favorable Microsurgical Outcomes

Neurosurgery 80:908–916, 2017

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms are usually grouped with aneurysms that arise from the upper basilar artery or more broadly, the posterior circulation. However, the SCA aneurysm has distinctive anatomy that facilitates safe surgical management, notably few associated perforating arteries, and excellent exposure in the carotid-oculomotor triangle.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the outcomes of patients treated with microsurgery in a continuous surgical series.

METHODS: Sixty-two patients harboring 63 SCA aneurysmswere retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database, focusing on clinical characteristics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: Of 31 patients (49%) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, the SCA aneurysm was the source in 16 (25%). Thirty-three aneurysms were complex (52%) and 43 patients (59%) had multiple aneurysms. Fifty-seven SCA aneurysms (90.5%) were clipped and 5 were bypassed/trapped or wrapped. Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 91.7%. Permanent neurological morbidity occurred in 3 patients and 3 patients that presented in coma after subarachnoid hemorrhage died. All patients with “simple” aneurysms and without subarachnoid hemorrhage had improved or unchangedmodified Rankin scale scores. Overall, outcomes were stable or improved in 82.5% of patients.

CONCLUSION: SCA aneurysms are favorable for microsurgical clipping with low rates of permanent morbidity and mortality. Microsurgery should be considered alongside endovascular techniques as a treatment option in many patients.

Comparison Between CTA and Digital Subtraction Angiography in the Diagnosis of Ruptured Aneurysms

Computerized tomography angiography (CTA) is commonly used to diagnose ruptured cerebral aneurysms with sensitivities reported as high as 97% to 100%. Studies validating CTA accuracy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are scarce and limited by small sample sizes.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA in detecting intracranial aneurysms in the setting of SAH.

METHODS: A single-center, retrospective cohort of 643 patients was reviewed. A total of 401 patients were identified whose diagnostic workup included both CTA and confirmatory digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Aneurysms missed by CTA but diagnosed by DSA were further stratified by size and location.

RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty aneurysms were detected by CTA while DSA detected a total of 431 aneurysms. False positive CTA results were seen for 24 aneurysms. DSA identified 125 aneurysms that were missed by CTA and 83.2% of those were <5 mm in diameter. The sensitivity of CTA was 57.6% for aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in size, and 45% for aneurysms originating from the internal carotid artery. The overall sensitivity of CTA in the setting of SAH was 70.7%.

CONCLUSION: The accuracy of CTA in the diagnosis of ruptured intracranial aneurysm may be lower than previously reported. CTA has a low sensitivity for aneurysms less than 5 mm in size, in locations adjacent to bony structures, and for those arising from small caliber parent vessels. It is our recommendation that CTA should be used with caution when used alone in the diagnosis of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

Is there an inherited anatomical conformation favoring aneurysmal formation of the anterior communicating artery?

J Neurosurg 126:1598–1605, 2017

The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the formation of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remain only partially elucidated. However, current evidence suggests a genetic component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific anatomical variations in the arterial complex that are associated with the presence of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms in the familial forms of IAs.

METHODS This multicenter study investigated bifurcation IAs in patients who had a sporadic ACoA IA without a family history of IA (SACAA group), in patients who had an ACoA IA with a family history of IA (FACAA group), and in their healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs). Through the use of MR angiography (MRA) reconstructions, the symmetry of the A1 segments and the angle between the A1 and A2 segments were analyzed on 3D models for each group. These measurements were then compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS Twenty-four patients with SACAA, 24 patients with FACAA, and 20 HFDRs were included in the study. Asymmetrical configuration of the A1 segments was more frequent in the FACAA group than in the HFDR group (p = 0.002). The aneurysm-side A1-A2 angle was lower in the FACAA group (p = 0.003) and SACAA group (p = 0.007) than in the HFDR group. On the contralateral side, there was no difference in A1-A2 angles between groups.

CONCLUSIONS The anatomical shape of the ACoA complex seems to be similarly associated with the presence of ACoA IAs in both the FACAA and SACAA groups. This highlights the role played by hemodynamic constraints in aneurysm formation and questions the hypothesis of the hereditary character of these anatomical shapes.

Surgical treatment of anterior cranial fossa dural arterio-venous fistulas (DAVFs)

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:823–830

Anterior cranial fossa dural arterio-venous fistulas (DAVFs) represent 6% of all intracranial DAVFs; characteristically they show an aggressive behaviour with high risk of intracranial haemorrhage. Peculiar anatomical features, such as feeding by the ethmoidal arteries and the pattern of venous drainage (frequently with varices that mimic aneurysmal dilatation), can be evaluated in detail only by digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which represents the Bgold standard^ in the diagnosis of such cranial fistulas. Recent technological developments in endovascular management of this type of DAVF have partially reduced the morbidity risk related to this modality of treatment. Our purpose is to present our experience in the surgical management of 14 patients with anterior cranial fossa DAVFs, with attention paid to the possible role of preoperative embolisation in these cases and to the surgical technique.

Method Between 1999 and 2015, 14 patients with anterior cranial fossa DAVFs were submitted to surgery in two neurosurgical departments; the mean age was 63 years old; nine DAVFs caused intracranial haemorrhage (subarachnoid haemorrhage in three cases, intracerebral haemorrhage in six cases). Pre-operative embolisation was attempted in an early case and was successfully done in one recent case. In all patients, the surgical approach chosen was a pterional craniotomy with a lowmargin on the frontal bone in order to gain the exposure of the anterior cranial fossa and especially of the olphactory groove region; the resection of the falx at its insertion on the crista galli was needed in five cases in order to get access to the contralateral afferent vessels. Cauterisation of all the dural feeders on and around the lamina cribrosa was needed in all cases; venous dilatations were evident in eight patients (in seven out of nine patients with ruptured DAVF and in one out of five patients with unrupturedDAVF) andwere removed in all cases. One patient harboured an ophthalmic artery aneurysm, which was excluded by clipping.

Results One patient died 5 days after surgery due to the severity of the pre-operative haemorrhage. Postoperative DSA showed the disappearance of the DAVF and of the venous pseudo-aneurysms in all cases. Clinical outcome was favourable (without neurological deficits) in 11 patients; three patients presented an unfavourable clinical outcome, due to the severity of the initial haemorrhage.

Conclusions Surgical exclusion of the anterior cranial fossa DAVFs still represents the gold standard for such lesions, due to low post-operative morbidity and to complete protection against future rebleedings; endovascular techniques may help the surgeon in complex cases.

Guidelines for the Clinical Management of Cerebral Cavernous Malformations

Neurosurgery 80:665–680, 2017

Despite many publications about cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs), controversy remains regarding diagnostic and management strategies.

OBJECTIVE: To develop guidelines for CCM management.

METHODS: The Angioma Alliance (www.angioma.org), the patient support group in the United States advocating on behalf of patients and research in CCM, convened a multidisciplinary writing group comprising expert CCM clinicians to help summarize the existing literature related to the clinical care of CCM, focusing on 5 topics: (1) epidemiology and natural history, (2) genetic testing and counseling, (3) diagnostic criteria and radiology standards, (4) neurosurgical considerations, and (5) neurological considerations. The group reviewed literature, rated evidence, developed recommendations, and established consensus, controversies, and knowledge gaps according to a prespecified protocol.

RESULTS: Of 1270 publications published between January 1, 1983 and September 31, 2014, we selected 98 based on methodological criteria, and identified 38 additional recent or relevant publications. Topic authors used these publications to summarize current knowledge and arrive at 23 consensus management recommendations, which we rated by class (size of effect) and level (estimate of certainty) according to the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association criteria. No recommendation was level A (because of the absence of randomized controlled trials), 11 (48%)were level B, and 12 (52%) were level C. Recommendations were class I in 8 (35%), class II in 10 (43%), and class III in 5 (22%).

CONCLUSION: Current evidence supports recommendations for the management of CCM, but their generally low levels and classes mandate further research to better inform clinical practice and update these recommendations. The complete recommendations document, including the criteria for selecting reference citations, a more detailed justification of the respective recommendations, and a summary of controversies and knowledge gaps, was similarly peer reviewed and is available on line www.angioma.org/CCMGuidelines.

Early diffusion-weighted MRI lesions after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms:

J Neurosurg 126:1070–1078, 2017

Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to assess periprocedural lesion load after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) by microsurgical clipping (MC) and endovascular coiling (EC).

METHODS Patients with UIA were assigned to undergo MC or EC according to interdisciplinary consensus and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 1 day before and 1 day after aneurysm treatment. Newly detected lesions by DWI after treatment were the primary end point of this prospective study. Lesions detected by DWI were categorized as follows: A) 1–3 DWI spots < 10 mm, B) > 3 DWI spots < 10 mm, C) single DWI lesion > 10 mm, or D) DWI lesion related to surgical access.

RESULTS Between 2010 and 2014, 99 cases were included. Sixty-two UIA were treated by MC and 37 by EC. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, aneurysm size, occurrence of multiple aneurysms in 1 patient, or presence of lesions detected by DWI before treatment. Aneurysms treated by EC were significantly more often located in the posterior circulation (p < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted MRI detected new lesions in 27 (43.5%) and 20 (54.1%) patients after MC and EC, respectively (not significant). The pattern of lesions detected by DWI varied significantly between groups (p < 0.001). Microembolic lesions (A and B) found on DWI were detected more frequently after EC (A, 14 cases; B, 5 cases) than after MC (A, 5 cases), whereas C and D were rare after EC (C, 1 case) and occurred more often after MC (C, 12 cases and D, 10 cases). No procedure-related unfavorable outcomes were detected.

CONCLUSIONS According to the specific techniques, lesion patterns differ between MC and EC, whereas the frequency of new lesions found on DWI is similar after occlusion of UIA. In general, the lesion load was low in both groups, and lesions were clinically silent. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01490463 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Pathophysiology of Intracranial Aneurysm: The ICAN Project

Neurosurgery 80:621–626, 2017

Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism of intracranial aneurysm
(IA) formation is a prerequisite to assess the potential risk of rupture. Nowadays, there are neither reliable biomarkers nor diagnostic tools to predict the formation or the evolution of IA. Increasing evidence suggests a genetic component of IA but genetics studies have failed to identify genetic variation causally related to IA.

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic and predictive tools for the risk of IA formation and rupture.

METHODS: The French ICAN project is a noninterventional nationwide and multicentric research program. Each typical IA of bifurcation will be included. For familial forms, further IA screening will be applied among first-degree relatives. By accurate phenotype description with high-throughput genetic screening, we aim to identify new genes involved in IA. These potential genetic markers will be tested in large groups of patients. Any relevant pathway identified will be further explored in a large cohort of sporadic carriers of IA, which will be well documented with clinical, biological, and imaging data.

EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Discovering genetic risk factors, better understanding the pathophysiology, and identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for IA formation will be essential bases for the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets.

DISCUSSION: Our protocol has many assets. A nationwide recruitment allows for the inclusion of large pedigrees with familial forms of IA. It will combine accurate phenotyping and comprehensive imaging with high-throughput genetic screening. Last, it will enable exploiting metadata to explore new pathophysiological pathways of interest by crossing clinical, genetic, biological, and imaging information.

Hemorrhage from cerebral cavernous malformations

J Neurosurg 126:1079–1087, 2017

The aim of this paper is to define an overall cavernous malformation (CM) hemorrhage rate and risk factors for hemorrhage.

METHODS The authors performed a systematic, pooled analysis via the PubMed database through October 2015 using the terms “cavernoma,” “cavernous malformation,” “natural history,” “bleeding,” and “hemorrhage.” English-language studies providing annual rates and/or risk factors for CM hemorrhage were included. Data extraction, performed independently by the authors, included demographic data, hemorrhage rates, and hemorrhage risk factors.

RESULTS Across 12 natural history studies with 1610 patients, the mean age at presentation was 42.7 years old and 52% of patients (95% CI 49%–55%) were female. Presentation modality was seizure in 30% (95% CI 25%–35%), hemorrhage in 26% (95% CI 17%–37%), incidental in 17% (95% CI 9%–31%), and focal deficits only in 16% of cases (95% CI 11%–23%). CM location was lobar in 66% (95% CI 61%–70%), brainstem in 18% (95% CI 13%–24%), deep supratentorial in 8% (95% CI 6%–10%), and cerebellar in 8% (95% CI 5%–11%). Pooling 7 studies that did not assume CM presence since birth, the annual hemorrhage rate was 2.5% per patient-year over 5081.2 patient-years of follow-up (95% CI 1.3%–5.1%). Pooling hazard ratios across 5 studies that evaluated hemorrhage risk factors, prior CM hemorrhage was a significant risk factor for hemorrhage (HR 3.73, 95% CI 1.26–11.1; p = 0.02) while younger age, female sex, deep location, size, multiplicity, and associated developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) were not.

CONCLUSIONS Although limited by the heterogeneity of incorporated reports and selection bias, this study found prior hemorrhage to be a significant risk factor for CM bleeding, while age, sex, CM location, size, multiplicity, and associated DVAs were not. Future natural history studies should compound annual hemorrhage rate with prospective seizure and nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates.

Volume-Staged Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations

Neurosurgery 80:543–550, 2017

Radiation-based treatment options of large intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVM) must balance the likelihood of obliteration with the risk of adverse radiation effects (ARE).
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the efficacy and risks of volume-staged stereotactic radiosurgery (VS-SRS) for AVM.

METHODS: Retrospective study of 34 AVM patients having VS-SRS between 1997 and 2012. A median of 2 stages (range, 2-4) was used to treat a median AVM volume of 22.2 cm3 (range, 7.4-56.7). The median AVM margin dose was 16 Gy (range, 14-18); the median radiosurgery- based AVM score was 2.81 (range, 1.54-6.45). The median follow-up after VS-SRS was 8.2 years (range, 3-13.3).

RESULTS: Nidus obliteration was noted in 18 patients (53%) after VS-SRS. The rate of obliteration was 14% at 3 years, 54% at 5 years, and 75% at 7 years. Six patients (18%) had 11 bleeds after VS-SRS. Two patients (6%) remained neurologically stable, 2 (6%) patients had significant deficits, and 2 patients (6%) died. The actuarial risk of a first bleed after VS-SRS was 6% at 1 year, 12% at 3 years, and 19% at 7 years. Six patients (18%) underwent repeat SRS; all achieved nidus obliteration for an overall cure rate of 71%. Two patients (6%) had a permanent ARE after VS-SRS or repeat SRS.

CONCLUSION: VS-SRS permitted large volume intracranial AVM to be treated with a low rate of ARE. Further study is needed on dose escalation and decreasing the treatment volume per stage to determine if this will increase the rate of obliteration with this technique.

Microsurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations: subgroup outcomes in a consecutive series of 288 cases

J Neurosurg 126:1056–1063, 2017

The objective of this study was to review the outcomes after microsurgical resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) from a consecutive single-surgeon series. Clinical and imaging data were analyzed to address the following questions concerning AVM treatment in the post-ARUBA (A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations) era. 1) Are the patients who present with unruptured or ruptured AVMs doing better at long-term follow-up? 2) Is the differentiation between Ponce Class A (Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II) patients versus Ponce Class B and C patients (Spetzler-Martin Grade III and IV) meaningful and applicable to surgical practice? 3) How did the ARUBA-eligible patients of this surgical series compare with the results reported in ARUBA?

METHODS Two hundred eighty-eight patients with cerebral AVMs underwent microsurgical resection between 1983 and 2012 performed by the same surgeon (J.S.). This is a prospective case collection study that represents a consecutive series. The results are based on prospectively collected, early-outcome data that were supplemented by retrospectively collected, follow-up data for 94% of those cases. The analyzed data included the initial presentation, Spetzler-Martin grade, obliteration rates, surgical and neurological complications, and frequency of pretreatment with embolization or radiosurgery. The total cohort was compared using “small-AVM,” Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II, and ARUBA-eligible AVM subgroups.

RESULTS The initial presentation was hemorrhage in 50.0% and seizures in 43.1% of patients. The series included 53 Spetzler-Martin Grade I (18.4%), 114 Spetzler-Martin Grade II (39.6%), 90 Spetzler-Martin Grade III (31.3%), 28 Spetzler- Martin Grade IV (9.7%), and 3 Spetzler-Martin Grade V (1.0%) AVMs. There were 144 unruptured and 104 ARUBAeligible cases. Preembolization was used in 39 cases (13.5%). The occlusion rates for the total series and small AVM subgroup were 99% and 98.7%, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 64 months. Early neurological deterioration was seen in 39.2% of patients, of which 12.2% had permanent and 5.6% had permanent significant deficits, and the mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 5). Outcome was better for patients with AVMs smaller than 3 cm (permanent deficit in 7.8% and permanent significant deficit in 3.2% of patients) and Ponce Class A status (permanent deficit in 7.8% and significant deficit in 3.2% of patients). Unruptured AVMs showed slightly higher new deficit rates (but 0 instances of mortality) among all cases, and in the small AVM and Ponce Class A subgroups. Unruptured Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions had the best outcome (1.8% permanent significant deficit), and ARUBA-eligible Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions had a slightly higher rate of permanent significant deficits (3.2%).

CONCLUSIONS Microsurgery has a very high cure rate. Focusing microsurgical AVM resection on unruptured lesions smaller than 3 cm or on Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions is a good strategy for minimizing long-term morbidity. Well-selected microsurgical cases lead to better outcomes than with multimodal interventions, as in the ARUBA treatment arm, or conservative treatment alone. Long-term prospective data collection is valuable.

Microsurgery for cerebral arteriovenous malformations: subgroup outcomes in a consecutive series of 288 cases

J Neurosurg 126:1056–1063, 2017

The objective of this study was to review the outcomes after microsurgical resection of cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) from a consecutive single-surgeon series. Clinical and imaging data were analyzed to address the following questions concerning AVM treatment in the post-ARUBA (A Randomized Trial of Unruptured Brain Arteriovenous Malformations) era. 1) Are the patients who present with unruptured or ruptured AVMs doing better at long-term follow-up? 2) Is the differentiation between Ponce Class A (Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II) patients versus Ponce Class B and C patients (Spetzler-Martin Grade III and IV) meaningful and applicable to surgical practice? 3) How did the ARUBA-eligible patients of this surgical series compare with the results reported in ARUBA?

METHODS Two hundred eighty-eight patients with cerebral AVMs underwent microsurgical resection between 1983 and 2012 performed by the same surgeon (J.S.). This is a prospective case collection study that represents a consecutive series. The results are based on prospectively collected, early-outcome data that were supplemented by retrospectively collected, follow-up data for 94% of those cases. The analyzed data included the initial presentation, Spetzler-Mar-tin grade, obliteration rates, surgical and neurological complications, and frequency of pretreatment with embolization or radiosurgery. The total cohort was compared using “small-AVM,” Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II, and ARUBA-eligible AVM subgroups.

RESULTS The initial presentation was hemorrhage in 50.0% and seizures in 43.1% of patients. The series included 53 Spetzler-Martin Grade I (18.4%), 114 Spetzler-Martin Grade II (39.6%), 90 Spetzler-Martin Grade III (31.3%), 28 Spetzler-Martin Grade IV (9.7%), and 3 Spetzler-Martin Grade V (1.0%) AVMs. There were 144 unruptured and 104 ARUBA-eligible cases. Preembolization was used in 39 cases (13.5%). The occlusion rates for the total series and small AVM subgroup were 99% and 98.7%, respectively. The mean follow-up duration was 64 months. Early neurological deterioration was seen in 39.2% of patients, of which 12.2% had permanent and 5.6% had permanent significant deficits, and the mortality rate was 1.7% (n = 5). Outcome was better for patients with AVMs smaller than 3 cm (permanent deficit in 7.8% and permanent significant deficit in 3.2% of patients) and Ponce Class A status (permanent deficit in 7.8% and significant deficit in 3.2% of patients). Unruptured AVMs showed slightly higher new deficit rates (but 0 instances of mortality) among all cases, and in the small AVM and Ponce Class A subgroups. Unruptured Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions had the best outcome (1.8% permanent significant deficit), and ARUBA-eligible Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions had a slightly higher rate of permanent significant deficits (3.2%).

CONCLUSIONS Microsurgery has a very high cure rate. Focusing microsurgical AVM resection on unruptured lesions smaller than 3 cm or on Spetzler-Martin Grade I and II lesions is a good strategy for minimizing long-term morbidity. Well-selected microsurgical cases lead to better outcomes than with multimodal interventions, as in the ARUBA treatment arm, or conservative treatment alone. Long-term prospective data collection is valuable.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Archives

Amazon Shop

The Safety and Feasibility of Image-Guided BrainPath-Mediated Trans-Sulcal Hematoma Evacuation

Haptic Virtual Reality Aneurysm Clipping

Subtemporal Approach for AICA Aneurysm Clipping

MCA Aneurysm Anatomical Classification Scheme

Blister Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery

Bypass for Complex Basilar Aneurysms

Basilar Invagination and Atlanto-Axial Dislocation Video 1

Indocyanine Green Videoangiography “In Negative” Video 2

Indocyanine Green Videoangiography “In Negative” Video 1

Management of a Recurrent Coiled Giant Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm

Bypass for Complex Basilar Aneurysms

Expanded Endonasal Approach for 2012 MERC

Endoscopic Endonasal Middle Clinoidectomy Video 1

Endoscopic Endonasal Middle Clinoidectomy Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Flash Fluorescence for MCA Bypass Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Flash Fluorescence for MCA Bypass Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endovascular-Surgical Approach to Cavernous dAVF

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 4

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 3

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Surgery of AVMs in Motor Areas

NeurosurgeryCNS: The Fenestrated Yaşargil T-Bar Clip

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS. ‘Double-Stick Tape’ Technique for Offending Vessel Transposition in Microvascular Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Advances in the Treatment and Outcome of Brain Stem Cavernous Malformation Surgery: 300 Patients

3T MRI Integrated Neuro Suite

NeurosurgeryCNS: 3D In Vivo Modeling of Vestibular Schwannomas and Surrounding Cranial Nerves Using DIT

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 7

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 6

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 5

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 4

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Corticotomy Closure Avoids Subdural Collections After Hemispherotomy

NeurosurgeryCNS: Operative Nuances of Side-to-Side in Situ PICA-PICA Bypass Procedure

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Fusiform Aneurysms of the Anterior Communicating Artery

NeurosurgeryCNS. Initial Clinical Experience with a High Definition Exoscope System for Microneurosurgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro.

NeurosurgeryCNS: Neuronavigation for Neuroendoscopic Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS:New Aneurysm Clip System for Particularly Complex Aneurysm Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: AICA/PICA Anatomical Variants Penetrating the Subarcuate Fossa Dura

Craniopharyngioma Supra-Orbital Removal

NeurosurgeryCNS: Use of Flexible Hollow-Core CO2 Laser in Microsurgical Resection of CNS Lesions

NeurosurgeryCNS: Ulnar Nerve Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

NeurosurgeryCNS: ICG Videoangiography

NeurosurgeryCNS: Inappropiate aneurysm clip applications


32,850
Unique
Visitors
Powered By Google Analytics

Total views

  • 0
%d bloggers like this: