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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Transcondylar approach for resection of lateral medullary cavernous malformation

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:291–294

Resection of a medullary cavernous malformation requires aggressive exposure, but there is controversy on how much occipital condyle can be safely removed during the transcondylar approach.

Method We describe and demonstrate the use of the transcondylar approach to a medullary cavernous malformation, with emphasis on adequate surgical exposure while preserving the atlanto-occipital joint.

Conclusions Despite conservative handling of the occipital condyle, craniocervical stability may vary in patients after transcondylar surgery. A “dynamic” computer tomography, with views of the atlanto-occipital joint at each end-rotational extreme, may be the best postoperative assessment tool to evaluate the stability of the craniocervical junction.

Brainstem Cavernous Malformations: Surgical Indications Based on Natural History and Surgical Outcomes

World Neurosurg. (2018) 110:55-63

Cavernous malformations (CMs) are uncommon lesions occurring in the central nervous system, with an incidence of approximately 0.5% in the general population and constituting 5%e10% of all intracranial vascular malformations. Among CMs, prevalence within the brainstem as reported in the literature has ranged from 4% to 35%. With their precarious location and potentially devastating clinical events, brainstem CMs have attracted attention from neurosurgeons, and with these surgeons’ unrelenting efforts, the microsurgical techniques to treat these lesions in the brainstem have greatly improved in recent decades. Although surgical outcomes reported in the literature have been satisfying, surgical intervention has become increasingly contraindicated because of the tendency for a benign clinical course in brainstem CMs, after weighing this fact against the high risk of surgical morbidity. Thus, it is advisable to operate on patients with symptomatic lesions abutting the pial or ependymal surface of the brainstem or where lesions are accessible to safe entry zones, which have caused more than 1 significantly symptomatic hemorrhage and can be defined as aggressive. However, treatment remains controversial for deep-seated lesions away from the surface of the brainstem or lesions that are inaccessible to safe entry zones. Other treatments, such as radiosurgery and medication, are still debatable, which might be as an alternative for lesions amenable to but at high risk with surgery.

Surgical approach to posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:295–299

The far-lateral is a standardised approach to clip aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Different variants can be adopted to manage aneurysms that differ in morphology, topography, ruptured status, cerebellar swelling and surgeon preference.

Method We distinguished five paradigmatic approaches aimed to manage aneurysms that are: proximal unruptured; proximal ruptured requiring posterior fossa decompression (PFD); proximal ruptured not requiring PFD; distal unruptured; distal ruptured.

Conclusions Preoperative planning in the setting of PICA aneurysm surgery is of paramount importance to perform an effective and safe procedure, to ensure an adequate PFD and optimal proximal control before aneurysm manipulation.

ABC/2 Method Does not Accurately Predict Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformation Volume

Neurosurgery 82:220–225, 2018

Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) is a treatment option for cerebral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to prevent intracranial hemorrhage. The decision to proceed with SRS is usually based on calculated nidal volume. Physicians commonly use the ABC/2 formula, based on digital subtraction angiography (DSA), when counseling patients for SRS.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether AVM volume calculated using the ABC/2 method on DSA is accuratewhen compared to the exact volume calculated from thin-cut axial sections used for SRS planning.

METHODS: Retrospective search of neurovascular database to identify AVMs treated with SRS from 1995 to 2015. Maximum nidal diameters in orthogonal planes on DSA images were recorded to determine volume using ABC/2 formula. Nidal target volume was extracted from operative reports of SRS. Volumes were then compared using descriptive statistics and paired t-tests.

RESULTS: Ninety intracranial AVMs were identified. Median volume was 4.96 cm3 [interquartile range (IQR) 1.79-8.85] with SRS planning methods and 6.07 cm3 (IQR 1.3-13.6) with ABC/2 methodology. Moderate correlation was seen between SRS and ABC/2 (r = 0.662; P<.001). Paired sample t-tests revealed significant differences between SRS volume and ABC/2 (t = –3.2; P = .002). When AVMs were dichotomized based on ABC/2 volume, significant differences remained (t = 3.1, P = .003 for ABC/2 volume < 7 cm3; t = –4.4, P < .001 for ABC/2 volume > 7 cm3).

CONCLUSION: The ABC/2 method overestimates cerebral AVM volume when compared to volumetric analysis from SRS planning software. For AVMs > 7 cm3, the overestimation is even greater. SRS planning techniques were also significantly different than values derived from equations for cones and cylinders.

Effectiveness of endoscopic surgery for supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage: a comparison with craniotomy

J Neurosurg 128:553–559, 2018

The goal of this study was to investigate the effectiveness and practicality of endoscopic surgery for treatment of supratentorial hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage (HICH) compared with traditional craniotomy.

METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed 151 consecutive patients who were operated on for treatment of supratentorial HICH between January 2009 and June 2014 in the Department of Neurosurgery at Chinese PLA General Hospital. Patients were separated into an endoscopy group (82 cases) and a craniotomy group (69 cases), depending on the surgery they received. The hematoma evacuation rate was calculated using 3D Slicer software to measure the hematoma volume. Comparisons of operative time, intraoperative blood loss, Glasgow Coma Scale score 1 week after surgery, hospitalization time, and modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery were also made between these groups.

RESULTS There was no statistically significant difference in preoperative data between the endoscopy group and the craniotomy group (p > 0.05). The hematoma evacuation rate was 90.5% ± 6.5% in the endoscopy group and 82.3% ± 8.6% in the craniotomy group, which was statistically significant (p < 0.01). The operative time was 1.6 ± 0.7 hours in the endoscopy group and 5.2 ± 1.8 hours in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The intraoperative blood loss was 91.4 ± 93.1 ml in the endoscopy group and 605.6 ± 602.3 ml in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The 1-week postoperative Glasgow Coma Scale score was 11.5 ± 2.9 in the endoscopy group and 8.3 ± 3.8 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). The hospital stay was 11.6 ± 6.9 days in the endoscopy group and 13.2 ± 7.9 days in the craniotomy group (p < 0.05). The mean modified Rankin Scale score 6 months after surgery was 3.2 ± 1.5 in the endoscopy group and 4.1 ± 1.9 in the craniotomy group (p < 0.01). Patients had better recovery in the endoscopy group than in the craniotomy group. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD.

CONCLUSIONS Compared with traditional craniotomy, endoscopic surgery was more effective, less invasive, and may have improved the prognoses of patients with supratentorial HICH. Endoscopic surgery is a promising method for treatment of supratentorial HICH. With the development of endoscope technology, endoscopic evacuation will become more widely used in the clinic. Prospective randomized controlled trials are needed.

 

Brainstem arteriovenous malformations: lesion characteristics and treatment outcomes

J Neurosurg 128:126–136, 2018

Brainstem arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions that are difficult to diagnose and treat. They are often more aggressive in their behavior when compared with their supratentorial counterparts. The consequence of a brainstem hemorrhage is often devastating, and many patients are in poor neurological status at presentation. The authors examine the factors associated with angiographically confirmed cure and those affecting management outcomes for these complex lesions.

METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of data gathered from the prospectively maintained Stanford AVM database. Lesions were grouped based on their location in the brainstem (medulla, pons, or midbrain) and the quadrant they occupied. Angiographic cure was dichotomized as completely obliterated or not, and functional outcome was dichotomized as either independent or not independent at last follow-up.

RESULTS Over a 23-year period, 39 lesions were treated. Of these, 3 were located in the medulla, 14 in the pons, and 22 in the midbrain. At presentation, 92% of the patients had hemorrhage, and only 43.6% were functionally independent. Surgery resulted in the best radiographic cure rates, with a morbidity rate of 12.5%. In all, 53% of patients either improved or remained stable after surgery. Absence of residual nidus and female sex correlated with better outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS Brainstem AVMs usually present with hemorrhage. Surgery offers the best chance of cure, either in isolation or in combination with other modalities as appropriate.

Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysm Morphology and the Risk of Rupture

World Neurosurg. (2018) 109:119-126.

Recently, with improvements in computed tomography angiography and digital subtraction angiography, the assessment of certain morphologic traits of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (ACoAA) has drawn great attention. The determination of specific factors associated with rupture would provide much-needed guidance for the treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms, such as surgical clipping or endovascular coiling. Morphologic factors include, but are not limited to, aneurysm size, number, shape, dome direction, neck/dome ratio, and relationship of the aneurysm to the surrounding vessels. However, the results of previous investigations concerning morphologic parameters have yielded inconsistent results.

METHODS: This review presents and analyzes the literature on the morphology of ACoAAs and risk of rupture.

RESULTS: This literature review reveals that the strongest predictors of ACoAA rupture are size ratio, direction of the dome, and fenestration. These were the only factors that were either unanimously or near unanimously found to be predictive of rupture across multiple studies.

CONCLUSIONS: The size ratio, direction of the dome, and fenestration should be examined most meticulously when deciding when to treat an ACoAA.

 

Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery/Vertebral Artery Subarachnoid Hemorrhage: A Comparison of Saccular vs Dissecting Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 82:93–98, 2018

Two distinct categories of aneurysms are described in relation to the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and vertebral artery (VA): saccular (SA) and dissecting (DA) types. This distinction is often unrecognized because abnormalities here are uncommon and most studies are small.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if there are any differences in the clinical presentation, inhospital course, or outcomes in patients with DA vs SA of the PICA or VA.

METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with a VA or PICA aneurysm were identified from a departmental subarachnoid hemorrhage database and categorized into DA or SA types. Prospectively collecteddemographic and outcomedata (length of stay, discharge Glasgow Outcome Score) were supplemented by abstracting records for procedural data (extraventricular drain [EVD], ventriculoperitoneal [VP] shunt, tracheostomy, and nasogastric feeding). Univariate, binary logistic regression, and Cox regression analysis was used to compare patients with SA vs DA.

RESULTS: Three aneurysms related to arteriovenous malformation were excluded. Five patients were conservatively managed. Of the 30 treated cases, more patients with a DA presented in poor grade (6/13 vs 2/17 SA; P = .035).More DA patients required an EVD (85% vs 29%; P = .003), VP shunt (54% vs 6%; P = .003), tracheostomy (46% vs 6%; P < .01), and nasogastric feeding (85% vs 35%; P = .007). The median length of stay (41 vs 17 d, P < .001) was longer, and the age and injury severity adjusted odds of discharge home were significantly lower in the DA group (P=.008). Thirty-daymortality was not significantly different (23% of DA vs 24% of SA; P = .2).

CONCLUSION: The presentation, clinical course, and outcomes differ in patients with DA vs SA of the PICA and VA.

Analysis of saccular aneurysms in the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial

J Neurosurg 128:120–125, 2018

The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) is a prospective, randomized trial in which treatment with clipping was compared to treatment with coil embolization. Patients were randomized to treatment on presentation with any nontraumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Because all other randomized trials comparing these 2 types of treatments have been limited to saccular aneurysms, the authors analyzed the current BRAT data for this subgroup of lesions.

METHODS The primary BRAT analysis included all sources of SAH: nonaneurysmal lesions; saccular, blister, fusiform, and dissecting aneurysms; and SAHs from an aneurysm associated with either an arteriovenous malformation or a fistula. In this post hoc review, the outcomes for the subgroup of patients with saccular aneurysms were further analyzed by type of treatment. The extent of aneurysm obliteration was adjudicated by an independent neuroradiologist not involved in treatment.

RESULTS Of the 471 patients enrolled in the BRAT, 362 (77%) had an SAH from a saccular aneurysm. Patients with saccular aneurysms were assigned equally to the clipping and the coiling cohorts (181 each). In each cohort, 3 patients died before treatment and 178 were treated. Of the 178 clip-assigned patients with saccular aneurysms, 1 (1%) was crossed over to coiling, and 64 (36%) of the 178 coil-assigned patients were crossed over to clipping. There was no statistically significant difference in poor outcome (modified Rankin Scale score > 2) between these 2 treatment arms at any recorded time point during 6 years of follow-up. After the initial hospitalization, 1 of 241 (0.4%) clipped saccular aneurysms and 21 of 115 (18%) coiled saccular aneurysms required retreatment (p < 0.001). At the 6-year follow-up, 95% (95/100) of the clipped aneurysms were completely obliterated, compared with 40% (16/40) of the coiled aneurysms (p < 0.001). There was no difference in morbidity between the 2 treatment groups (p = 0.10).

CONCLUSIONS In the subgroup of patients with saccular aneurysms enrolled in the BRAT, there was no significant difference between modified Rankin Scale outcomes at any follow-up time in patients with saccular aneurysms assigned to clipping compared with those assigned to coiling (intent-to-treat analysis). At the 6-year follow-up evaluation, rates of retreatment and complete aneurysm obliteration significantly favored patients who underwent clipping compared with those who underwent coiling. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01593267 (clinicaltrials.gov)

 

Comparison of endovascular and microsurgical management of 208 basilar apex aneurysms

J Neurosurg 127:1342–1352, 2017

The deep and difficult-to-reach location of basilar apex aneurysms, along with their location near critical adjacent perforating arteries, has rendered the perception that microsurgical treatment of these aneurysms is risky. As a result, these aneurysms are considered more suitable for treatment by endovascular intervention. The authors attempt to compare the immediate and long-term outcomes of microsurgery versus endovascular therapy for this aneurysm subtype.

METHODS A prospectively maintained database of 208 consecutive patients treated for basilar apex aneurysms between 2000 and 2012 was reviewed. In this group, 161 patients underwent endovascular treatment and 47 were managed microsurgically. The corresponding records were analyzed for presenting characteristics, postoperative complications, discharge status, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores up to 1 year after treatment and compared using chi-square and Student t-tests.

RESULTS Among these 208 aneurysms, 116 (56%) were ruptured, including 92 (57%) and 24 (51%) of the endovascularly and microsurgically managed aneurysms, respectively. The average Hunt and Hess grade was 2.4 (2.4 in the endovascular group and 2.2 in the microsurgical group; p = 0.472). Postoperative complications of cranial nerve deficits and hemiparesis were more common in patients treated microsurgically than endovascularly (55.3% vs 16.2%, p < 0.05; and 27.7% vs 10.6%, p < 0.05, respectively). However, aneurysm remnants and need for retreatment were more common in the endovascular than the microsurgical group (41.3% vs 2.3%, p < 0.05; and 10.6% vs 0.0%, p < 0.05, respectively). Stent placement significantly reduced the need for retreatment. Rehemorrhage rates and average GOS score at discharge and 1 year after treatment were not statistically different between the two treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS Patients with basilar apex aneurysms were significantly more likely to be treated via endovascular management, but compared with those treated microsurgically, they had higher rates of recurrence and need for retreatment. The current study did not detect an overall difference in outcomes at discharge and 1 year after either treatment modality. Therefore, in a select group of patients, microsurgical treatment continues to play an important role.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Brainstem Arteriovenous Malformations

Neurosurgery 81:910–920, 2017

The management of brainstem arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs) is a formidable challenge. bAVMs harbor higher morbidity and mortality compared to other locations.

OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes following stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of bAVMs in a multicenter study.

METHODS: Six medical centers contributed data from 205 patients through the International Gamma Knife Research Foundation. Median age was 32 yr (6-81). Median nidus volume was 1.4 mL (0.1-69 mL). Favorable outcome (FO) was defined as AVM obliteration and no post-treatment hemorrhage or permanent symptomatic radiation-induced complications.

RESULTS: Overall obliteration was reported in 65.4% (n = 134) at a mean follow-up of 69 mo. Obliteration was angiographically proven in 53.2% (n = 109) and on MRA in 12.2% (n=25). Actuarial rate of obliteration at 2, 3, 5, 7, and 10 yr after SRS was 24.5%, 43.3%, 62.3%, 73%, and 81.8% respectively. Patients treated with a margin dose >20 Gy were more likely to achieve obliteration (P = .001). Obliteration occurred earlier in patients who received a higher prescribed margin dose (P = .05) and maximum dose (P = .041). Post-SRS hemorrhage occurred in 8.8% (n = 18). Annual post gamma knife latency period hemorrhage was 1.5%. Radiation-induced complications were radiologically evident in 35.6% (n = 73), symptomatic in 14.6% (n=30), and permanent in 14.6% (n=30, which included long-tract signs and new cranial nerve deficits). FO was achieved in 64.4% (n = 132). Predictors of an FO were a higher Virginia radiosurgery AVM scale score (P = .003), prior hemorrhage (P = .045), and a lower prescribed maximum dose (P = .006).

CONCLUSION: SRS for bAVMs results in obliteration and avoids permanent complications in the majority of patients.

Anatomic Features of Paraclinoid Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 81:949–957, 2017

Paraclinoid aneurysms are among the most challenging aneurysms to treat. Computed tomography (CT) angiography helps in evaluating the radiological characteristics of these aneurysms next to bony structures.

OBJECTIVE: To present the CT angiography characteristics of paraclinoid aneurysms in order to better understand such pathology.

METHODS: The study examined CT angiography-based anatomical characteristics obtained retrospectively from 136 patients with 144 paraclinoid aneurysms selected from single-defined catchment populations in Finland. We examined the diameters of the parent artery (internal carotid artery), the location of the aneurysm, its dimensions (width, height, neck), and aneurysm wall irregularity.

RESULTS:We analyzed 144 paraclinoid aneurysms in 136 patients admitted to the hospital during 2000-2014.Multivariable analysis reveals that rupture aneurysms have the following radiological features: aneurysm larger than 5 mm in diameter (P = .006), irregular wall (P = .046), superior location, larger aspect ratio (P = .039), and neck wider than parent artery (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Smaller diameter of the internal carotid artery and superior location, as well as a large and irregular aneurysm wall, are radiological characteristics of ruptured paraclinoid aneurysms, which CT angiography can measure easily.

Surgical Performance in Minimally Invasive Surgery Plus Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator for Intracerebral Hemorrhage Evacuation

Neurosurgery 81:860–866, 2017

Minimally invasive thrombolytic evacuation of intracerebral hematoma is being investigated in the ongoing phase III clinical trial of Minimally Invasive Surgery plus recombinant Tissue plasminogen activator for Intracerebral hemorrhage Evacuation (MISTIE III).

OBJECTIVE: To assess the accuracy of catheter placement and efficacy of hematoma evacuation in relation to surgical approach and surgeon experience.

METHODS:We performed a trial midpoint interim assessment of 123 cases that underwent the surgical procedure. Accuracy of catheter placement was prospectively assessed by the trial Surgical Center based on prearticulated criteria. Hematoma evacuation efficacy was evaluated based on absolute volume reduction, percentage hematoma evacuation, and reaching the target end-of-treatment volume of <15 mL. One of 3 surgical trajectories was used: anterior (A), posterior (B), and lobar (C). Surgeonswere classified based on experience with the MISTIE procedure as prequalified, qualified with probation, and fully qualified.

RESULTS: The average hematoma volume was 49.7 mL (range 20.0-124), and the mean evacuation rate was 71% (range 18.4%-99.8%). First placed catheters were 58% in good position, 28% suboptimal (but suitable to dose), and 14% poor (requiring repositioning). Posterior trajectory (B) was associated with significantly higher rates of poor placement (35%, P = .01). There was no significant difference in catheter placement accuracy among surgeons of varying experience. Hematoma evacuation efficacy was not significantly different among the 3 surgical approaches or different surgeons’ experience.

CONCLUSION: Ongoing surgical education and quality monitoring in MISTIE III have resulted in consistent rates of hematoma evacuation despite technical challenges with the surgical approaches and among surgeons of varying experience.

 

Morphological and Hemodynamic Differences Between Aneurysmal Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation and Contralateral Nonaneurysmal Anatomy

Neurosurgery 81:779–786, 2017

The morphological and hemodynamic features differ between middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcations with and without aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the morphological and hemodynamic differences between aneurysmal MCA bifurcation and contralateral nonaneurysmal anatomy.

METHODS: Computed tomography angiography of 36 patients with unilateral small saccular MCA bifurcation aneurysms was evaluated. The parent–daughter angles (ϕ1 for larger branch and ϕ2 for smaller branch), bifurcation angle (ϕ = ϕ1 + ϕ2), inclination angle (γ angle), and their relationships with the MCA bifurcation locations were analyzed. Computational fluid dynamics simulation was performed in 6 cases to explore the hemodynamics influenced by the bifurcation morphology.

RESULTS: The ϕ angle was significantly higher in aneurysmal than contralateral nonaneurysmal bifurcations (160.8◦ ± 31.0◦ vs 99.0◦ ± 19.2◦, respectively; P = .000); the ϕ1, ϕ2, and γ angles were also higher. However, by regression analysis combined with MCA bifurcation locations, only the ϕ angle might be associated with the aneurysm presence (odds ratio = 1.120, 95% confidence interval = 1.059-1.185) and a ϕ angle cut-off of 124.8◦ was established. Computational fluid dynamics simulation demonstrated that flow resistance of the wider aneurysmal MCA bifurcation was significantly higher than that on the contralateral side.

CONCLUSION: A larger ϕ angle was more prevalent in aneurysmal than nonaneurysmal MCA bifurcations, and the higher flow resistance caused by the larger ϕ angle might be a potential hemodynamic factor associated with MCA aneurysm presence.

A Reliable Grading System for Prediction of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence Requiring Reoperation After Initial Burr-Hole Surgery

Neurosurgery 81:752–760, 2017

There is no widely adopted grading system for the prediction of postoperative recurrence requiring reoperation (RrR) in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).

OBJECTIVE: We developed a CSDH grading system to predict RrR based on predictive characteristics that can be objectively assessed at the time of first presentation and initial surgery.

METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 107 consecutive surgical patients with CSDH were reviewed. Predictors of RrR were identified via logistic and lasso regression analyses. A prognostic CSDH grading system was proposed, with the weighing of predictors based on strength of association. The scoring systemwas then applied to the same set of patients in our database for internal validation.

RESULTS: The strongest predictors of RrR were an isodense or hyperdense lesions and laminar or separated lesions, and a postoperative CSDH cavity volume greater than 200 mL. The moderate predictors of RrR were a postoperative CSDH cavity volume of 80 to 200 mL and a preoperative CSDH volume greater than 130 mL. According to the prognostic CSDH grading system, no patients with a score of 0 points had RrR. RrR was observed in 6% of patients with a score of 1 to 2 points, 30% of patients with a score of 3 to 4 points, and 63% of patients with a score of 5 points (ie, the maximum score). The rate of RrR increased steadily with increases in the prognostic CSDH grading score (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: The prognostic CSDH grading system is an applicable tool for RrR risk stratification in patients with CSDH.

 

Microsurgery for Spetzler-Ponce Class A and B arteriovenous malformations utilizing an outcome score adopted from Gamma Knife radiosurgery

J Neurosurg 127:1105–1116, 2017

The purpose of this study was to adapt and apply the extended definition of favorable outcome established for Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) to surgery for brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVMs). The aim was to derive both an error around the point estimate and a model incorporating angioarchitectural features in order to facilitate comparison among different treatments.

METHODS A prospective microsurgical cohort was analyzed. This cohort included patients undergoing embolization who did not proceed to microsurgery and patients denied surgery because of perceived risk of treatment. Data on bAVM residual and recurrence during long-term follow-up as well as complications of surgery and preoperative embolization were analyzed. Patients with Spetzler-Ponce Class C bAVMs were excluded because of extreme selection bias. First, patients with a favorable outcome were identified for both Class A and Class B lesions. Patients were considered to have a favorable outcome if they were free of bAVM recurrence or residual at last follow-up, with no complication of surgery or preoperative embolization, and a modified Rankin Scale score of more than 1 at 12 months after treatment. Patients who were denied surgery because of perceived risk, but would otherwise have been candidates for surgery, were included as not having a favorable outcome. Second, the authors analyzed favorable outcome from microsurgery by means of regression analysis, using as predictors characteristics previously identified to be associated with complications. Third, they created a prediction model of favorable outcome for microsurgery dependent upon angioarchitectural variables derived from the regression analysis.

RESULTS From a cohort of 675 patients who were either treated or denied surgery because of perceived risk of surgery, 562 had Spetzler-Ponce Class A or B bAVMs and were included in the analysis. Logistic regression for favorable outcome found decreasing maximum diameter (continuous, OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.51–0.76), the absence of eloquent location (OR 0.23, 95% CI 0.12–0.43), and the absence of deep venous drainage (OR 0.19, 95% CI 0.10–0.36) to be significant predictors of favorable outcome. These variables are in agreement with previous analyses of microsurgery leading to complications, and the findings support the use of favorable outcome for microsurgery. The model developed for angioarchitectural features predicts a range of favorable outcome at 8 years following microsurgery for Class A bAVMs to be 88%–99%. The same model for Class B bAVMs predicts a range of favorable outcome of 62%–90%.

CONCLUSIONS Favorable outcome, derived from GKRS, can be successfully used for microsurgical cohort series to assist in treatment recommendations. A favorable outcome can be achieved by microsurgery in at least 90% of cases at 8 years following microsurgery for patients with bAVMs smaller than 2.5 cm in maximum diameter and, in the absence of either deep venous drainage or eloquent location, patients with Spetzler-Ponce Class A bAVMs of all diameters. For patients with Class B bAVMs, this rate of favorable outcome can only be approached for lesions with a maximum diameter just above 6 cm or smaller and without deep venous drainage or eloquent location.

 

Timing of surgery for ruptured supratentorial arteriovenous malformations

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2103–2112

There are conflicting opinions regarding the optimal waiting time to perform surgery after rupture of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) to achieve the best possible outcome.

Objective To analyze factors influencing outcomes for ruptured supratentorial AVMs after surgery, paying particular attention to the timing of the surgery.

Methods We retrospectively investigated 59 patients admitted to our center between 2000 and 2014 for surgical treatment of ruptured supratentorial AVMs. We evaluated the effect of timing of surgery and other variables on the outcome at 2– 4 months (early outcome), at 12 months (intermediate outcome) after surgery, and at final follow-up at the end of 2016 (late outcome).

Results Age over 40 years (OR 18.4; 95% CI 1.9–172.1; p = 0.011), high Hunt and Hess grade (4 or 5) before surgery (OR 13.5; 95% CI 2.1–89.2; p = 0.007), hydrocephalus on admission (OR 12.9; 95% CI 1.8–94.4; p = 0.011), and over 400 cm3 bleeding during surgery (OR 11.5; 95% CI 1.5–86.6; p = 0.017) were associated with an unfavorable early outcome. Age over 40 years (OR 62.8; 95% CI 2.6–1524.9; p = 0.011), associated aneurysms (OR 34.7; 95% CI 1.4– 829.9; p = 0.029), high Hunt and Hess grade before surgery (OR 29.2; 95% CI 2.6–332.6; p = 0.007), and over 400 cm3 bleeding during surgery (OR 35.3; 95% CI 1.7–748.7; p = 0.022) were associated with an unfavorable intermediate outcome. Associated aneurysms (OR 8.2; 95% CI 1.2–55.7; p = 0.031), high Hunt and Hess grade before surgery (OR 5.7; 95% CI 1.3–24.3; p = 0.019), and over 400 cm3 bleeding during surgery (OR 5.8; 95% CI 1.2–27.3; p = 0.027) were associated with an unfavorable outcome at last follow-up. Elapsed time between rupture and surgery did not affect early or final outcome. Conclusions Early surgery in patients with ruptured supratentorial arteriovenous malformation is

Conclusions Early surgery in patients with ruptured supratentorial arteriovenous malformation is feasible strategy, with late results comparable to those achieved with delayed surgery. Many other factors than timing of surgery play significant roles in long-term outcomes for surgically treated ruptured supratentorial AVMs.

Predictive factors for recurrence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic subdural hematoma

J Neurosurg 127:1117–1125, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common type of intracranial hemorrhage in elderly patients. Many studies have suggested various factors that may be associated with the recurrence of CSDH. However, the results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among patient factors, recurrence, and clinical outcomes of CSDH after burr hole surgery performed during an 11-year period at twin hospitals.

METHODS Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for CSDH recurrence. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% CIs for CSDH recurrence based on many variables. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the differences in the mean modified Rankin Scale score between categories for each risk factor during each admission and at the last follow-up.

RESULTS This study was a retrospective analysis of 756 consecutive patients with CSDH who underwent burr hole surgery at the Hanyang University Medical Center (Seoul and Guri) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014. During the 6-month follow-up, 104 patients (13.8%) with recurrence after surgery for CSDH were identified. Independent risk factors for recurrence were as follows: age > 75 years (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03–2.88; p = 0.039), obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), and a bilateral operation.

CONCLUSIONS This study determined the risk factors for recurrence of CSDH and their effects on outcomes. Further studies are needed to account for these observations and to determine their underlying mechanisms.

Clinical relevance of anterior cerebral artery asymmetry in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

J Neurosurg 127:1070–1076, 2017

An asymmetry of the A1 segments (A1SA) of the anterior cerebral arteries (ACAs) is an assumed risk factor for the development of anterior communicating artery aneurysms (ACoAAs). It is unknown whether A1SA is also clinically relevant after aneurysm rupture. The authors of this study investigated the impact of A1SA on the clinical course and outcome of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed data on consecutive SAH patients treated at their institution between January 2005 and December 2012. The occurrence and severity of cerebral infarctions in the ACA territories were evaluated on follow-up CT scans up to 6 weeks after SAH. Moreover, the risk for an unfavorable outcome (defined as > 3 points on the modified Rankin Scale) at 6 months after SAH was assessed.

RESULTS A total of 594 patients were included in the final analysis. An A1SA was identified on digital subtraction angiography studies from 127 patients (21.4%) and was strongly associated with ACoAA (p < 0.0001, OR 13.7). An A1SA independently correlated with the occurrence of ACA infarction in patients with ACoAA (p = 0.047) and in those without an ACoAA (p = 0.015). Among patients undergoing ACoAA coiling, A1SA was independently associated with the severity of ACA infarction (p = 0.023) and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.045, OR = 2.4).

CONCLUSIONS An A1SA is a common anatomical variation in SAH patients and is strongly associated with ACoAA. Moreover, the presence of A1SA independently increases the likelihood of ACA infarction. In SAH patients undergoing ACoAA coiling, A1SA carries the risk for severe ACA infarction and thus an unfavorable outcome.

 

Dexamethasone for chronic subdural haematoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2037–2044

Chronic subdural haematoma is a common but retractable neurological disease in the elderly with a high rate of recurrence. Dexamethasone (DX) either as monotherapy or adjuvant therapy has been applied clinically, but its effectiveness and feasibility remain controversial. We conducted this review to clarify this issue. Methods With a systematic review through multiple databases, we retrieved eligible English language publications and extracted relevant data to perform meta-analyses. The respective risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the overall effect. Results Our meta-analysis showed overall that DX (alone or adjuvant) resulted in a lower recurrence rate when compared with non-DX therapy (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33-0.88; p = 0.01), but sensitivity analysis by excluding the most influential study achieved inconsistent results. The pooled effect revealed no statistical difference

Methods With a systematic review through multiple databases, we retrieved eligible English language publications and extracted relevant data to perform meta-analyses. The respective risk ratio (RR) and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the overall effect. Results Our meta-analysis showed overall that DX (alone or adjuvant) resulted in a lower recurrence rate when compared with non-DX therapy (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33-0.88; p = 0.01), but sensitivity analysis by excluding the most influential study achieved inconsistent results. The pooled effect revealed no statistical difference

Results Our meta-analysis showed overall that DX (alone or adjuvant) resulted in a lower recurrence rate when compared with non-DX therapy (RR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.33-0.88; p = 0.01), but sensitivity analysis by excluding the most influential study achieved inconsistent results. The pooled effect revealed no statistical difference on recurrence rate between DX alone and non-DX therapy or surgical therapy (RR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.43-1.71; p = 0.66) (RR, 0.89; 95% CI, 0.43-1.85; p = 0.76). Comparison between DX alone with the surgical therapy demonstrated no difference on the poor outcome (RR, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.15-1.04; p = 0.06). Conclusions We had

Conclusions We had no enough evidence to support DX use as an effective alternation to surgical therapy. But adjuvant DX use may facilitate the surgical therapy by reducing recurrence. Further study focusing on adjuvant DX was required.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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