Neurosurgery Blog


Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Comparison of endovascular and microsurgical management of 208 basilar apex aneurysms

J Neurosurg 127:1342–1352, 2017

The deep and difficult-to-reach location of basilar apex aneurysms, along with their location near critical adjacent perforating arteries, has rendered the perception that microsurgical treatment of these aneurysms is risky. As a result, these aneurysms are considered more suitable for treatment by endovascular intervention. The authors attempt to compare the immediate and long-term outcomes of microsurgery versus endovascular therapy for this aneurysm subtype.

METHODS A prospectively maintained database of 208 consecutive patients treated for basilar apex aneurysms between 2000 and 2012 was reviewed. In this group, 161 patients underwent endovascular treatment and 47 were managed microsurgically. The corresponding records were analyzed for presenting characteristics, postoperative complications, discharge status, and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores up to 1 year after treatment and compared using chi-square and Student t-tests.

RESULTS Among these 208 aneurysms, 116 (56%) were ruptured, including 92 (57%) and 24 (51%) of the endovascularly and microsurgically managed aneurysms, respectively. The average Hunt and Hess grade was 2.4 (2.4 in the endovascular group and 2.2 in the microsurgical group; p = 0.472). Postoperative complications of cranial nerve deficits and hemiparesis were more common in patients treated microsurgically than endovascularly (55.3% vs 16.2%, p < 0.05; and 27.7% vs 10.6%, p < 0.05, respectively). However, aneurysm remnants and need for retreatment were more common in the endovascular than the microsurgical group (41.3% vs 2.3%, p < 0.05; and 10.6% vs 0.0%, p < 0.05, respectively). Stent placement significantly reduced the need for retreatment. Rehemorrhage rates and average GOS score at discharge and 1 year after treatment were not statistically different between the two treatment groups.

CONCLUSIONS Patients with basilar apex aneurysms were significantly more likely to be treated via endovascular management, but compared with those treated microsurgically, they had higher rates of recurrence and need for retreatment. The current study did not detect an overall difference in outcomes at discharge and 1 year after either treatment modality. Therefore, in a select group of patients, microsurgical treatment continues to play an important role.

Effect of statin treatment on vasospasm-related morbidity and functional outcome in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage

J Neurosurg 127:291–301, 2017

The efficacy of statin therapy in treating aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) remains controversial. In this meta-analysis, the authors investigated whether statin treatment significantly reduced the incidence of cerebral vasospasm and delayed neurological deficits, promoting a better outcome after aneurysmal SAH.

METHODS: A literature search of the PubMed, Ovid, and Cochrane Library databases was performed for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and prospective cohort studies investigating the effect of statin treatment. The end points of cerebral vasospasm, delayed ischemic neurological deficit (DIND), delayed cerebral infarction, mortality, and favorable outcome were statistically analyzed.

RESULTS Six RCTs and 2 prospective cohort studies met the eligibility criteria, and a total of 1461 patients were included. The meta-analysis demonstrated a significant decrease in the incidence of cerebral vasospasm (relative risk [RR] 0.76, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.61–0.96) in patients treated with statins after aneurysmal SAH. However, no significant benefit was observed for DIND (RR 0.88, 95% CI 0.70–1.12), delayed cerebral infarction (RR 0.66, 95% CI 0.33–1.31), mortality (RR 0.69, 95% CI 0.39–1.24) or favorable outcome, according to assessment by the modified Rankin Scale or Glasgow Outcome Scale (RR 0.99, 95% CI 0.92–1.17).

CONCLUSIONS Treatment with statins significantly decreased the occurrence of vasospasm after aneurysmal SAH. The incidence of DIND, delayed cerebral infarction, and mortality were not affected by statin treatment. Future research should focus on DIND and how statins influence DIND.


Results of the ANSWER Trial Using the PulseRider for the Treatment of Broad-Necked, Bifurcation Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 81:56–65, 2017

The safety and probable benefit of the PulseRider (Pulsar Vascular, Los Gatos, California) for the treatment of broad-necked, bifurcation aneurysms was studied in the context of the prospective, nonrandomized, single arm clinical trial— the Adjunctive Neurovascular Support of Wide-neck aneurysm Embolization and Reconstruction (ANSWER) Trial.

OBJECTIVE: To present the results of the United States cases employing the PulseRider device as part of the ANSWER clinical trial.

METHODS: Aneurysms treated with the PulseRider device among sites enrolling in the ANSWER trial were prospectively studied and the results are summarized. Aneurysms arising at either the carotid terminus or basilar apex thatwere relatively broad neckedwere considered candidates for inclusion into the ANSWER study.

RESULTS: Thirty-four patients were enrolled (29 female and 5 male) with a mean age of 60.9 years (27 basilar apex and 7 carotid terminus).Mean aneurysm height ranged from 2.4 to 15.9 mm with a mean neck size of 5.2 mm (range 2.3-11.6 mm). In all patients, the device was delivered and deployed. Immediate Raymond I or II occlusion was achieved in 82.4% and progressed to 87.9% at 6-month follow-up. A modified Rankin Score of 2 or less was seen in 94% of patients at 6 months.

CONCLUSION: The results from the ANSWER trial demonstrate that the PulseRider device is safe and offers probable benefit as for the treatment of bifurcation aneurysms arising at the basilar apex or carotid terminus. As such, it represents a useful addition to the armamentarium of the neuroendovascular specialist.

Impact of Weekend Presentation on Short-Term Outcomes and Choice of Clipping vs Coiling in Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Neurosurgery 81:87–91, 2017

Presentation on a weekend is commonly associated with higher mortality and a decreased likelihood of receiving invasive procedures.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether weekend presentation influences mortality, discharge destination, or type of treatment received (clip vs coil) in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

METHODS: We performed a serial cross-sectional retrospective study using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. All adult discharges with a primary diagnosis of SAH (ICD-9-CM 435) from 2005 to 2010 were included, and records with trauma or arteriovenous malformation were excluded. Unadjusted and adjusted associations between weekend presentation and 3 outcomes (in-hospital mortality, discharge destination, and treatment with clip vs coil) were estimated using chi-square tests and multilevel logistic regression.

RESULTS: A total of 46 093 admissions for nontraumatic SAH were included in the sample; 24.6% presented on a weekend, 68.9% on a weekday, and 6.5% had unknown day of presentation. Weekend admission was not a significant predictor of inpatient mortality (25.4% weekend vs 24.9% weekday; P = .44), or a combined poor outcome measure of mortality or discharge to long-term acute care or hospice (30.3% weekend vs 29.4% weekday; P = .23). Among those treated for aneurysm obliteration, the proportion of clipped vs coiled did not change with weekend vs weekday presentation (21.5% clipped with weekend presentation vs 21.6% weekday, P = .95; 21.5% coiled with weekend presentation vs 22.4% weekday, P = .19).

CONCLUSION: Presentation with nontraumatic SAH on a weekend did not influence mortality, discharge destination, or type of treatment received (clip vs coil) compared with weekday presentation.


The Superior Cerebellar Artery Aneurysm: A Posterior Circulation Aneurysm with Favorable Microsurgical Outcomes

Neurosurgery 80:908–916, 2017

Superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms are usually grouped with aneurysms that arise from the upper basilar artery or more broadly, the posterior circulation. However, the SCA aneurysm has distinctive anatomy that facilitates safe surgical management, notably few associated perforating arteries, and excellent exposure in the carotid-oculomotor triangle.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate the outcomes of patients treated with microsurgery in a continuous surgical series.

METHODS: Sixty-two patients harboring 63 SCA aneurysmswere retrospectively reviewed from a prospectively maintained database, focusing on clinical characteristics, surgical techniques, and clinical outcomes.

RESULTS: Of 31 patients (49%) presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage, the SCA aneurysm was the source in 16 (25%). Thirty-three aneurysms were complex (52%) and 43 patients (59%) had multiple aneurysms. Fifty-seven SCA aneurysms (90.5%) were clipped and 5 were bypassed/trapped or wrapped. Complete angiographic occlusion was achieved in 91.7%. Permanent neurological morbidity occurred in 3 patients and 3 patients that presented in coma after subarachnoid hemorrhage died. All patients with “simple” aneurysms and without subarachnoid hemorrhage had improved or unchangedmodified Rankin scale scores. Overall, outcomes were stable or improved in 82.5% of patients.

CONCLUSION: SCA aneurysms are favorable for microsurgical clipping with low rates of permanent morbidity and mortality. Microsurgery should be considered alongside endovascular techniques as a treatment option in many patients.

Comparison Between CTA and Digital Subtraction Angiography in the Diagnosis of Ruptured Aneurysms

Computerized tomography angiography (CTA) is commonly used to diagnose ruptured cerebral aneurysms with sensitivities reported as high as 97% to 100%. Studies validating CTA accuracy in the setting of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are scarce and limited by small sample sizes.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CTA in detecting intracranial aneurysms in the setting of SAH.

METHODS: A single-center, retrospective cohort of 643 patients was reviewed. A total of 401 patients were identified whose diagnostic workup included both CTA and confirmatory digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Aneurysms missed by CTA but diagnosed by DSA were further stratified by size and location.

RESULTS: Three hundred and thirty aneurysms were detected by CTA while DSA detected a total of 431 aneurysms. False positive CTA results were seen for 24 aneurysms. DSA identified 125 aneurysms that were missed by CTA and 83.2% of those were <5 mm in diameter. The sensitivity of CTA was 57.6% for aneurysms smaller than 5 mm in size, and 45% for aneurysms originating from the internal carotid artery. The overall sensitivity of CTA in the setting of SAH was 70.7%.

CONCLUSION: The accuracy of CTA in the diagnosis of ruptured intracranial aneurysm may be lower than previously reported. CTA has a low sensitivity for aneurysms less than 5 mm in size, in locations adjacent to bony structures, and for those arising from small caliber parent vessels. It is our recommendation that CTA should be used with caution when used alone in the diagnosis of ruptured intracranial aneurysms.

Is there an inherited anatomical conformation favoring aneurysmal formation of the anterior communicating artery?

J Neurosurg 126:1598–1605, 2017

The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the formation of intracranial aneurysms (IAs) remain only partially elucidated. However, current evidence suggests a genetic component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the specific anatomical variations in the arterial complex that are associated with the presence of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms in the familial forms of IAs.

METHODS This multicenter study investigated bifurcation IAs in patients who had a sporadic ACoA IA without a family history of IA (SACAA group), in patients who had an ACoA IA with a family history of IA (FACAA group), and in their healthy first-degree relatives (HFDRs). Through the use of MR angiography (MRA) reconstructions, the symmetry of the A1 segments and the angle between the A1 and A2 segments were analyzed on 3D models for each group. These measurements were then compared among the 3 groups.

RESULTS Twenty-four patients with SACAA, 24 patients with FACAA, and 20 HFDRs were included in the study. Asymmetrical configuration of the A1 segments was more frequent in the FACAA group than in the HFDR group (p = 0.002). The aneurysm-side A1-A2 angle was lower in the FACAA group (p = 0.003) and SACAA group (p = 0.007) than in the HFDR group. On the contralateral side, there was no difference in A1-A2 angles between groups.

CONCLUSIONS The anatomical shape of the ACoA complex seems to be similarly associated with the presence of ACoA IAs in both the FACAA and SACAA groups. This highlights the role played by hemodynamic constraints in aneurysm formation and questions the hypothesis of the hereditary character of these anatomical shapes.

Pathophysiology of Intracranial Aneurysm: The ICAN Project

Neurosurgery 80:621–626, 2017

Understanding the pathophysiologic mechanism of intracranial aneurysm
(IA) formation is a prerequisite to assess the potential risk of rupture. Nowadays, there are neither reliable biomarkers nor diagnostic tools to predict the formation or the evolution of IA. Increasing evidence suggests a genetic component of IA but genetics studies have failed to identify genetic variation causally related to IA.

OBJECTIVE: To develop diagnostic and predictive tools for the risk of IA formation and rupture.

METHODS: The French ICAN project is a noninterventional nationwide and multicentric research program. Each typical IA of bifurcation will be included. For familial forms, further IA screening will be applied among first-degree relatives. By accurate phenotype description with high-throughput genetic screening, we aim to identify new genes involved in IA. These potential genetic markers will be tested in large groups of patients. Any relevant pathway identified will be further explored in a large cohort of sporadic carriers of IA, which will be well documented with clinical, biological, and imaging data.

EXPECTED OUTCOMES: Discovering genetic risk factors, better understanding the pathophysiology, and identifying molecular mechanisms responsible for IA formation will be essential bases for the development of biomarkers and identification of therapeutic targets.

DISCUSSION: Our protocol has many assets. A nationwide recruitment allows for the inclusion of large pedigrees with familial forms of IA. It will combine accurate phenotyping and comprehensive imaging with high-throughput genetic screening. Last, it will enable exploiting metadata to explore new pathophysiological pathways of interest by crossing clinical, genetic, biological, and imaging information.

Causes of poor outcome in patients admitted with good-grade subarachnoid haemorrhage

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:559–565

Surgical risk in patients with unruptured aneurysms is well known. The relative impact of surgery and natural history of subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) on patients in good clinical condition (World Federation of Neurological Surgeons [WFNS] grades 1 and 2) is less well quantified. The aim of this study was to determine causes of poor outcome in patients admitted in good grade SAH.

Methods A retrospective study of prospectively collected data among WFNS-1 and -2 patients: demographics, SAH and aneurysm-related data, surgical complications and outcome as assesed by the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS). Causes of poor outcome (GOS 1–3) were determined.

Results During a 7-year period (2009–15), 56 patients with SAH WFNS-1 (39 patients) or WFNS-2 (17 patients) were treated surgically (21 men, 35 women; mean age, 52.4 years). According to the Fisher scale, 19 patients were grade 1 or 2; 37 patients were grade 3 or 4. Most aneurysms were located at anterior communicating (26) or middle cerebral (15) artery.

Altogether, 11 patients (19.6%) achieved GOS 1–3. This was attributed to SAH-related complications in six patients (rebleeding, vasospasm), surgery in four patients (postopera-tive ischaemia in two, haematoma and ventriculitis in one patient each), grand-mal seizure with aspiration in one patient. Age over 60 years (p = 0.017) and presence of hydrocephalus (p < 0.001) were statistically significant predictors of poor GOS; other variables (e.g. sex, Fisher grade, aneurysm size or location, use of temporary clips, intraoperative rupture, vasospasm) were not significant.

Conclusions Patients admitted in good-grade SAH achieve favourable outcome following surgical aneurysm repair in the majority of cases. Negative factors include age over 60 years and presence of hydrocephalus. Aneurysm surgery following good-grade SAH still carries a small but significant risk similar to that shown in large multi-institutional trials.

Outcome and prognostic factors after delayed second subarachnoid haemorrhage

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:307–315

Data of patients suffering from delayed second subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) after aneurysm treatment are still missing. Patients become clearly older than before. Thus, the risk suffering from a second delayed SAH rises. The aim of this study was to analyse clinical outcome and prognostic factors in patients after delayed second SAH.

Method From 1999 to 2013, 18 of 1,493 patients (1.2%) suffered from a second SAH. Clinical and radiological character- istics were entered into a prospective conducted database. Outcome was assessed according to modified Rankin Scale 6 months after second SAH. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.

Results Eighteen patients were admitted to our department with a second SAH. The second SAH occurred at a mean interval of 144 months after surgical treatment and 78 months after endovascular treatment (P < 0.05), with an overall mean interval of 125 months. The earliest event of second SAH was after 35 months. In 11 (61%) patients, a de novo aneurysm was detected; in one patient (6%), no cause of second SAH was detected. In six (33%) cases, re-rupture of the formerly secured aneurysm was found. Half of the rebleedings occurred from a basilar aneurysm, 33% from an aneurysm of anterior communicating artery and in one patient from a median cere- bral artery aneurysm. At second SAH, 8 of 18 patients pre- sented WFNS grade I-III at time of admission (44%). Overall, favourable outcome was achieved in seven patients (39%). Four patients died (22%), one of them before treatment. Favourable outcome seems to be associated with younger age. In our patients, 39% achieved a favourable outcome after second SAH.

Conclusions A delayed second SAH is a rare entity. After delayed second SAH, age seems to be a prognostic factor for patients’ outcome and patients seem to have a worse prognosis. Nonetheless, up to 40% of patients can achieve a favourable outcome.

Blister Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery: Microsurgical Results and Management Strategy

Neurosurgery (2017) 80 (2): 235-247

Blister aneurysms of the supraclinoid internal carotid artery (ICA) are challenging lesions with high intraoperative rupture rates and significant morbidity. An optimal treatment strategy for these aneurysms has not been established.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze treatment strategy, operative techniques, and outcomes in a consecutive 17-year series of ICA blister aneurysms treated microsurgically.

METHODS: Seventeen patients underwent blister aneurysm treatment with direct clipping, bypass and trapping, or clip-reinforced wrapping.

RESULTS: Twelve aneurysms (71%) were treated with direct surgical clipping. Three patients required bypass: 1 superficial temporal artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, 1 external carotid artery to middle cerebral artery bypass, and 1 ICA to middle cerebral artery bypass. One patient was treated with clip-reinforced wrapping. Initial treatment strategy was enacted 71% of the time. Intraoperative rupture occurred in 7 patients (41%), doubling the rate of a poor outcome (57% vs 30% for patients with and without intraoperative rupture, respectively). Severe vasospasm developed in 9 of 16 patients (56%). Twelve patients (65%) were improved or unchanged after treatment, and 10 patients (59%) had good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale scores of 1 or 2).

CONCLUSION: ICA blister aneurysms can be cautiously explored and treated with direct clipping as the first-line technique in the majority of cases. Complete trapping of the parent artery with temporary clips and placing permanent clip blades along normal arterial walls enables clipping that avoids intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Trapping/bypass is used as the second-line treatment, maintaining a low threshold for bypass with extensive or friable pathology of the carotid wall and in patients with incomplete circles of Willis.


The Risk of Seizure After Surgery for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

Incidence of growth and rupture of unruptured intracranial aneurysms followed by serial MRA

Neurosurgery 79:222–230, 2016

We aimed to identify a group of patients with a low risk of seizure after surgery for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA).

OBJECTIVE: To determine the risk of seizure after discharge from surgery for UIA.

METHODS: A consecutive prospectively collected cohort database was interrogated for all surgical UIA cases. There were 726 cases of UIA (excluding cases proximal to the superior cerebellar artery on the vertebrobasilar system) identified and analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression models and Kaplan-Meier life table analyses were generated assessing risk factors.

RESULTS: Preoperative seizure history and complication of aneurysm repair were the only risk factors found to be significant. The risk of first seizure after discharge from hospital following surgery for patients with neither preoperative seizure, treated middle cerebral artery aneurysm, nor postoperative complications (leading to a modified Rankin Scale score .1) was ,0.1% and 1.1% at 12 months and 7 years, respectively. The risk for those with preoperative seizures was 17.3% and 66% at 12 months and 7 years, respectively. The risk for seizures with either complications (leading to a modified Rankin Scale score .1) from surgery or treated middle cerebral artery aneurysm was 1.4% and 6.8% at 12 months and 7 years, respectively. These differences in the 3 Kaplan-Meier curves were significant (log-rank P , .001).

CONCLUSION: The risk of seizures after discharge from hospital following surgery for UIA is very low when there is no preexisting history of seizures. If this result can be supported by other series, guidelines that restrict returning to driving because of the risk of postoperative seizures should be reconsidered.

Factors Associated With Proximal Intracranial Aneurysms to Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Factors Associated With Proximal Intracranial Aneurysms to Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Neurosurgery 78:787–792, 2016

The risk of hemorrhage from a brain arteriovenous malformation (bAVM) is increased when an associated proximal intracranial aneurysm (APIA) is present. Identifying factors that are associated with APIA may influence the prediction of hemorrhage in patients with bAVM.

OBJECTIVE: To identify patient- and bAVM-specific factors associated with APIA.

METHODS: We analyzed a prospective database of bAVMs for factors associated with the presence of APIA. Factors analyzed included age, sex, bAVM size, aneurysm size, circulation contributing to the bAVM, location of the aneurysm, deep venous drainage, and Spetzler-Ponce categories. Multiple logistic regression was performed to identify an association with APIA.

RESULTS: Of 753 cases of bAVM with complete angiographic surveillance, 67 (9%) were found to have APIA. Older age (continuous variable; odds ratio, 1.04; 95% confidence interval, 1.02-1.05) and posterior circulation supply to the bAVM (odds ratio, 2.29; 95% confidence interval, 1.32-3.99) were factors associated with increased detection of APIA. The association of posterior circulation–supplied bAVM was not due to infratentorial bAVM location because 72% of posterior circulation APIAs were supplying supratentorial bAVM.

CONCLUSION: APIAs appear to develop with time, as evident from the increased age for those with APIAs. Furthermore, they were more likely present in bAVMs supplied by the posterior circulation. This may be due to a difference in hemodynamic stress.

Predictors of aneurysmal rebleed before definitive surgical or endovascular management

A Simple and Quantitative Method to Predict Symptomatic Vasospasm After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Based on Computed Tomography- Beyond the Fisher Scale

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1037–1044

Aneurysmal rebleed is the most dreaded complication following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Being a cause of devastating outcome, the stratification of risk factors can be used to prioritize patients, especially at high volume centers.

Method: A total of 99 patients with aneurysmal rebleed were analyzed in this study both prospectively and retrospectively from August 2010 to July 2014. In the control group, 100 patients were selected randomly from the patient registry. A total of 25 variables from the demographic, historical, clinical and radiological data were compared and analyzed by univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis.

Results: Significant independent predictors of aneurysm rebleed were the presence of known hypertension (p=0.023), diastolic blood pressure of >90 mmHg on admission (p=0.008); presence of loss of consciousness (p= 0.013) or seizures (p = 0.002) at first ictus; history of warning headaches (p=0.005); higher Fisher grade (p<0.001); presence of multiple aneurysms (p= 0.021); irregular aneurysm surface (0.002).

Conclusions: Identification of high risk factors can help in stratifying patients in the high risk group. The risk stratification strategy with early intervention can prevent rebleeds. This in turn may translate into better outcomes of patients with intracranial aneurysms.

Intracranial-to-intracranial bypass for posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

Intracranial-to-intracranial bypass for posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms

J Neurosurg 124:1275–1286, 2016

Intracranial-to-intracranial (IC-IC) bypasses are alternatives to traditional extracranial-to-intracranial (ECIC) bypasses to reanastomose parent arteries, reimplant efferent branches, revascularize branches with in situ donor arteries, and reconstruct bifurcations with interposition grafts that are entirely intracranial. These bypasses represent an evolution in bypass surgery from using scalp arteries and remote donor sites toward a more local and reconstructive approach. IC-IC bypass can be utilized preferentially when revascularization is needed in the management of complex aneurysms. Experiences using IC-IC bypass, as applied to posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) aneurysms in 35 patients, were reviewed.

Methods: Patients with PICA aneurysms and vertebral artery (VA) aneurysms involving the PICA’s origin were identified from a prospectively maintained database of the Vascular Neurosurgery Service, and patients who underwent bypass procedures for PICA revascularization were included.

Results: During a 17-year period in which 129 PICA aneurysms in 125 patients were treated microsurgically, 35 ICIC bypasses were performed as part of PICA aneurysm management, including in situ p3-p3 PICA-PICA bypass in 11 patients (31%), PICA reimplantation in 9 patients (26%), reanastomosis in 14 patients (40%), and 1 V3 VA-to-PICA bypass with an interposition graft (3%). All aneurysms were completely or nearly completely obliterated, 94% of bypasses were patent, 77% of patients were improved or unchanged after treatment, and good outcomes (modified Rankin Scale ≤ 2) were observed in 76% of patients. Two patients died expectantly. Ischemic complications were limited to 2 patients in whom the bypasses occluded, and permanent lower cranial nerve morbidity was limited to 3 patients and did not compromise independent function in any of the patients.

Conclusions: PICA aneurysms receive the application of IC-IC bypass better than any other aneurysm, with nearly one-quarter of all PICA aneurysms treated microsurgically at our center requiring bypass without a single EC-IC bypass. The selection of PICA bypass is almost algorithmic: trapped aneurysms at the PICA origin or p1 segment are revascularized with a PICA-PICA bypass, with PICA reimplantation as an alternative; trapped p2 segment aneurysms are reanastomosed, bypassed in situ, or reimplanted; distal p3 segment aneurysms are reanastomosed or revascularized with a PICA-PICA bypass; and aneurysms of the p4 segment that are too distal for PICA-PICA bypass are reanastomosed. Interposition grafts are reserved for when these 3 primary options are unsuitable. A constructive approach that preserves the PICA with direct clipping or replaces flow with a bypass when sacrificed should remain an alternative to deconstructive PICA occlusion and endovascular coiling when complete aneurysm occlusion is unlikely.

Analysis of superiorly projecting anterior communicating artery aneurysms

Analysis of superiorly projecting anterior communicating artery aneurysms

Neurosurg Rev (2016) 39:225–235

Superiorly projecting (SP) anterior communicating artery (AComA) aneurysms are typically described as a homogenous group. Clinically and microsurgically, these aneurysms vary in multiple important characteristics.

We propose a microsurgical classification system for these complex aneurysms and review its implications regarding presentation, microsurgical techniques, and outcome.

This retrospective analysis reviews patients undergoing clipping of SP AComA aneurysms (2005–2013). The classification system is based on the virtual plane created by the A2 segments and its relationship to the aneurysm. Aneurysm type was assessed by intraoperative images and videos. Type 1 is defined by bisection of the dome by the virtual plane. Type 2 is defined by dome projection posterior to this plane. Sagittal rotation of the plane defines type 3. We analyzed clinical presentation, morphology, angiographic characteristics, operative technique, and outcome relative to the classification types.

There were 44 SP AComA aneurysms. 3D angiographic images predicted classification type in 83 %. Type 1 presented more often with SAH (95.5 %, p=0.0046). There was no statistically significant difference between the types regarding patient demographics or aneurysm characteristics. In type 2, fenestrated clips were used frequently (87.5 % p=0.0016), and there was higher rate of intraoperative rupture (37.5 %). Although there was no statistically significant difference between the types in respect to HH grade upon presentation, patients with type 2 aneurysms experienced higher rates of poor GOS (50 %).

The proposed classification system for SP AComA aneurysms has implications regarding surgical planning, micro-dissection, clipping, and outcome. Type 2 aneurysms carry significant surgical risk.

Hemodynamic response during aneurysm clipping surgery among experienced neurosurgeons


Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:221–227

Neurosurgery is a challenging field associated with high levels of mental stress. The goal of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic response of experienced neurosurgeons during aneurysm clipping surgery and to evaluate whether neurosurgeons’ hemodynamic responses are associated with patients’ clinical statuses.

Methods Four vascular neurosurgeons (all male; mean age 51 ± 10 years; post-residency experience ≥7 years) were studied during 42 aneurysm clipping procedures. Blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) were assessed at rest and during seven phases of surgery: before the skin incision, after craniotomy, after dural opening, after aneurysm neck dissection, after aneurysm clipping, after dural closure and after skin closure.

Results HR and BP were significantly greater during surgery relative to the rest situation (p≤ 0.03). There was a statistically significant increase in neurosurgeons’ HR (F [6, 41] = 10.88, p <0.001), systolic BP (F [6, 41] =2.97, p =0.01), diastolic BP (F [6, 41] = 2.49, p = 0.02) and mean BP (F [6, 41] = 3.36, p = 0.003) during surgery. The greatest mean HR was after aneurysm clipping, and the greatest BP was after aneurysm neck dissection. Systolic, diastolic and mean BPs were significantly greater during surgical clipping for unruptured aneurysms compared to ruptured aneurysms across all stages of surgery (p ≤ 0.002); however, after adjusting for neurosurgeon experience, the difference in BP as a function of aneurysm rupture was not significant (p>0.08). Aneurysm location, intraoperative aneurysm rupture, admission WFNS score, admission Glasgow Coma Scale scores and Fisher grade were not associated with neurosurgeons’ intraoperative HR and BP (all p > 0.07).

Conclusions Aneurysm clipping surgery is associated with significant hemodynamic system activation among experienced neurosurgeons. The greatest HR and BP were after aneurysm neck dissection and clipping. Aneurysm location and patient clinical status were not associated with intraoperative changes of neurosurgeons’ HR and BP.

A Reappraisal of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: A Case for Stent-Assisted Embolization

Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms- A Case for Stent-Assisted Embolization

Neurosurgery 78:200–207, 2016

Wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent a subset of lesions with challenging endovascular treatment despite new endoluminal and intrasaccular devices.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes of stentassisted embolization for wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

METHODS: Between March 2008 and March 2014, 32 patients with unruptured widenecked AComm aneurysms were treated using stent-assisted embolization. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was reviewed at the time of discharge and at latest follow-up. Ischemic and hemorrhagic events were also recorded and analyzed. Aneurysm occlusion was evaluated post-intervention and on subsequent follow-up evaluations.

RESULTS: Successful stent deployment was achieved in all cases, but in 1 patient the coils could not be contained inside the aneurysm, and the procedure was aborted without complications. The distal segment of the stent was positioned in the ipsilateral A2 in 16 patients, in the contralateral A2 in 15 patients, and in the contralateral A1 in 1 patient. There were no periprocedural thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complications. The rate of major complications was 6%. One patient developed intracranial hemorrhage related to antiplatelet therapy and another had ischemic events due to in-stent stenosis. Angiographic follow-up was available for 26 aneurysms and during a mean follow-up of 22 months, 81% of the lesions were completely occluded and 8% had a small residual neck. The retreatment rate for residual aneurysms was 3%.

CONCLUSION: Our long-term results suggest that stent-assisted embolization for anterior communicating artery aneurysms may be considered an excellent treatment option with an adequate combination of safety profile and effectiveness.

A New Aneurysm Occlusion Classification after the Impact of Flow Modification

Classification of angiographic results after endovascular treatment with any technique

AJNR Am J Neuroradiol 37:19 –24

A new classification is proposed for cerebral aneurysms treated with any endovascular technique, for example, coiling with or without adjunctive devices, flow diversion, intrasaccular flow modifiers, or any combination of the above.

Raymond-Roy Occlusion Classification is expanded with novel subgroups such as class 1 represents complete occlusion and is subdivided if a branch is integrated to, or originated from, the aneurysm sac; class 2 represents neck filling; class 3 represents incomplete occlusion with aneurysm filling as in the previous classification; and class 4 describes the immediate postoperative status after extra- or intrasaccular flow modification treatment. A new concept, “stable remodeling,” is included as class 5, which represents filling in the neck region that stays unchanged or reduced, as shown with at least 2 consecutive control angiographies, at least 6 months apart, for not <1 year, or the remodeled appearance of a dilated and/or tortuous vessel in continuation with the parent artery without sac filling.

Resolution of Oculomotor Nerve Palsy Secondary to Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms- Comparison of Clipping and Coiling

Advanced Technical Skills Are Required for Microsurgical Clipping of Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms in the Endovascular Era-0

Neurosurgery 77:931–939, 2015

Previous studies have attempted to determine the best treatment for oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) secondary to posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, but have been limited by small sample sizes and limited treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the treatment of ONP secondary to PCoA with both coiling and clipping in ruptured and unruptured aneurysms.

METHODS: Data from 2 large academic centers was retrospectively collected over 22 years, yielding a total of 93 patients with ONP secondary to PCoA aneurysms. These patients were combined with 321 patients from the literature review for large data analyses. Onset symptoms, recovery, and time to resolution were evaluated with respect to treatment and aneurysm rupture status.

RESULTS: For all patients presenting with ONP (n = 414) 56.6% of those treated with microsurgical clipping made a full recovery vs 41.5% of those treated with endovascular coil embolization (P = .02). Of patients with a complete ONP (n = 229), full recovery occurred in 47.3% of those treated with clipping but in only 20% of those undergoing coiling (P = .01). For patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms (n = 130), full recovery occurred in 70.9% compared with 49.3% coiled patients (P = .01). Additionally, although patients with full ONP recovery had a median time to treatment of 4 days, those without full ONP recovery had a median time to treatment of 7 days (P = .01).

CONCLUSION: Patients with ONP secondary to PCoA aneurysms treated with clipping showed higher rates of full ONP resolution than patients treated with coil embolization. Larger prospective studies are needed to determine the true potential of recovery associated with each treatment.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain


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