Neurosurgery 70:1565–1573, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824c057e
Size and morphological features are associated with intracranial aneurysm (IA) rupture. The cellular mechanisms of IA development and rupture are poorly known.
OBJECTIVE: We studied the expression and phosphorylation of different intracellular signaling molecules in the IA wall compared with IA morphological features to understand better the cellular pathways involved in IA development and wall degeneration.
METHODS: Nine ruptured and 17 unruptured human IA samples were collected intraoperatively. The expression levels and phosphorylation state of 3 mitogen-activated protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase [JNK], p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase [ERK]), Bcl-2 antagonist of cell death (Bad), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), cyclic AMP response element binding protein (CREB), and Akt were determined by Western blotting. The localization of signaling proteins was determined by immunofluorescence. From 3-dimensional segmentation of computed tomography angiographic data, size and shape indexes were calculated.
RESULTS: We found a 5-fold difference in phospho-Bad levels between ruptured and unruptured IAs. Phospho-mTOR was downregulated 2.5-fold in ruptured IAs. Phosphop54 JNK, phospho-p38, and phospho-Akt levels correlated positively with IA size. Phospho-CREB levels were significantly associated with nonsphericity and ellipticity indexes. Phospho-Akt and phospho-p38 correlated negatively with undulation index.
CONCLUSION: The signaling pathway profile (apoptosis, cell proliferation, stress signaling) differs between ruptured and unruptured IAs and is associated with IA geometry. Our results increase the knowledge of IA development and wall degeneration.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons276–ons289, 2012. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318237aac5
Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) proximal to motor cortical areas or motor projection systems are challenging to manage because of the risk of severe sensory and motor impairment. Surgical indication in these cases therefore remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: To propose a standardized approach for centrally situated AVMs based on functional imaging and intraoperative electrophysiological evaluation.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of 15 patients who underwent surgical treatment for AVMs in motor cortical areas or proximal to motor projections. Preoperative assessment included functional magnetic resonance and 3-dimensional tractography. Operations were performed under continuous electrophysiological monitoring aided by direct brain stimulation. We identified critical bloody supply to the motor areas by temporary occluding the feeding vessels under electrophysiological monitoring. Clinical outcome was evaluated with the modified Rankin Scale.
RESULTS: Total resection was achieved in 12 cases, whereas electrophysiology limited total extirpation in 3 cases. A significant reduction of motor evoked potentials by up to 15% of the initial values was associated with good recovery of motor function; in contrast, the disappearance of potentials correlated with long-term impairment. The mean follow-up time was 13 months, and clinical assessments revealed overall functional improvement (P , .05). After surgery, 11 patients were asymptomatic or presented with only minor neurological deficits.
CONCLUSION: Surgical resection of AVMs in eloquent motor areas can be considered a safe option for selected cases when performed in conjunction with a detailed functional assessment. Possible selection criteria for surgical treatment are discussed in light of the presented clinical data.
Neuroradiology (2012) 54:597–606. DOI 10.1007/s00234-011-0945-0
Endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms includes follow-up imaging to identify aneurysms that may need retreatment. The aim of this study was to determine predictors of incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1 year after endovascular coiling for ruptured cerebral aneurysms.
Methods In 129 patients of the Prospective Registry of Subarachnoid Aneurysms Treatment cohort, ruptured aneurysms were coiled within 14 days of onset and both initial post-coiling and 1-year follow-up digital subtraction angiography or magnetic resonance angiography were obtained. Factors predicting 1-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion (retreatment within 1-year or residual aneurysms at 1 year) were determined using multivariate logistic regression analyses.
Results One-year incomplete aneurysm occlusion was identified in 59 patients, including ten patients who were retreated within 1-year post-coiling. Dome size ≥7.5 mm (P=0.007, odds ratio (OR)=5.00, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.55– 16.15), pre-treatment aneurysm re-rupture (P=0.023, OR= 3.50, 95% CI=1.19–10.31), non-small size/small neck aneurysm (dome size, ≥10 mm or neck size, ≥4 mm; P= 0.022, OR=3.26, 95% CI=1.19–8.96), and residual aneurysms on immediate post-coiling angiograms (P=0.017, OR= 1.43, 95% CI=1.07–1.93) significantly predicted incomplete aneurysm occlusion at 1-year post-coiling.
Conclusions In addition to the characteristics of aneurysm and initially incomplete aneurysm occlusion, this study showed pre-treatment aneurysm re-rupture to be a predictor that favors closer imaging follow-ups for coiled aneurysms.
Neurosurg Focus 32 (6):E7, 2012. DOI: 10.3171/2012.5.FOCUS1255
Extended endoscopic endonasal approaches have allowed for a minimally invasive solution for removal of a variety of ventral skull base lesions, including intradural tumors. Depending on the location of the pathological entity, various types of surgical corridors are used, such as transcribriform, transplanum transtuberculum, transsellar, transclival, and transodontoid approaches. Often, a large skull base dural defect with a high-flow CSF leak is created after endoscopic skull base surgery. Successful reconstruction of the cranial base defect is paramount to separate the intracranial contents from the paranasal sinus contents and to prevent postoperative CSF leakage. The vascularized pedicled nasoseptal flap (PNSF) has become the workhorse for cranial base reconstruction after endoscopic skull base surgery, dramatically reducing the rate of postoperative CSF leakage since its implementation.
In this report, the authors review the surgical technique and describe the operative nuances and lessons learned for successful multilayered PNSF reconstruction of cranial base defects with high-flow CSF leaks created after endoscopic skull base surgery. The authors specifically highlight important surgical pearls that are critical for successful PNSF reconstruction, including target-specific flap design and harvesting, pedicle preservation, preparation of bony defect and graft site to optimize flap adherence, multilayered closure technique, maximization of the reach of the flap, final flap positioning, and proper bolstering and buttressing of the PNSF to prevent flap dehiscence. Using this technique in 93 patients, the authors’ overall postoperative CSF leak rate was 3.2%.
An illustrative intraoperative video demonstrating the reconstruction technique is also presented.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons184–ons191, 2012. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182376a36
Surgical clipping with complete occlusion of the aneurysm and preservation of parent, branching, and perforating vessels remains the most definitive treatment for intracranial aneurysms.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of endoscopic application during microsurgical procedures in a retrospective study.
METHODS: One hundred eighty aneurysms were microsurgically treated in 124 operations. Three different applications of endoscopic visualization were used, depending on the respective requirements: inspection before clipping, clipping under endoscopic view, and postclipping evaluation.
RESULTS: Of 1380 aneurysms, 292 procedures were done with application of the endoscope. Of these 292, a complete data set, including video recording of the procedures for retrospective evaluation, was available in 180 cases. In these, the endoscope provided a favorable enhancement of the visual field, particularly in complex or deepseated lesions. No adverse effects were observed. Before clipping, the endoscope was used to gain additional topographic information in 150 of 180 cases (83%). Clipping under endoscopic view was performed in 4 cases. After clipping, endoscopic inspection was performed in 130 of 180 procedures. Depending on the endoscopic findings, rearrangement of the applied clip or additional clipping was found to be necessary in 26 of 130 cases (20.0%).
CONCLUSION: Endoscopic enhancement of the visual field provided by the endoscope before, during, and after microsurgical aneurysm occlusion may be a safe and effective application to increase the quality of treatment. Although unexpected findings concerning completeness of aneurysm occlusion and compromise of involved vessels could be diminished by endoscopic assessment, total prevention was not accomplished.
J Neurosurg Spine 16:594–600, 2012. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.2.SPINE111066)
The most currently accepted indication for cervical arthroplasty is 1- or 2-level degenerative disc disease (DDD) refractory to medical treatment. However, the randomized and controlled clinical trials by the US FDA investigational device exemption studies only compared cervical arthroplasty with anterior cervical discectomy and fusion for 1-level disease. Theoretically, 2-level cervical spondylosis usually implicates more advanced degeneration, whereas the 1-level DDD can be caused by merely a soft-disc herniation. This study aimed to investigate the differences between 1- and 2-level cervical arthroplasty.
Methods. The authors analyzed data obtained in 87 consecutive patients who underwent 1- or 2-level cervical arthroplasty with Bryan disc. The patients were divided into the 1-level and the 2-level treatment groups. Clinical outcomes were measured using the visual analog scale (VAS) for the neck and arm pain and the Neck Disability Index (NDI), with a minimum follow-up of 30 months. Radiographic outcomes were evaluated on both radiographs and CT scans.
Results. The study analyzed 98 levels of Bryan cervical arthroplasty in 70 patients (80.5%) who completed the evaluations in a mean follow-up period of 46.21 ± 9.85 months. There were 22 females (31.4%) and 48 males (68.6%), whose mean age was 46.57 ± 10.07 years at the time of surgery. The 1-level group had 42 patients (60.0%), while the 2-level group had 28 patients (40.0%). Patients in the 1-level group were younger than those in the 2-level group (mean 45.00 vs 48.93 years, p = 0.111 [not significant]). Proportional sex compositions and perioperative prescription of nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs were also similar in both groups (p = 0.227 and p = 1.000). The 2-level group had significantly greater EBL during surgery than the 1-level group (220.80 vs 111.89 ml, p = 0.024). Heterotopic ossification was identified more frequently in the 2-level group than the 1-level group (75.0% vs 40.5%, p = 0.009). Although most of the artificial discs remained mobile during the follow up, the 2-level group had fewer mobile discs (100% and 85.7%, p = 0.022) than the 1-level group. However, in both groups, the clinical outcomes measured by VAS for neck pain, VAS for arm pain, and NDI all significantly improved after surgery compared with that preoperatively, and there were no significant differences between the groups at any point of evaluation (that is, at 3, 6, 12, and 24 months after surgery).
Conclusions. Clinical outcomes of 1- and 2-level cervical arthroplasty were similar at 46 months after surgery, and patients in both groups had significantly improved compared with preoperative status. However, there was a significantly higher rate of heterotopic ossification formation and less mobility of the Bryan disc in patients who underwent 2-level arthroplasty. Although mobility to date has been maintained in the vast majority (94.3%) of patients, the long-term effects of heterotopic ossification warrant further investigation.
J Neurosurg Pediatrics 9:670–675, 2012. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.2.PEDS11538)
A growing skull fracture (GSF) is a rare but significant late complication of skull fractures, usually occurring during infancy and early childhood. Delayed diagnosis and improper treatment could exacerbate this disease. The aim of this study was to introduce a new hypothesis about, describe the stages of, and discuss the treatment strategy for GSF.
Methods. The authors performed a retrospective review of 27 patients with GSF, who were grouped according to 3 different GSF stages.
Results. Over a period of 20 years, 27 patients with GSF (16 males and 11 females) were treated in the authors’ department. The mean follow-up period was 26.5 months. Six patients were in the prephase of GSF (Stage 1), 10 patients in the early phase (Stage 2), and 11 in the late phase (Stage 3). All patients underwent duraplasty. All 6 patients at Stage 1 and 5 patients at Stage 2 underwent craniotomy without cranioplasty. Five patients at Stage 2 and all of the patients at Stage 3 underwent cranioplasty with autologous bone and alloplastic materials, respectively. Among all patients, 5 underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement. Symptoms in all patients at Stages 1 and 2 were alleviated or disappeared, and the cranial bones developed without deformity during follow-up. Among patients with Stage 3 GSF, no obvious improvement in neurological deficits was observed. Three patients underwent additional operations because of cranial deformation or infection.
Conclusions. The authors identify the stages of GSF according to a new hypothesis. They conclude that accurately diagnosing and treating GSF during Stages 1 and 2 leads to a better prognosis.
Neurosurg Focus 32 (6):E8, 2012. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.4.FOCUS1258)
Methods for repairing middle fossa CSF (MFCSF) leaks have varied and yielded mixed results. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and durability of the authors’ repair technique using a novel combination of 3 synthetic materials.
Methods. The authors performed a retrospective case review of patients treated for CSF leaks between January 2009 and September 2011. Eight patients were found to have undergone middle fossa craniotomies for CSF leaks. Inclusion criteria for the study included age greater than 18 years, neuroimaging-documented temporal bone defect, and symptoms consistent with CSF leaks or gross CSF otorrhea. Seven patients, 3 men and 4 women, met the inclusion criteria, and their charts were reviewed. Hydroxyapatite cement, collagen-based dural substitute matrix, and polyethylene glycol hydrogel sealant were used in all patients for the repair.
Results. In all patients the MFCSF leaks were successfully repaired. Initial presenting symptoms included CSF otorrhea in 4 patients (57.1%), hearing loss in 3 (42.9%), and CSF rhinorrhea in 1 (14.3%). The mean follow-up duration was 12 months (range 5–33 months). In 1 patient an epidural hematoma developed at the operative site on postoperative Day 2, and in another patient a superficial wound dehiscence occurred on postoperative Day 48. During the follow-up period, the authors found no evidence of wound infections, neurovascular damage, or CSF leakage requiring reoperation.
Conclusions. The middle fossa approach involving a combination of hydroxyapatite cement, collagen-based dural substitute matrix, and polyethylene glycol hydrogel sealant is a safe, effective method for repairing MFCSF leaks. The combination of synthetic materials provides an alternative to existing materials for skull base surgeons.
Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:1089–1095 DOI 10.1007/s00701-012-1324-2
Microvascular decompression (MVD) is a non-ablative technique designed to resolve the neurovascular conflict responsible for typical idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN).
Method With the patient in a supine position, a small elliptical retrosigmoid craniectomy is used to approach the cerebellopontine angle and the trigeminal nerve. After careful exploration of the trigeminal root entry zone, the offending vessel is identified and moved away. Oxidized regenerated cellulose is used to keep the vessel in its new position far from the nerve.
Conclusion MVD represents the gold standard first line treatment for TN; its aim is to free the nerve from any contact.
Neurosurgery 70:1442–1457, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824c046f
Various techniques of cerebral bypasses are used to treat aneurysms and tumors.
OBJECTIVE: To study long-term clinical and radiological outcome of various bypass types and to analyze techniques used in the management of long-term graft problems.
METHODS: A consecutive series of patients who underwent revascularization during a 5-year period were analyzed for indications, graft patency, and neurological outcomes. Potential risk factors for bypass problems and the management of bypass stenosis were studied.
RESULTS: A total of 80 patients (69 with aneurysms and 11 with tumors) underwent 88 bypasses (59 extracranial-to-intracranial [EC-IC] bypasses [10 low flow, 49 high flow], 9 intracranial-to-intracranial [IC-IC] bypasses [3 long, 6 short], and 20 local bypasses), with mean radiological follow-up of 32 months (range, 1-53 months). At late follow-up, 5 of 9 (56%) IC-IC (5 short, 0 long grafts), 8 of 9 (90%) EC-IC low-flow, 44 of 48 (92%) EC-IC high-flow, and all local bypasses were patent. Four patients with EC-IC high-flow bypass occlusions were asymptomatic, but transient ischemic attacks were noted in 3 of 6 patients with graft stenosis. None of the risk factors evaluated were significantly predictive of EC-IC graft occlusions or stenosis. EC-IC HF graft stenoses were permanently corrected by microsurgery (n = 4) or endovascular surgery (n = 1).
CONCLUSION: The EC-IC and local bypasses have higher long-term patency rates (91% and 100%) compared with IC-IC bypasses (66%, 0% long graft). Some EC-IC bypasses may occlude asymptomatically (9%) or develop graft stenosis (13%) over the long term. Microsurgical and endovascular surgical techniques have been developed to treat graft stenosis.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons192–ons201, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31823583a1
The middle fossa approach and extended middle fossa approach, also known as the anterior transpetrosal approach, are cranial base techniques for addressing small vestibular schwannomas, medial temporal bone lesions, midbasilar trunk aneurysms, and selected petroclival lesions.
OBJECTIVE: To provide an outline of a number of technical nuances that are important to correct application of these approaches, maximizing exposure, and limiting potential morbidity.
METHODS: Via a temporal craniotomy, the petrous apex is removed in variable degrees, depending on the exposure requirements of the lesion. The technique is described in detail with appropriate nuances of the technique provided.
RESULTS: The described nuances of technique in the performance of the approaches have resulted in successful application of these techniques in a significant number of cases.
CONCLUSION: Significant familiarity and practice with these surgical approach techniques are critical to applying them safely to clinical problems. A number of technical details can assist the surgeon in achieving optimal exposure and limited morbidity.
Neurosurg Focus 32 (6):E5, 2012
Lateral sphenoid encephaloceles of the Sternberg canal are rare entities and usually present with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea. Traditionally, these were treated via transcranial approaches, which can be challenging given the deep location of these lesions.
However, with advancements in endoscopic skull base surgery, including improved surgical exposures, angled endoscopes and instruments, and novel repair techniques, these encephaloceles can be resected and successfully repaired with purely endoscopic endonasal approaches. In this report, the authors review the endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach to the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus for repair of temporal lobe encephaloceles, including an overview of the surgical anatomy from an endoscopic perspective, and describe the technical operative nuances and surgical pearls for these cases.
The authors also present 4 new cases of lateral sphenoid recess encephaloceles that were successfully treated using this approach.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons202–ons208, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824042e6
Approaches to the foramen magnum and upper cervical spine traditionally include the posterior midline, far lateral, and endoscopic endonasal approaches. The far lateral approach is a well-established technique for the removal of pathology ventrolateral to the brainstem and the craniocervical junction, but it may be too extensive for lesions limited to areas far from the midline.
OBJECTIVE: To present an alternative to the commonly used approaches to the foramen magnum and upper cervical.
METHODS: We used an approach directly overlying ventral or lateral pathology.
RESULTS: Two cases are presented in which the direct lateral approach followed by an occipitocervical fusion was successfully performed.
CONCLUSION: This approach can be considered for patients in whom a ventral decompression is necessary but an endoscopic endonasal approach is undesirable or when a ventral, lateral, and ventrolateral resection of tumor, pannus, or infection is required.
Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:951–969. DOI 10.1007/s00701-012-1338-9
The neurosurgical management of patients with intrinsic glial cancers is one of the most rapidly evolving areas of practice. This has been fuelled by advances in surgical technique not only in cytoreduction but also in drug delivery. Further innovation will depend on a deeper understanding of the biology of the disease and an appreciation of the limitations of current knowledge.
Here we review the controversial topic of cancer stem cells applied to glioma to provide neurosurgeons with a working overview. It is now recognised that the adult human brain contains regionally specified cell populations capable of self-renewal that may contribute to tumour growth and maintenance following accumulated mutational change. Tumour cells adapted to maintain growth demonstrate some stem-like characteristics and as such constitute a legitimate therapeutic target. Cellular reprogramming technologies raise the potential of developing stem cells as novel surgical tools to target disease and possibly ameliorate some of the consequences of treatment. Achieving these goals remains a significant challenge to neurosurgical oncologists, not least in challenging how we think about treating brain cancer.
This review will briefly examine our understanding of adult stem cells within the brain, the evidence that they contribute to the development of brain tumours as tumour-initiating cells, and the potential implications for therapy. It will also look at the role stem cells may play in the future management of glioma.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons290–ons299, 2012.DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182315112
Surgery within the insula carries significant risk of morbidity, particularly hemiparesis, because of the difficulty in detecting the internal capsule boundaries.
OBJECTIVE: We analyzed the anatomy of the insula and identified landmarks anticipated to facilitate surgery for intrinsic insular lesions.
METHODS: Insular region anatomy was studied in 11 cadaveric brains harvested within 72 hours postmortem. MRI of the specimens was acquired using 3.0 T with T2-weighting and 25 directions of diffusion tensor imaging. Landmarks easily recognizable during surgery were identified on the surface of the insula. The interrelationships between surface landmarks and critical structures were analyzed.
RESULTS: The posterior inferior insular point (PIIP) and the upper central insular point (UCIP) were newly established as landmarks on the insula. The PIIP corresponded to the obvious bend in the posterior long insular gyrus. The UCIP is the meeting point between the central insular sulcus and superior peri-insular sulcus. The corticospinal tract was identified as a high-intensity area in the posterior limb of the internal capsule on T2-weighted imaging and its course confirmed with diffusion tensor imaging tractography. The corticospinal tract took a course deep to the posterosuperior insula on T2-weighted imaging, 4.8 mm from the UCIP and 6.2 mm from the PIIP.
CONCLUSION: The posterosuperior part of the insula forms the region at greatest risk to corticospinal tract injury. The PIIP and UCIP are crucial to understanding the relationship of the insula with the posterior limb of the internal capsule including the corticospinal tract.
Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:971–978. DOI 10.1007/s00701-012-1340-2
Aneurysm (AN) treatment appears to differ from country to country and even from centre to centre. Therefore we decided to conduct a survey in order to better understand the “state of the art” in aneurysm treatment in Europe. The primary aim was to understand the roles of clipping and coiling in aneurysm treatment.
Methods An interactive form was sent to major European neurosurgical centres. The responses relating to AN location, status (ruptured/unruptured) and treatment modality were divided with regard to the volume of cases and the centre’s geographical location.
Results Responses were received from 96 European centres. The main finding was that clipping was used significantly more often in Eastern Europe than in the rest of Europe to treat ruptured ANs of the anterior circulation. Almost all ruptured ANs across all locations are treated actively. The treatment of unruptured aneurysms of the anterior circulation is similar. The median relating to observed unruptured ANs across the Europe was 10 %. Posterior circulation ANs are treated predominantly by coiling, regardless of aneurysm status or geographical location. The average number of coilers versus surgeons per centre was 2.5:3.0 in Western, 1.9:3.6 in Southern, 1.9:4.3 in Eastern and 2.7:3.1 in Northern Europe.
Conclusions The way in which intracranial aneurysms are treated appears to correlate with the economic development of European countries. It is probably also affected by the lack of experienced coilers in Eastern Europe.
Neurosurgery 70:1504–1519, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824a36e8
Various surgical approaches for the removal of tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) have previously been described.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the reliability and safety of the lateral supraorbital (LSO) approach to remove TSMs.
METHODS: We identified all TSM patients operated on at the Department of Neurosurgery at Helsinki University Central Hospital, Finland, by the senior author (J.H.) using the LSO approach between September 1997 and August 2010. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data, radiological findings, surgical treatment, histology, and outcome of patients and discuss the operative technique.
RESULTS: Apparent complete tumor removal was achieved in 45 patients (87%). Of 42 patients, preexisting visual deficit improved in 22, remained the same in 13, and worsened in 7, and de novo visual deficit occurred in 1 patient. At 3 months postdischarge, 47 patients (90%) had a good recovery, 4 (8%) were moderately disabled, and 1 (2%) died 40 days after surgery of unexplained cardiac arrest. Seven patients (13%) had minimal residual tumors, 2 of which required reoperation. During the median follow-up of 59 months (range, 1-133 months), tumor recurred in 1 of the patients who had undergone a second operation.
CONCLUSION: TSMs of all sizes can be removed via the LSO approach with minimal morbidity and mortality. Low-power or no coagulation is recommended near the optic nerves and the optic chiasm to preserve their vascular support from the internal carotid artery perforators. Our results are comparable to those obtained using more extensive and time-consuming approaches. We recommend the LSO approach to remove TSMs.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons177–ons180, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182309448
We describe the use of an intraoperative CT scan obtained using the Medtronic O-arm (Littleton, Massachusetts) for image-guided cannulation of the foramen ovale not previously accessible with the use of fluoroscopy alone. Unlike previously described procedures, this technique does not require placement of an invasive head clamp and may be used with an awake patient.
OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of intraoperative neuronavigation for accessing skull base foramina and, specifically, cannulating of the foramen ovale during percutaneous rhizotomy procedures using an intraoperative image guidance CT scanner (Medtronic O-arm, Littleton, Massachusetts).
METHODS: A noninvasive Landmark Fess Strap attached to a spine reference frame was applied to the heads of 4 patients who harbored a difficult-to-access foramen ovale. An intraoperative HD3D skull base scan using a Medtronic O-arm was obtained, and Synergy Spine software was used to create 3D reconstructions of the skull base. Using image guidance, we navigated the needle to percutaneously access the foramen ovale by the use of a single tract for successful completion of balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve.
RESULTS: All 4 patients (3 females and 1 male; ages 65-75) underwent the procedure with no complications.
CONCLUSION: Based on our experience, neuronavigation with the use of intraoperative O-arm CT imaging is useful during these cases.
Neurosurg Focus 32 (6):E5, 2012. (http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.3.FOCUS1267)
Lateral sphenoid encephaloceles of the Sternberg canal are rare entities and usually present with spontaneous CSF rhinorrhea. Traditionally, these were treated via transcranial approaches, which can be challenging given the deep location of these lesions. However, with advancements in endoscopic skull base surgery, including improved surgical exposures, angled endoscopes and instruments, and novel repair techniques, these encephaloceles can be resected and successfully repaired with purely endoscopic endonasal approaches.
In this report, the authors review the endoscopic endonasal transpterygoid approach to the lateral recess of the sphenoid sinus for repair of temporal lobe encephaloceles, including an overview of the surgical anatomy from an endoscopic perspective, and describe the technical operative nuances and surgical pearls for these cases.
The authors also present 4 new cases of lateral sphenoid recess encephaloceles that were successfully treated using this approach.
J Neurosurg Spine 16:523–531, 2012 .DOI: 10.3171/2012.3.SPINE11982
Intramedullary, or glomus, spinal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare vascular lesions amenable to resection with or without adjuvant embolization. The authors retrospectively reviewed the senior author’s (R.F.S.’s) surgical series of intramedullary spinal AVMs to evaluate clinical and radiographic outcomes.
Detailed chart and radiographic reviews were performed for all patients with intramedullary spinal AVMs who underwent surgical treatment between 1994 and 2011. Presenting and follow-up neurological examination results were obtained and graded using the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and McCormick Scale. Surgical technique, outcomes, complications, and long-term angiographic studies were reviewed.
During the study period, 20 patients (10 males and 10 females) underwent resection of glomus spinal AVMs. The mean age at presentation was 30 ± 17 years (range 7–62 years). The location of the AVMs was as follows: cervical spine (n = 10), thoracic spine (n = 9), and cervicothoracic junction (n = 1). The most common presenting signs and symptoms included paresis or paralysis (65%), paresthesias (40%), and myelopathy (40%). Perioperative embolization was performed in the majority (60%) of patients. Pial AVM resection was performed in 17 cases (85%). Angiographically verified AVM obliteration was achieved in 15 patients (75%). At a mean follow-up duration of 45.4 ± 52.4 months (range 2–176 months), 14 patients (70%) remained functionally independent (mRS and McCormick Scale scores ≤ 2). One perioperative complication occurred, yielding a surgical morbidity rate of 5%. Three symptomatic spinal cord tetherings occurred at a mean of 5.7 years after AVM resection. No neurological decline was observed after endovascular and surgical interventions. No deaths occurred. Long-term angiographic follow-up data were available for 9 patients (40%) at a mean of 67.6 ± 60.3 months (range 5–176 months) following AVM resection. Durable AVM obliteration was documented in 5 (83%) of 6 patients.
Intramedullary AVMs may be safely resected with satisfactory clinical and angiographic results. The pial resection technique, which provides subtotal AVM nidus resection, effectively devascularized these lesions, as confirmed on postoperative angiography, without violating the spinal cord parenchyma, thereby potentially reducing iatrogenic injury.