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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Long-term Outcomes of Patients With Giant Intracranial Arteriovenous Malformations

giant AVM

Neurosurgery 79:116–124, 2016

Giant intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare cerebrovascular lesions that pose management challenges.

OBJECTIVE: To further clarify outcomes in patients with giant cerebral AVMs managed with conservative or interventional therapies.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective review of all patients diagnosed with AVMs evaluated at our institution from 1990 to 2013. Patients with a single intracranial AVM .6 cm were included. Patients were divided into 2 groups: conservative management or intervention (microsurgery, radiosurgery, or embolization). Functional outcome was assessed with the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) and compared between the 2 groups.

RESULTS: A total of 55 patients with giant AVMs were included, and 35 patients (63.6%) had clinical follow-up with a mean of 11.8 years. Spetzler-Martin grades were as follows: grade III, n = 2 (3.6%); grade IV, n = 15 (27.3%); and grade V, n = 38 (69.1%). Twenty-four patients (43.6%) were conservatively managed. The patients in the conservatively managed group had larger AVMs (P , .05) with more frequent involvement of the temporal lobe (P = .02). Five patients (26.3%) in the conservatively managed group and 5 (31.3%) in the intervention group experienced hemorrhage during follow-up, translating to an annualized risk of 2.7% and 4.1%, respectively. No significant difference in risk of first subsequent hemorrhage was observed (P = .78). Despite comparable mRS scores at presentation, we observed a trend toward better outcomes (mRS , 2) in patients undergoing conservative management (P = .06) compared with the intervention group at last follow-up.

CONCLUSION: This study suggests that interventions for giant AVMs should be considered cautiously because hemorrhagic risk is similar regardless of management strategy and functional outcome is likely to be same or better in the conservatively managed population.

Extracranial-Intracranial Bypass and Vessel Occlusion for the Treatment of Unclippable Giant Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

Extracranial_Intracranial_Bypass_and_Vessel

Neurosurgery 72:428–436, 2013

Giant middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms pose management challenges.

OBJECTIVE: To review the outcomes of patients with giant MCA aneurysms not amenable to clipping or vessel reconstruction treated with extracranial-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass and vessel sacrifice.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a database of aneurysms treated at our institution between 1983 and 2011.

RESULTS: Sixteen patients (11 males, 5 females) were identified. There were 10 saccular, 4 fusiform, and 2 serpentine aneurysms. The aneurysms predominantly involved the M1 segment in 5 cases, M2 in 9 cases, and both M1 and M2 in 2 cases. The EC-IC bypasses performed included 13 superficial temporal artery-MCA, 1 saphenous vein graft-MCA, and 2 radial artery grafts-MCA. The postoperative bypass patency rate was 93.8% (15/16). There were 3 cerebrovascular accidents (18.8%), but no perioperative deaths (0% mortality). The mean follow-up was 58.4 months (range, 1-265; median, 23.5 months). In 75% (12/16) of cases the aneurysms were occluded successfully. A small residual was noted in 3 cases with the use of this treatment strategy, and they were re-treated. In a fourth case treated with partial distal occlusion, reduced flow through the aneurysm was noted postoperatively, but the patient did not undergo further treatment. The mean modified Rankin scale and mean Glasgow Outcome Scale scores at last follow-up were 1.6 (range, 1-4; median, 1) and 4.8 (range, 3-5; median, 5), respectively.

CONCLUSION: Giant MCA aneurysms are challenging lesions. EC-IC bypass with parent vessel occlusion can provide a durable form of treatment with acceptable rates of morbidity and mortality.

Surgical Management of Giant Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 71[ONS Suppl 1]:ons43–ons51, 2012

Giant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (> 25 mm) are rare lesions associated with a poor prognosis and high rates of morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical results of giant PCoA aneurysms surgically treated at our institution, focusing on operative nuances.

METHODS: All cases of giant PCoA aneurysms treated surgically at our institution were identified from a prospectively maintained patient database. Patient demographic factors, medical comorbidities, rupture status, neurological presentation, clinical outcomes, and surgical records were critically reviewed.

RESULTS: From 1989 to 2010, 11 patients (10 women) underwent surgical clipping of giant PCoA aneurysms. Presenting signs and symptoms included cranial nerve palsies, diminished mental status, headache, visual changes, and seizures. Five aneurysms were ruptured on admission. All aneurysms were clipped primarily except 1, which was treated by parent artery sacrifice and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass after intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 36% (4 of 11) and 18.3% (2 of 11), respectively. Excellent or good clinical outcomes, defined as modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2, were achieved in 86% (5 of 6) of patients available for long-term clinical follow-up (mean, 12.5 ± 13.6 months).

CONCLUSION: Giant PCoA aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that may present with a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. These lesions can be successfully managed surgically with satisfactory morbidity and mortality rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest surgical series of giant PCoA aneurysms published to date.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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