Neurosurgery 71:1089–1095, 2012
Accurate localization of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is critical to the success of deep brain stimulation surgery for Parkinson disease. Recent developments in high-field-strength magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have made it possible to visualize the STN in greater detail. However, the relationship of the MR-visualized STN to the anatomic, electrophysiological, or atlas-predicted STN remains controversial.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the size of the STN visualized on 3-T MRI compared with anatomic measurements in cadaver studies and to compare the predictions of 3-T MRI and those of the Schaltenbrand-Wahren (SW) atlas for intraoperative STN microelectrode recordings.
METHODS: We evaluated the STN by 3-T MRI and intraoperative microelectrode recordings in 20 Parkinson disease patients undergoing deep brain stimulation surgery. We compared our findings with anatomic cadaver studies and with the individually scaled SW atlas-based predictions for each patient.
RESULTS: The dimensions of the 3-T MR-visualized STN were very similar to those of the largest anatomic study (MRI length, width, and height: 9.8 6 1.6, 11.5 6 1.6, and 3.7 6 0.7 mm, respectively; n = 40; cadaver length, width, and height: 9.3 6 0.7, 10.6 6 0.9, and 3.1 6 0.5 mm, respectively; n = 100). The amount of STN traversed during intraoperative microelectrode recordings was better correlated to the 3-T MR-visualized STN than the SW atlas-predicted STN (R = 0.38 vs R = 20.17).
CONCLUSION: The STN as visualized on 3-T MRI corresponds well with cadaveric anatomic studies and intraoperative electrophysiology. STN visualization with 3-T MRI may be an improvement over SW atlas-based localization for STN deep brain stimulation surgery in Parkinson disease.
Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:2063–2068
The impact of brain shift on deep brain stimulation surgery is considerable. In DBS surgery, brain shift is mainly caused by CSF loss. CSF loss can be estimated by post-surgical intracranial air. Different approaches and techniques exist to minimize CSF loss and hence brain shift. The aim of this survey was to investigate the extent and dynamics of CSF loss during DBS surgery, analyze its impact on final electrode position, and describe a simple and inexpensive method of burr hole closure.
Methods Sixty-six patients being treated with deep brain stimulation were retrospectively analyzed for this treatise. During surgery, CSF loss was minimized using bone wax as a burr hole closure. Intracranial air volume was calculated based on early post-surgery stereotactic 3D CT and correlated with duration of surgery and electrode deviations derived from post-surgery image fusion.
Results Median early post-surgery intracranial air was 2.1 cm3 (range 0–35.7 cm3, SD 8.53 cm3). No correlation was found between duration of surgery and CSF-loss (R0 0.078, p00.534), indicating that CSF loss mainly occurs early during surgery. Linear regression analysis revealed no significant correlations regarding volume of intracranial air and electrode displacement in any of the three principal axes. No significant difference regarding electrode deviations between first and second side of surgery were observed.
Conclusions CSF loss mainly occurs during the early phase of DBS surgery. CSF loss during a later phase of surgery can be effectively averted by burr hole closure. Postoperative intracranial air volumes up to 35 cm3 did not result in significant electrode displacement in our series. Comparing our results to studies previously published on this subject, burr hole closure using bone wax is highly effective.
J Neurosurg 117:955–961, 2012
The authors undertook this study to investigate the incidence, cause, and clinical influence of short circuits in patients treated with deep brain stimulation (DBS).
Methods. After the incidental identification of a short circuit during routine follow-up, the authors initiated a policy at their institution of routinely evaluating both therapeutic impedance and system impendence at every outpatient DBS follow-up visit, irrespective of the presence of symptoms suggesting possible system malfunction. This study represents a report of their findings after 1 year of this policy.
Results. Implanted DBS leads exhibiting short circuits were identified in 7 patients (8.9% of the patients seen for outpatient follow-up examinations during the 12-month study period). The mean duration from DBS lead implantation to the discovery of the short circuit was 64.7 months. The symptoms revealing short circuits included the wearing off of therapeutic effect, apraxia of eyelid opening, or dysarthria in 6 patients with Parkinson disease (PD), and dystonia deterioration in 1 patient with generalized dystonia. All DBS leads with short circuits had been anchored to the cranium using titanium miniplates. Altering electrode settings resulted in clinical improvement in the 2 PD cases in which patients had specific symptoms of short circuits (2.5%) but not in the other 4 cases. The patient with dystonia underwent repositioning and replacement of a lead because the previous lead was located too anteriorly, but did not experience symptom improvement.
Conclusions. In contrast to the sudden loss of clinical efficacy of DBS caused by an open circuit, short circuits may arise due to a gradual decrease in impedance, causing the insidious development of neurological symptoms via limited or extended potential fields as well as shortened battery longevity. The incidence of short circuits in DBS may be higher than previously thought, especially in cases in which DBS leads are anchored with miniplates. The circuit impedance of DBS should be routinely checked, even after a long history of DBS therapy, especially in cases of miniplate anchoring.
Neurosurgery 71:804–814, 2012
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson disease. However, DBS is not responsive to an individual’s disease state, and programming parameters, once established, do not change to reflect disease state. Local field potentials (LFPs) recorded from DBS electrodes are being investigated as potential biomarkers for the Parkinson disease state. However, no patient data exist about what happens to LFPs over the lifetime of the implant.
OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether LFP amplitude and response to limb movement differed between patients implanted acutely with subthalamic nucleus DBS electrodes and patients implanted 2 to 7 years previously.
METHODS: We recorded LFPs at DBS surgery time (9 subjects), 3 weeks after initial placement (9 subjects), and 2 to 7 years (median: 3.5) later during implanted programmable generator replacement (11 sides). LFP power-frequency spectra for each of 3 bipolar electrode derivations of adjacent contacts were calculated over 5-minute resting and 30-second movement epochs. Monopolar impedance data were used to evaluate trends over time.
RESULTS: There was no significant difference in b-band LFP amplitude between initial electrode implantation (OR) and 3-week post-OR times (P = .94). However, b-band amplitude was lower at implanted programmable generator replacement times than in OR (P = .008) and post-OR recordings (P = .039). Impedance measurements declined over time (P < .001).
CONCLUSION: Postoperative LFP activity can be recorded years after DBS implantation and demonstrates a similar profile in response to movement as during acute recordings, although amplitude may decrease. These results support the feasibility of constructing a closed-loop, patient-responsive DBS device based on LFP activity.
Neurosurgery 71:224–238, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31825972ab
Obesity is a growing health problem worldwide and is responsible for a significant proportion of health expenditures in developed nations. It is also notoriously difficult to treat. Prior attempts at pharmacological or neurological modulation, including deep brain stimulation, have primarily targeted homeostatic mechanisms of weight control centered in the hypothalamus. To date, these attempts have had limited success. Multiple lines of independent data suggest that dysregulated reward circuitry in the brain underlies behaviors leading to obesity.
Here, we review the existing data and related neurocircuitry, as well as the scope of obesity and currently available treatments. Finally, we suggest a neuromodulation strategy geared toward regulating these dysfunctional circuits, primarily by alteration of frontolimbic circuits.
Neurosurgery 70:840–846, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318236a809
The ventrolateral thalamus (ventral intermediate nucleus [Vim]) is the traditional target for neurosurgical treatment of essential tremor. The target, however, has varied substantially among different neurosurgeons.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of deep brain stimulation in the thalamus and posterior subthalamic area (PSA) in relation to electrode location.
METHODS: Thirty-six (17 Vim/19 PSA) patients with 44 deep brain stimulation electrodes were included in this retrospective study. The effect of stimulation was evaluated with standardized settings for each contact using items from the Essential Tremor Rating Scale.
RESULTS: When each contact was evaluated in terms of the treated hand with standardized stimulation, the electrode contact providing the best effect in the individual patient was located in the zona incerta or radiation prelemniscalis in 54% and the Vim in 12%. Forty contacts provided a tremor reduction of . 90%. Of these, 43% were located in the PSA and 18% in the Vim according to the Schaltenbrand atlas. Of these 40 contacts, 37 were found in the PSA group.
CONCLUSION: More contacts yielding an optimal effect were found in the PSA group than in the Vim. Many patients operated on in the Vim got the best effect from a contact located in the PSA. This might suggest that the PSA is a more efficient target than the Vim.
Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 1]:ons125–ons131, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318232fdac
Psychiatric and neuropsychological side effects of subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation have been increasingly recognized. Most programming regimens focus on contacts 0 and 1, whereas contact 3, which often is located near or in the zona incerta (ZI), is usually not used. The question of whether ZI stimulation may limit limbic effects has not been answered.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of short-term stimulation near or in the ZI (contact 3) compared with stimulation of the STN using standard trajectories and targeting as measured by limbic and motor functions.
METHODS: Motor and limbic functions of 11 patients with STN DBS were assessed with the Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale-3, structured gait video analysis, Visual Analog Scale mood scales, task testing of impulsivity, and facial recognition under routine STN programming and under stimulation in or near the ZI. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging confirmed the location of contact 3 near or in the ZI.
RESULTS: Data analysis with repeated-measures analysis of variance revealed that motor scores remained stable with both stimulation settings, with specific improvements in finger taps (P = .02) and rapid alternating movements (P = .03) in ZI stimulation. Stimulation near or in the ZI led to a decrease in self- reported anxiety and depression (P = .03 for both) and an improvement in fear recognition (P = .02).
CONCLUSION: We provide preliminary evidence that stimulation in or near the ZI results in maintained motor function while improving self-reported depression and anxiety in patients with bilateral STN DBS. Stimulation in or near the ZI may provide a useful programming setting for patients prone to psychiatric side effects.
J Neurosurg 116:315–322, 2012. DOI: 10.3171/2011.10.JNS102122
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been recently investigated as a treatment for major depression. One of the proposed targets for this application is the subcallosal cingulate gyrus (SCG). To date, promising results after SCG DBS have been reported by a single center. In the present study the authors investigated whether these findings may be replicated at different institutions. They conducted a 3-center prospective open-label trial of SCG DBS for 12 months in patients with treatment-resistant depression.
Methods. Twenty-one patients underwent implantation of bilateral SCG electrodes. The authors examined the reduction in Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HRSD-17) score from baseline (RESP50).
Results. Patients treated with SCG DBS had an RESP50 of 57% at 1 month, 48% at 6 months, and 29% at 12 months. The response rate after 12 months of DBS, however, increased to 62% when defined as a reduction in the baseline HRSD-17 of 40% or more. Reductions in depressive symptomatology were associated with amelioration in disease severity in patients who responded to surgery.
Conclusions. Overall, findings from this study corroborate the results of previous reports showing that outcome of SCG DBS may be replicated across centers.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:2337–2341. DOI 10.1007/s00701-011-1130-2
Device-related infection is a common occurrence after deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery, and may result in additional interventions and a loss of efficacy of therapy. This retrospective review aimed to evaluate the incidence, severity and management of device-related infections in 212 DBS procedures performed in our institute.
Methods Data on 106 patients, in whom 212 DBS procedures were performed between 2001 and 2011 at our institute by a single neurosurgeon (M.P.), were reviewed to assess the incidence, severity, management and clinical characteristics of infections in the first year after the implantation of a DBS system.
Results Infections occurred in 8.5% of patients and 4.2% of procedures. Of the nine infections, eight involved the neurostimulator and extensions, and one the whole system. The infections occurred 30.7 days after implantation: 7 within 30 days and 2 within 6 months. Infected and uninfected patients were comparable in terms of age, sex, indication for DBS implantation and neurostimulator location. In eight cases, the system components involved were removed and re-implanted after 3 months, while in one case the complete hardware was removed and not re-implanted.
Conclusion The overall incidence of postoperative infections after DBS system implantation was 4.2%; this rate decreased over time. All infections required further surgery. Correct and timely management of partial infections may result in successful salvage of part of the system.
Neurosurgery 69:1299–1306, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31822b7069
Introduction of the portable intraoperative CT scanner provides for a precise and cost-effective way of fusing head CT images with high-tesla MRI for the exquisite definition of soft tissue needed for stereotactic targeting.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the accuracy of stereotactic electrode placement in patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) by comparing frame-based postimplantation intraoperative CT (iCT) images fused to a recent 3T-MRI with frame-based postimplantation intraoperative MRI (iMRI) alone.
METHODS: Frame-based DBS surgeries of 46 targets performed from February 8, 2007 to April 28, 2008 in 26 patients with the use of immediate postimplantation iMRI for target localization were compared with frame-based immediate postimplantation iCT fused with a recent 3T brain MRI for DBS localization of 50 targets performed from August 13, 2008 to February 18, 2010 in 26 patients. Pre- and postoperative mid anterior commissure-posterior commissure line coordinates and XYZ coordinates for preoperatively calculated DBS targets (intended target) and for the permanent DBS lead tips were determined. The differences between preoperative DBS target and postoperative permanent DBS lead-tip coordinates based on postimplantation intraoperative MRI for the MRI-alone group and based on postimplantation intraoperative CT fused to recent preoperative MRI in the CTMRI group were measured. The t test and Yuen test were used for comparison.
RESULTS: No statistically significant differences were found between the 2 groups when comparing the pre- and postperative changes in mid anterior commissure-posterior commissure line coordinates and XYZ coordinates.
CONCLUSION: Postimplantation DBS lead localization and therefore targeting accuracy was not significantly different between frame-based stereotactic 1.5T-MRI and framebased stereotactic head CT fused with recent 3T-MRI.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:2307–2318. DOI 10.1007/s00701-011-1081-7
The aim of our study was to evaluate discrepancies between the electrophysiologically and MRI-defined subthalamic nucleus (STN) in order to contribute to the ongoing debate of whether or not microelectrode recording (MER) provides additional information to imageguided targeting in deep brain stimulation.
Methods: Forty-four STNs in 22 patients with Parkinson’s disease were investigated. The three-dimensional MRI-defined STN was derived from segmentations of axial and coronal T2-weighted images. The electrophysiological STNs were generated from intraoperative MERs in 1,487 locations. The stereotactical coordinates of positive and negative STN recordings were re-imported to the planning software, where a three-dimensional reconstruction of the electrophysiological STN was performed and fused to the MRI data set. The estimated borders of the MRI- and MERSTN were compared. For statistical analysis Student’s t, Mann-Whitney rank sum and Fisher’s exact tests were used.
Results: MER-STN volumes, which were found outside the MRI-STN, ranged from 0 mm3 to 87 mm3 (mean: 45 mm3). A mean of 44% of the MER-STN volumes exceeded the MRI-STN (maximum: 85.1%; minimum: 15.1 %); 53.4% (n=793) of the microelectrode recordings were concordant and 46.6% (n=694) discordant with the MRI-defined anatomical STN. Regarding the dorsal borders, we found discrepancies between the MER- and MRI-STN of 0.27 mm (= mean; SD: 0.51 mm) on the first operated side and 1.51 mm (SD: 1.5 mm) on the second (p=0.010, t-test).
Conclusions: MER provides additional information to highresolution anatomical MR images and may help to detect the amount and direction of brain shift.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:2293–2306. DOI 10.1007/s00701-011-1166-3
The indications for deep brain stimulation (DBS) are expanding, and the feasibility and efficacy of this surgical procedure in various neurologic and neuropsychiatric disorders continue to be tested.
This review attempts to provide background and rationale for applying this therapeutic option to obesity and addiction. We review neural targets currently under clinical investigation for DBS—the hypothalamus and nucleus accumbens—in conditions such as cluster headache and obsessive-compulsive disorder. These brain regions have also been strongly implicated in obesity and addiction. These disorders are frequently refractory, with very high rates of weight regain or relapse, respectively, despite the best available treatments.
Methods We performed a structured literature review of the animal studies of DBS, which revealed attenuation of food intake, increased metabolism, or decreased drug seeking. We also review the available radiologic evidence in humans, implicating the hypothalamus and nucleus in obesity and addiction.
Results The available evidence of the promise of DBS in these conditions combined with significant medical need, support pursuing pilot studies and clinical trials of DBS in order to decrease the risk of dietary and drug relapse.
Conclusions Well-designed pilot studies and clinical trials enrolling carefully selected patients with obesity or addiction should be initiated.
Neurosurgery 69:1124–1130, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182296a42
The ventralis intermedius (VIM) nucleus of the thalamus is the primary surgical target for treatment of tremor. Most centers rely on indirect targeting based on atlas-defined coordinates rather than patient-specific anatomy, making intraoperative physiological mapping critical. Detailed identification of this target based on patientspecific anatomic features can help optimize the surgical treatment of tremor.
OBJECTIVE: To study colored fractional anisotropic images and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography to identify characteristic magnetic resonance appearances of the VIM nucleus.
METHODS: Four patients undergoing stereotactic surgery for essential tremor (ET) were retrospectively studied with analysis of magnetic resonance imaging-based colored fractional anisotropy (FA) images and fiber tractography. All were scanned with a 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging unit, and all sequences were obtained before frame placement. Because the goal of this study was to identify the DTI characteristics of physiologically defined VIM nucleus, we selected and studied patients who had undergone DTI and had efficacious tremor control with intraoperative microlesioning effect and tremor reduction with less than 2.0-V stimulation.
RESULTS: Analysis of color FA maps, which graphically illustrate fiber directionality, revealed consistent anatomic patterns. The region of the VIM nucleus can be seen as an intermediate region where there is a characteristic transition of color. Presumptive VIM nucleus interconnectivity with sensorimotor cortex and cerebellum was identified via the internal capsule and the superior cerebellar peduncle, respectively. FA maps could also be used to distinguish segments of gray matter, white matter, and gray-white matter boundaries.
CONCLUSION: Analysis of DTI and FA maps on widely available 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging yields clear identification of various structures key to neurosurgical targeting. Prospective evaluation of integrating DTI into neurosurgical planning may be warranted.
J Neurosurg 115:852–857, 2011.DOI: 10.3171/2011.5.JNS101457
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an established neurosurgical technique used to treat a variety of neurological disorders, including Parkinson disease, essential tremor, dystonia, epilepsy, depression, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. This study reports on the use of intraoperative MR imaging during DBS surgery to evaluate acute hemorrhage, intracranial air, brain shift, and accuracy of lead placement.
Methods. During a 46-month period, 143 patients underwent 152 DBS surgeries including 289 lead placements utilizing intraoperative 1.5-T MR imaging. Imaging was supervised by an MR imaging physicist to maintain the specific absorption rate below the required level of 0.1 W/kg and always included T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo and T2* gradient echo sequences with selected use of T2 fluid attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) and T2 fast spin echo (FSE). Retrospective review of the intraoperative MR imaging examinations was performed to quantify the amount of hemorrhage and the amount of air introduced during the DBS surgery.
Results. Intraoperative MR imaging revealed 5 subdural hematomas, 3 subarachnoid hemorrhages, and 1 intraparenchymal hemorrhage in 9 of the 143 patients. Only 1 patient experiencing a subarachnoid hemorrhage developed clinically apparent symptoms, which included transient severe headache and mild confusion. Brain shift due to intracranial air was identified in 144 separate instances.
Conclusions. Intraoperative MR imaging can be safely performed and may assist in demonstrating acute changes involving intracranial hemorrhage and air during DBS surgery. These findings are rarely clinically significant and typically resolve prior to follow-up imaging. Selective use of T2 FLAIR and T2 FSE imaging can confirm the presence of hemorrhage or air and preclude the need for CT examinations
J Neurosurg 115:301–309, 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2011.3.JNS101642
Correct lead location in the desired target has been proven to be a strong influential factor for good clinical outcome in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. Commonly, a surgeon’s first reliable assessment of such location is made on postoperative imaging. While intraoperative CT (iCT) and intraoperative MR imaging have been previously described, the authors present a series of frameless DBS procedures using O-arm iCT.
Methods. Twelve consecutive patients with 15 leads underwent frameless DBS placement using electrophysiological testing and O-arm iCT. Initial target coordinates were made using standard indirect and direct assessment. Microelectrode recording (MER) with kinesthetic responses was performed, followed by microstimulation to evaluate the side-effect profile. Intraoperative 3D CT acquisitions obtained between each MER pass and after final lead placement were fused with the preoperative MR image to verify intended MER movements around the target area and to identify the final lead location. Tip coordinates from the initial plan, final intended target, and actual lead location on iCT were later compared with the lead location on postoperative MR imaging, and euclidean distances were calculated. The amount of radiation exposure during each procedure was calculated and compared with the estimated radiation exposure if iCT was not performed.
Results. The mean euclidean distances between the coordinates for the initial plan, final intended target, and actual lead on iCT compared with the lead coordinates on postoperative MR imaging were 3.04 ± 1.45 mm (p = 0.0001), 2.62 ± 1.50 mm (p = 0.0001), and 1.52 ± 1.78 mm (p = 0.0052), respectively. The authors obtained good merging error during image fusion, and postoperative brain shift was minimal. The actual radiation exposure from iCT was invariably less than estimates of exposure using standard lateral fluoroscopy and anteroposterior radiographs (p < 0.0001).
Conclusions. O-arm iCT may be useful in frameless DBS surgery to approximate microelectrode or lead locations intraoperatively. Intraoperative CT, however, may not replace fundamental DBS surgical techniques such as electrophysiological testing in movement disorder surgery. Despite the lack of evidence for brain shift from the procedure, iCT-measured coordinates were statistically different from those obtained postoperatively, probably indicating image merging inaccuracy and the difficulties in accurately denoting lead location. Therefore, electrophysiological testing may truly be the only means of precisely knowing the location in 3D space intraoperatively. While iCT may provide clues to electrode or lead location during the procedure, its true utility may be in DBS procedures targeting areas where electrophysiology is less useful. The use of iCT appears to reduce radiation exposure compared with the authors’ traditional frameless technique.
Neurosurgery 69:294–300, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318214abda
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) at the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for the motor manifestations of advanced medically refractory Parkinson disease. Because of the medial location of the target, surgical trajectories to the STN may violate the ipsilateral lateral ventricle.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether violating the ventricle during STN DBS surgery is associated with postoperative confusion.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all STN implantation procedures for Parkinson disease performed by 1 surgeon between January 2005 and September 2008 was performed. Postoperative magnetic resonance imaging was performed in all cases, and each scan was reviewed for evidence of ventricular wall violation. All charts were reviewed for postoperative confusion and/or increased length of hospital stay.
RESULTS: A total of 145 leads were implanted in 81 patients over 102 admissions. Fortythree patients underwent contemporaneous bilateral lead implantation; 23 underwent unilateral implantation; and 18 underwent staged bilateral implantation. The cases of 8 patients were complicated by postoperative confusion and increased length of stay. Sixteen magnetic resonance imaging scans demonstrated evidence of ventricular wall violation including all 8 patients with postoperative confusion. The relative risk of having postoperative confusion after traversing the ventricle is 87 (P , .001).
CONCLUSION: Violating the ventricular system during STN DBS surgery correlated significantly with postoperative altered mental status and subsequent increased length of hospital stay. This finding may explain why cognitive complications are observed more frequently in Parkinson disease patients undergoing DBS at the STN compared with the internal globus pallidus.
Neurosurgery 69:207–214, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318218c7ae
Knowledge of the anatomic location of the deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode in the brain is essential in quality control and judicious selection of stimulation parameters. Postoperative computed tomography (CT) imaging coregistered with preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is commonly used to document the electrode location safely. The accuracy of this method, however, depends on many factors, including the quality of the source images, the area of signal artifact created by the DBS lead, and the fusion algorithm.
OBJECTIVE: To calculate the accuracy of determining the location of active contacts of the DBS electrode by coregistering postoperative CT image to intraoperative MRI.
METHODS: Intraoperative MRI with a surrogate marker (carbothane stylette) was digitally coregistered with postoperative CT with DBS electrodes in 8 consecutive patients. The location of the active contact of the DBS electrode was calculated in the stereotactic frame space, and the discrepancy between the 2 images was assessed.
RESULTS: The carbothane stylette significantly reduces the signal void on the MRI to a mean diameter of 1.4 6 0.1 mm. The discrepancy between the CT and MRI coregistration in assessing the active contact location of the DBS lead is 1.6 6 0.2 mm, P < .001 with iPlan (BrainLab AG, Erlangen, Germany) and 1.5 6 0.2 mm, P < .001 with Framelink (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) software.
CONCLUSION: CT/MRI coregistration is an acceptable method of identifying the anatomic location of DBS electrode and active contacts.
Neurosurgery 68:E1501–E1505, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318210c859
Camptocormia is characterized by abnormal flexion of the thoracolumbar spine that increases during upright posture and abates in the recumbent position and has been reported to occur in patients with Parkinson disease. Camptocormia causes significant spinal and abdominal pain, impairment of balance, and social stigma.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: A 57-year-old woman with Parkinson disease developed severe camptocormia, which did not improve with trials of antiparkinsonian and muscle relaxant medications. The patient was successfully treated with bilateral globus pallidus interna deep brain stimulation surgery under general anesthesia. High-frequency neuromodulation afforded relief of camptocormia and improvement in Parkinson disease symptoms.
CONCLUSION: Camptocormia in Parkinson disease may represent a form of dystonia and can be treated effectively with chronic pallidal neuromodulation.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:1087–1095 DOI 10.1007/s00701-011-0953-1
Microelectrode recording (MER) is widely used during deep brain stimulation (DBS) procedures because MER can identify structural borders and eloquent structures, localize somatotopic arrangements, and provide an outline of the three-dimensional shapes of target nuclei. However, MER may cause intracranial hemorrhage. We performed single track MER during DBS procedures, analyzed the accuracy of electrode positioning with MRI, and compared the amount of air and the potential risk of intracranial hemorrhage.
Method A total of 46 electrodes were placed in 23 patients who suffered from advanced Parkinson’s disease and who underwent bilateral subthalamic nucleus DBS using single track MER. Each patient’s Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) score and levo-dopa equivalent dosage (LED) were estimated pre- and postoperatively. The accuracy of electrode positioning and fontal air thickness was measured by a pre- or postoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) merging technique.
Findings The mean electrode positioning error was 0.92 mm (0.3–2.94 mm). The mean frontal air thickness on postoperative MRI was 3.85 mm (0–10.3 mm), which did not affect the electrode accuracy statistically (p=0.730). A total of nine electrodes required repositioning after single-track MER because they affected microstimulation or because an abnormally short STN length was observed during MER. In this series, one patient suffered from an intracranial hemorrhage after surgery that appeared to be due to venous infarction rather than related to MER.
Conclusions Although MER can facilitate accurate positioning of electrodes, multi-track MER may increase the risk of intracranial hemorrhage. The accuracy of electrode positioning appears to be acceptable under single track MER during STN DBS with careful electrophysiological and neurological monitoring. The risk of intracranial hemorrhage appears to be minimal, especially in elderly patients with atrophic brains.
Neurosurgery 68:1069–1076, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31820a1a20
Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proven to alleviate tremor of various origins. Distinct regions have been targeted. One explanation for good clinical tremor control might be the involvement of the dentatorubrothalamic tract (DRT) as has been suggested in superficial (thalamic) and inferior (posterior subthalamic) target regions. Beyond a correlation with atlas data and the postmortem evaluation of patients treated with lesion surgery, proof for the involvement of DRT in tremor reduction in the living, the scope of this work, is elusive.
OBJECTIVE: To report a case of unilateral refractory tremor in tremor-dominant Parkinson disease treated with thalamic DBS.
METHODS: Preoperative diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was performed. Correlation with individual DBS electrode contact locations was obtained through postoperative fusion of helical computed tomography (CT) data with DTI fiber tracking.
RESULTS: Tremor was alleviated effectively. An evaluation of the active electrode contact position revealed clear involvement of the DRT in tremor control. A closer evaluation of clinical effects and side effects revealed a highly detailed individual fiber map of the subthalamic region with DTI fiber tracking.
CONCLUSION: This is the first time the involvement of the DRT in tremor reduction through DBS has been shown in the living. The combination of DTI with postoperative CT and the evaluation of the electrophysiological environment of distinct electrode contacts led to an individual detailed fiber map and might be extrapolated to refined DTI-based targeting strategies in the future. Data acquisition for a larger study group is the topic of our ongoing research.