Neurosurgery Blog


Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Intracranial Aneurysm Parameters for Predicting a Future Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

Neurosurgery 81:432–440, 2017

Retrospective studies have suggested that aneurysm morphology is a risk factor for subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether various morphological indices of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) predict a future rupture.

METHODS: A total of 142 patients with UIAs diagnosed between 1956 and 1978 were followed prospectively until SAH, death, or the last contact. Morphological UIA indices from standard angiographic projections weremeasured at baseline and adjusted inmultivariable Cox proportional hazards regression analyses for established risk factors for SAH.

RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3064 person-years, 34 patients suffered froman aneurysm rupture. In multivariable analyses, aneurysm volume, volume-to-ostium area ratio, and the bottleneck factor separately as continuous variables predicted aneurysm rupture. All the morphological indices were higher (P < .01) after the rupture than before. In final multivariable analyses, current smoking (adjusted hazard ratio 2.50, 95% CI 1.03-6.10, P = .044), location in the anterior communicating artery (4.28, 1.38-13.28, P=.012), age (inversely; 0.95 per year, 0.91-1.00, P = .043), and UIA diameter ≥7 mm at baseline (2.68, 1.16-6.21, P = .021) were independent risk factors for a future rupture. Aneurysm growth during the followup was associated with smoking (P < .05) and SAH (P < .001), but not with the aneurysm indices.

CONCLUSION: Of the morphological indices, UIA volume seems to predict a future rupture. However, as volume correlates with the maximum diameter of the aneurysm, it seems to add little to the predictive value of the maximum diameter. Retrospective studies using indices that are measured after rupture are of little value in risk prediction.


Complication-Effectiveness Analysis for Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery

Aneurysm surgery

Neurosurgery 78:648–659, 2016

The aim of intervention for unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIAs) is safe, effective treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze a prospective database for variables influencing the risk of surgery to produce a risk model adjusting this risk for effectively treated aneurysms.

METHODS: First, we identified variables to create a model from multiple logistic regression for complications of surgery leading to a 12-month modified Rankin Scale score .1. Second, we established the long-term cumulative incidence of freedom from retreatment or rupture (treated aneurysm) from Kaplan-Meier analysis. Third, we combined these analyses to establish a model of risk of surgery per effective treatment.

RESULTS: One thousand twelve patients with 1440 UIA underwent 1080 craniotomies. We found that 10.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 8.4-12.0) of craniotomies resulted in a complication leading to a modified Rankin Scale score .1 at 12 months. Logistic regression found age (odds ratio, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.02-1.06), size (odds ratio, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.09-1.15), and posterior circulation location (odds ratio, 2.95; 95% CI, 1.82-4.78) to be significant. Cumulative 10-year risk of retreatment or rupture was 3.0% (95% CI, 1.3-7.0). The complication-effectiveness model was derived by dividing the complication risk by the 10-year cumulative freedom from retreatment or rupture proportion. Risk per effective treatment ranged from 1% for a 5-mm anterior circulation UIA in a 20-year-old patient to 70% for a giant posterior circulation UIA in a 70-year-old patient.

CONCLUSION: Complication-effectiveness analyses increase the information available with regard to outcome for the management of UIAs.

Ideal clipping methods for unruptured middle cerebral artery bifurcation aneurysms based on aneurysmal neck classification

MCAb aneurysms clipping

Neurosurg Rev (2016) 39:215–224

Endovascular coiling is widely used for many cerebral aneurysms; however, in cases of middle cerebral artery bifurcation (MCBIF) aneurysms, it is associated with a higher incidence of unfavorable outcomes compared to microsurgical clippings. In this retrospective study, we aimed to investigate the outcomes of microsurgical clipping for unruptured MCBIF aneurysms and determine the ideal clipping methods for different aneurysm subtypes.

From January 2011 to December 2013, 203 aneurysms with saccular shape (<25 mm) were treated by an experienced neurosurgeon. Depending on the involvement of the aneurysmal thin wall, the aneurysm neck was classified as follows: subtype I, limited bifurcation; subtype II, progressed to M1 trunk; subtype III, progressed to M2 trunk; subtype IV, progressed to M1 and one M2 trunk; and subtype V, progressed to M1 and two M2 trunks. The clipping methods included simple, sliding, interlocking, or mixed approaches.

Aneurysm clippings were accomplished without any morbidity in all cases, and seven cases had a minimal neck remnant. The following clipping methods were predominantly used: subtype I, simple (90.2 %) and sliding (8.8 %) (mean = 1.2 clips); subtype II, interlocking (51.4 %), sliding (30.0 %), mixed (15.7 %), and simple (2.9 %) (2.4 clips); subtype III, simple (57.5 %) and sliding (42.5 %) (1.5 clips); subtype IV, interlocking (64.3 %) (2.1 clips), simple (10.7 %), sliding (14.3 %), and mixed (10.7 %); and subtype V, interlocking (50.0 %), sliding (35.7 %), and mixed (14.3 %) methods with multiple clips (2.8 clips).

If an appropriate clipping method is selected according to the neck classification, satisfactory surgical obliteration can be achieved for unruptured MCBIF aneurysms without morbidity.

Height of aneurysm neck and estimated extent of brain retraction: powerful predictors of olfactory dysfunction after surgery for unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms

Height of aneurysm neck and estimated extent of brain retraction- powerful predictors of olfactory dysfunction after surgery for unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms

J Neurosurg 124:720–725, 2016

The highest incidence of olfactory dysfunction following a pterional approach and its modifications for an intracranial aneurysm has been reported in cases of anterior communicating artery (ACoA) aneurysms. The radiological characteristics of unruptured ACoA aneurysms affecting the extent of retraction of the frontal lobe and olfactory nerve were investigated as risk factors for postoperative olfactory dysfunction.

Methods A total of 102 patients who underwent a pterional or superciliary keyhole approach to clip an unruptured ACoA aneurysm from 2006 to 2013 were included in this study. Those patients who complained of permanent olfactory dysfunction after their aneurysm surgery, during a postoperative office visit or a telephone interview, were invited to undergo an olfactory test, the Korean version of the Sniffin’ Sticks test. In addition, the angiographic characteristics of ACoA aneurysms, including the maximum diameter, the projecting direction of the aneurysm, and the height of the neck of the aneurysm, were all recorded based on digital subtraction angiography and sagittal brain images reconstructed using CT angiography. Furthermore, the extent of the brain retraction was estimated based on the height of the ACoA aneurysm neck.

Results Eleven patients (10.8%) exhibited objective olfactory dysfunction in the Sniffin’ Sticks test, among whom 9 were anosmic and 2 were hyposmic. Univariate and multivariate analyses revealed that the direction of the ACoA aneurysm, ACoA aneurysm neck height, and estimated extent of brain retraction were statistically significant risk factors for postoperative olfactory dysfunction. Based on a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, an ACoA aneurysm neck height > 9 mm and estimated brain retraction > 12 mm were chosen as the optimal cutoff values for differentiating anosmic/hyposmic from normosmic patients. The values for the area under the ROC curves were 0.939 and 0.961, respectively.

Conclusions In cases of unruptured ACoA aneurysm surgery, the height of the aneurysm neck and the estimated extent of brain retraction were both found to be powerful predictors of the occurrence of postoperative olfactory dysfunction.

Surgical Clipping of Very Small Unruptured Intracranial Aneurysms

very small aneurysms

Neurosurgery 78:47–52, 2016

Treatment of very small unruptured intracranial aneurysms (VSUIAs, defined as ≤3 mm) can be indicated in selected circumstances. The feasibility and outcomes of endovascular therapy for VSUIAs have been recently published; however, the efficacy and complication rate of surgical clipping has not been reported in any large series to date.

OBJECTIVE: We conducted a multicenter study to examine surgical outcomes for VSUIAs.

METHODS: All consecutive patients undergoing surgery for a VSUIA in 4 neurosurgical centers between October 2001 and December 2012 were retrospectively analyzed.

RESULTS: In the study, 183 patients (128 women, mean age 51.3 years) were treated with 190 procedures for a total of 228 aneurysms. Most were anterior circulation aneurysms (n = 215). The majority were directly clipped (n = 222, 97.4%), with coagulation or wrapping in the remainder. After 1 reoperation for incomplete clipping, postoperative imaging of 225 aneurysms confirmed complete occlusion in 221 (98.2%), 1 neck remnant (0.44%), and 3 partial occlusions (1.3%). Mortality was 0%. Early postoperative neurological deficit developed in 12 patients (6.6%); posterior circulation location was a significant risk factor for early neurological deficit (P < .001). Middle cerebral artery aneurysms had the lowest rate of postoperative deficits at 1.5% (P = .023). After the initial 30-day perioperative period, all deficits related to treatment of posterior circulation aneurysms recovered; overall neurological morbidity decreased to 2.7% with no mortality.

CONCLUSION: VSUIA clipping is highly effective and is associated with a low morbidity rate. For VSUIAs selected for treatment, our data support surgical clipping as the modality of choice.


Application of intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring during giant internal carotid artery aneurysm surgery using prolonged temporary occlusion

Application of intraoperative motor evoked potential monitoring during giant internal carotid artery aneurysm surgery using prolonged temporary occlusion

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:1833–1840

Clipping and bypass surgery are common therapeutic options for the management of giant internal carotid artery (ICA) aneurysms. However, potential ischemic risks may be exaggerated by prolonged temporary occlusion (PTO) during the surgery. Monitoring motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) is a sensitive technique for detecting potential ischemia intraoperatively. This preliminary study was designed to evaluate the effectiveness of applying MEP monitoring during giant ICA aneurysm surgery using PTO.

Methods From July 2009 to July 2012, 11 patients with giant ICA aneurysms who could not pass the preoperative hemodynamic evaluations were enrolled in this study. MEP monitoring was utilized intraoperatively in all cases. Clipping was performed if there were no significant MEP changes under PTO. A variant extracranial-to-intracranial (EC-IC) bypass was performed if there was reproducible loss of MEP signals after PTO or unclippable anatomic features.

Results Five patients underwent clipping alone and six underwent bypass. There were no significant differences in baseline clinical data between the two groups. The overall percentage of patients with good outcomes (Glasgow Outcome Score≥4) improved from 72.7 % (8/11) postoperatively to 90.9 % (10/11) after 26.0±9.5 months of follow-up. There were no significant differences between the clipping and bypass groups regarding short- and long-term outcomes (p=0.545 and p=1.000).

Conclusions MEP monitoring is useful for evaluating the safety of PTO, surgical strategy, and outcomes of giant ICA aneurysm surgery. Direct clipping during safe PTO under intraoperative MEP monitoring is applicable for giant ICA aneurysms. Its use achieved favorable outcomes by indicating the need for bypass surgery.

Cost Comparison of Surgical and Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Giant Intracranial Aneurysms

Virtual planning of different possible approaches for the surgical treatment of a giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm

Neurosurgery 77:733–743, 2015

Giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs), which are defined as intracranial aneurysms (IAs) with a diameter of $25 mm, are most likely associated with the highest treatment costs of all IAs. However, the treatment costs of unruptured GIAs have so far not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine direct costs of endovascular and surgical treatment of unruptured GIAs.

METHODS: We retrospectively examined 55 patients with unruptured GIAs treated surgically (37 patients) or endovascularly (18 patients) between April 2004 and March 2014. We analyzed the costs of all hospital stays, interventions, and imaging with a median follow-up of 46 months.

RESULTS: There was no difference in the costs of hospital stay between surgical and endovascular treatment groups ($10 565 vs $14 992; P = .37). Imaging costs were significantly higher in the surgical group than in the endovascular treatment group ($2890 vs $1612; P < .01), as were the costs of the intervention room and personnel involved in the intervention ($5566 vs $1520; P < .01). Implants used per patient were more expensive in the endovascular group than in the surgical treatment group ($20885 vs $167). The total direct treatment costs were higher in the endovascular group ($52325) than in the surgical treatment group ($20619; P < .01). Treatment costs were associated with the type of treatment and GIA location but not with patient age, sex, or GIA size.

CONCLUSION: Endovascular GIA treatment produced higher direct costs than surgical GIA treatment mainly due to higher implant costs. Reducing endovascular implant costs may be the most effective tool to decrease direct costs of GIA treatment.

The Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial: 6-year results

Aneurysm surgery

J Neurosurg 123:609–617, 2015

The authors report the 6-year results of the Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT). This ongoing randomized trial, with the final goal of a 10-year follow-up, compares the safety and efficacy of surgical clip occlusion and endovascular coil embolization in patients presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured aneurysm. The 1- and 3-year results of this trial have been previously reported.

Methods In total, 500 patients with an SAH met the entry criteria and were enrolled in the study. Of these patients, 471 were randomly assigned to the treatments: 238 to surgical clipping and 233 to endovascular coiling. Six patients who died before treatment and 57 patients with nonaneurysmal SAHs were excluded, leaving a total of 408 patients who underwent clipping (209 assigned) or coiling (199 assigned). Whether to treat patients within the assigned group or to cross over patients to the other group was at the discretion of the treating physician; 38% (75/199) of the patients assigned to coiling were crossed over to clipping and 1.9% (4/209) assigned to clipping were crossed over to coiling. The outcome data were collected by a dedicated nurse practitioner. The primary outcome analysis was based on the assigned treatment group; poor outcome was defined as a modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score > 2 and was independently adjudicated. Six years after randomization, 336 (82%) of 408 patients who had been treated were available for examination.

Results On the basis of an mRS score of > 2, and similar to the results at the 3-year follow-up, no significant difference in outcomes (p = 0.24) was detected between the 2 treatment groups. Complete aneurysm obliteration at 6 years was achieved in 96% (111/116) of the clipping group and in 48% (23/48) of the coiling group (p < 0.0001). In the period between the 3- and 6-year follow-ups, 3 additional patients assigned to coiling and none assigned to clipping received retreatment, for overall retreatment rates of 4.6% (13/280) for clipping and 16.4% (21/128) for coiling (p < 0.0001). When aneurysm location was considered, the 6-year results continued to match the previously reported results, with no difference in outcome for anterior circulation aneurysms at most time points. Of the anterior circulation aneurysms assigned to coiling treatment, 42% (70/168) were crossed over to clipping treatment. The outcomes for posterior circulation aneurysms continued to favor coiling. The randomization process was unexpectedly skewed, with 18 of 21 treated aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) being assigned to clipping, but even when PICA aneurysms were removed from the analysis, outcomes for the posterior circulation aneurysms still favored coiling.

Conclusions Although BRAT was statistically underpowered to detect small differences, these results suggest little difference in outcome between the 2 treatments for anterior circulation aneurysms. This was not the case for the posterior circulation aneurysms, where coil embolization appeared to provide a sustained advantage over clipping. Aneurysm obliteration rates in BRAT were significantly lower and retreatment rates significantly higher in the patients undergoing coiling than in those undergoing clipping. However, despite the fact that retreatment rates were higher after coiling, no recurrent hemorrhages were known to have occurred in patients undergoing coiling in BRAT who were followed up for 6 years. Sufficient questions remain about the relative benefits of the 2 treatment modalities to warrant further welldesigned randomized trials.

Validation of a System to Predict Recanalization After Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms


Neurosurgery 77:168–174, 2015

With increasing use of endovascular techniques in the treatment of ruptured and unruptured aneurysms, the issue of obliteration efficacy has become increasingly important. We have previously reported the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale, which uses accessible predictors including aneurysm-specific factors (size, rupture, and intraluminal thrombosis) and treatment-related features (treatment modality and immediate angiographic result) to predict retreatment risk after endovascular therapy.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the external validity of the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale.

METHODS: External validity was assessed in independent cohorts from 4 centers in the United States and Canada where endovascular and open neurovascular procedures are performed, and in a multicenter cohort of 1543 patients. Probability of retreatment stratified by risk score was derived for each center and the combined multicenter cohort.

RESULTS: Despite moderate variability in retreatment rate among centers (29.5%, 9.9%, 9.6%, 26.3%, 19.7%, and 18.3%), the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale demonstrated good predictive value with C-statistics of 0.799, 0.943, 0.780, 0.695, 0.755, and 0.719 for each center and the combined cohort, respectively. Probability of retreatment stratified by risk score for the combined cohort is as follows: -2, 4.9%; -1, 5.7%; 0, 5.8%; 1, 13.1%; 2, 19.2%; 3, 34.9%; 4, 32.7%; 5, 73.2%; 6, 89.5%; and 7, 100.0%.

CONCLUSION: Surgical decision-making and patient-centered informed consent require comprehensive and accessible information on treatment efficacy. The Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale is a valid prognostic index. This is the first comprehensive model that has been developed to quantitatively predict retreatment risk following endovascular therapy.

Serial Imaging Surveillance for Patients With a History of Intracranial Aneurysm: Risk of De Novo Aneurysm Formation

De Novo Aneurysm Formation

Neurosurgery 77:32–43, 2015

Although rare, de novo intracranial aneurysms (DNIAs) may develop in patients with a history of intracranial aneurysms (IAs).

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the benefit of routine radiographic screening for DNIAs.

METHODS: Data for 2153 patients with IAs were retrospectively analyzed. A total of 185 patients underwent screening for DNIAs at frequent intervals.

RESULTS: Overall, DNIAs were detected in 26 patients (1.2%). Of the 185 patients with surveillance, DNIAs developed in 9 (4.9%). The risk of DNIA detection was 1.14% per person-year of follow-up (95% confidence interval: 0.6%-2.2%). Patients with imaging follow-up had a significantly higher rate of DNIA detection compared with patients without regular imaging surveillance (4.9% vs 0.86%; P , .001), but surveillance was associated with smaller lesions (with surveillance: 3.8 6 1.8 mm, without: 7.0 6 4.4 mm, mean 6 standard deviation; P = .026). A unimodal distribution of time to detection was found in those with surveillance, with a peak between 0 and 2 years. There was a trend toward an association of cigarette smoking and DNIA detection within 10 years (P = .06); 6 of the 26 patients (23.1%) with DNIAs had a history of cigarette smoking, with all 6 patients continuing to smoke up to the detection of the DNIAs, which were detected in 2.5 6 1.8 years.

CONCLUSION: The low 1.14% per-person year risk of DNIA detection and small DNIA size at detection cannot justify routine screening for DNIAs in all patients with a personal history of IAs. If imaging follow-up is considered for selected patients, early screening will likely yield the most benefit in patients who continue to smoke cigarettes.

Contralateral Approach to Internal Carotid Artery Ophthalmic Segment Aneurysms: Angiographic Analysis and Surgical Results for 30 Patients

oftalmic ICA an

Neurosurgery. 77(1):104-112, July 2015

Contralateral aneurysm clipping can be applied to bilateral intracranial aneurysms of the anterior circulation and to selected aneurysms on the medial wall of the internal carotid artery (ICA).

OBJECTIVE: To identify anatomic and radiological parameters that would favor a contralateral microsurgical approach to ICA–ophthalmic segment (ICA-opht) aneurysms.

METHODS: For the period January 1957 to December 2012, we retrospectively analyzed 268 patients with ICA-opht aneurysms treated in our institution. Of these patients, 30 underwent a contralateral approach; 15 patients (50%) had multiple intracranial aneurysms, and 15 patients had a single aneurysm on the contralateral side of the craniotomy.

RESULTS: Thirty saccular aneurysms located on the contralateral ICA were treated. Six aneurysms (20%) were present in patients with a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to associated aneurysms, whereas 24 aneurysms (80%) had no history of bleeding. Contralateral aneurysms were smaller than 14 mm and showed no wall irregularities, calcifications, or secondary pouches. Projections of the aneurysms were superomedial (n = 23, 77%), medial (n = 4, 13%), and superior (n = 3, 10%). The median prechiasmatic distance was 5.7 mm (range, 3.4-8.7 mm), the median interoptic distance was 10.5 mm (range, 7.6-15.9 mm), and the median distance between both ICAs was 14.7 mm (range, 10.4-21.4 mm).

CONCLUSION: The contralateral approach for ICA-opht aneurysms remains a treatment option for intracranial aneurysms. Its feasibility depends on specific anatomic parameters related to the aneurysm itself and to the prechiasmatic distance, interoptic distance, and relationship of the ICA with the anterior clinoid process.

Stratification of Recanalization for Patients With Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

Recanalization for Patients With Endovascular Treatment of Intracranial Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 76:390–395, 2015

With the increasing use of endovascular techniques in the treatment of both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms, the issue of obliteration efficacy has become increasingly important.

OBJECTIVE: To systematically develop a comprehensive model for predicting retreatment with various types of endovascular treatment.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed medical records that were prospectively collected for 305 patients who received endovascular treatment for intracranial aneurysms from 2007 to 2013. Multivariable logistic regression was performed on candidate predictors identified by univariable screening analysis to detect independent predictors of retreatment. A composite risk score was constructed based on the proportional contribution of independent predictors in the multivariable model.

RESULTS: Size (.10 mm), aneurysm rupture, stent assistance, and posttreatment degree of aneurysm occlusion were independently associated with retreatment, whereas intraluminal thrombosis and flow diversion demonstrated a trend toward retreatment. The Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale was constructed by assigning the following weights to statistically and clinically significant predictors: aneurysm-specific factors: size (.10 mm), 2 points; rupture, 2 points; presence of thrombus, 2 points. Treatment-related factors were stent assistance, 21 point; flow diversion, 22 points; Raymond Roy occlusion class 2, 1 point; Raymond Roy occlusion class 3, 2 points. This scale demonstrated good discrimination with a C-statistic of 0.799.

CONCLUSION: Surgical decision making and patient-centered informed consent require comprehensive and accessible information on treatment efficacy. We constructed the Aneurysm Recanalization Stratification Scale to enhance this decisionmaking process. This is the first comprehensive model that has been developed to quantitatively predict the risk of retreatment after endovascular therapy.

Aneurysm diameter as a risk factor for pretreatment rebleeding: a meta-analysis

MCA aneurysm

J Neurosurg 122:921–928, 2015

Aneurysmal rerupture prior to treatment is a major cause of death and morbidity in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Recognizing risk factors for aneurysmal rebleeding is particularly relevant and might help to identify the aneurysms that benefit from acute treatment. It is uncertain if the size of the aneurysm is related to rebleeding. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether an association could be determined between aneurysm diameter and the rebleeding rate before treatment. Potentially confounding factors such age, aneurysm location, and the presence of hypertension were also evaluated.

Methods The authors systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to April 3, 2013, for studies of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage that reported the association between aneurysm diameter and pretreatment aneurysmal rebleeding. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria were used to evaluate study quality.

Results Seven studies, representing 2121 patients, were included in the quantitative analysis. The quality of the studies was low in 2 and very low in 5. Almost all of the studies used 10 mm as the cutoff point for size among other classes, and only one used 7 mm. An analysis was performed with this best unifiable cutoff point. Overall rebleeding occurred in 360 (17.0%) of 2121 patients (incidence range, from study to study, 8.7%–28.4%). The rate of rebleeding in small and large aneurysms was 14.0% and 23.6%, respectively. The meta-analysis of the 7 studies revealed that larger size aneurysms were at a higher risk for rebleeding (OR 2.56 [95% CI 1.62–4.06]; p = 0.00; I2 = 60%). The sensitivity analysis did not alter the results. Five of the 7 studies reported data regarding age; 4 studies provided age-adjusted results and identified a persistent relationship between lesion size and the risk of rebleeding. The presence of hypertension was reported in two studies and was more prevalent in patients with rebleeding in one of these. Location (anterior vs posterior circulation) was reported in 5 studies, while in 4 there was no difference in the rebleeding rate. One study identified a lower risk of rebleeding associated with posterior location aneurysms.

Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that aneurysm size is an important risk factor for aneurysmal rebleeding and should be used in the clinical risk assessment of individual patients. The authors’ results confirmed the current guidelines and underscored the importance of acute treatment for large ruptured aneurysms.

Surgical Management of Ruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms With Large Intraparenchymal or Sylvian Fissure Hematomas

Ruptured MCA aneurysms

Neurosurgery 76:258–264, 2015

Craniotomy for hematoma evacuation and aneurysm clipping is the treatment modality of choice for ruptured middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms with intracranial hematomas. Recent literature suggests that endovascular coil embolization followed by hematoma evacuation can be an acceptable alternative.

OBJECTIVE: To determine neurological outcomes in patients with ruptured MCA aneurysms and intraparenchymal or sylvian fissure hematomas.

METHODS: The records of 49 patients with ruptured MCA aneurysms with large intracranial hematomas treated with hematoma evacuation and aneurysm clipping between January 2000 and December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Within this cohort, 35 patients (71.4%) were Hunt and Hess grade IV or V on presentation. The mean hematoma volume was 100.4 6 77.2 mL. Craniectomy was performed in 40 patients (81.6%). Angiographic vasospasm developed in 15 patients (30.6%). The in-hospital mortality rate was 28.6% (14 patients). At a mean of 25.3 6 34.0 months follow-up, a good outcome (modified Rankin Scale [mRS] score 0-3) was observed in 18 patients (36.7%). Significant factors associated with poor outcome or death (mRS scores of 4-6) included increasing age (P , .01), increasing Hunt and Hess grade (P = .03), increasing modified Fisher grade (P = .01), presence of intraventricular hemorrhage (P , .01), decreasing percentage of hematoma evacuation (P , .05), need for craniectomy (P ,. 01), need for external ventricular drainage (P = .04), and angiographic vasospasm (P = .02).

CONCLUSION: MCA aneurysm rupture with concomitant large intraparenchymal or sylvian fissure hematoma formation carries a grave prognosis. Simultaneous hematoma evacuation and aneurysm clipping with or without craniectomy can be an effective treatment modality.

Endovascular Treatment of 346 Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms

MCA aneurysmNeurosurgery 76:54–61, 2015

The endovascular treatment of middle cerebral artery (MCA) aneurysms has been controversial because of the frequency of complex anatomy and the relative ease of surgical clipping in this location.

OBJECTIVE: To present a large single-center experience with the endovascular treatment of MCA aneurysms.

METHODS: The neurointerventional database at our institution was reviewed for all endovascular treatments of MCA aneurysms. Demographics, aneurysm characteristics, treatment modality, intraprocedural hemorrhagic and thromboembolic events, 30-day neurological events, and follow-up angiographic studies were recorded.

RESULTS: From December 1996 to April 2013, 292 patients underwent endovascular treatment of 346 MCA aneurysms. Of these, 341 (98.6%) were successfully completed. Balloon neck remodeling was used in 230 procedures (66.5%). Ninety-five procedures (27.4%) were for ruptured aneurysms. The rate of intraprocedural hemorrhage was 2.6% (9 of 346). The overall rate of intraprocedural thromboembolic events was 13.6% (47 of 346), significantly more common in patients with acute subarachnoid hemorrhage (27.4%; P, .001). The 30-day major (modified Rankin Scale score . 2) neurological event rate was 2.9% (10 of 346), significantly more common in patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage (8.4%) compared with those without (0.8%; P , .001). The rate of complete or near-complete aneurysm occlusion at was 90.6% $ 6 months and 91.8% at $ 2 years, with an average of 24 months of follow-up available for 247 procedures.

CONCLUSION: Endovascular treatment of MCA aneurysms can be safe and effective. However, it is associated with a high asymptomatic thromboembolic event rate that is more frequent in the setting of acute subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Flow-Diverting Stents for Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysm Treatment


Neurosurgery 75:623–631, 2014

Although initially considered safe when covering bifurcation sites, flow-diverting stents may provoke thrombosis of side branches that are covered during aneurysm treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To understand the occurrence and clinical expression of side-branch remodeling in distal intracranial arterial sites after flow diverter deployment by means of correlation of imaging and clinical data.

METHODS: We analyzed our prospectively collected data on a series of patients treated with flow diverters for intracranial aneurysms at bifurcation sites. From February 2011 to May 2013, 32 patients with 37 aneurysms (anterior communicating artery, 9 [24.3%]; anterior cerebral artery, 5 [13.5%]; middle cerebral artery, 19 (51.4%); terminal internal carotid artery, 4 [10.8%]) were treated. We divided aneurysms into 2 groups based on the side branches covered by the stent during treatment. Group A consisted of cases with side branches that supplied brain territories also receiving a direct collateral supply. Group B consisted of cases in which side branches supplied territories without direct collateral supply. The 2 groups were compared statistically.

RESULTS: Total exclusion occurred in 97.3% of aneurysms at follow-up. Initial modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score was 0 to 1 for 29 patients (90.6%) and 2 for 3 patients (9.4%). New permanent neurological deficit was reported in 3 patients (9.4%). At the 6-month follow-up, the mRS score was 0 to 1 for 31 patients (96.8%) and 3 for 1 patient (3.2%). Although 78.5% of side branches in group A underwent narrowing or occlusion after 6 months, no new stroke was found on magnetic resonance imaging.

CONCLUSION: Symptomatic modifications of side branches after flow diverter treatment depend on the extent and type of collateral supply.

Infundibular dilation and aneurysm at the origin of the posterior communicating artery: differential diagnosis by CT angiography

Infundibular dilation and aneurysm at the origin of the posterior communicating artery- differential diagnosis by CT angiography

Neuroradiology (2014) 56:917–923

Infundibular dilation (ID) and aneurysm at the internal carotid artery (ICA)–posterior communicating artery (PComA) junction can be difficult to distinguish but may differ in clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) in differentially diagnosing IDs and small unruptured aneurysms at the ICA– PComA junction.

Methods This retrospective study comprised 88 patients diagnosed with 107 protrusions (70 IDs and 37 aneurysms <5 mm; 19 bilateral lesions) at the ICA–PComA junction who underwent both CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed CTA and DSA images according to these criteria: (a) size (maximum dimension <3 or ≥3 mm), (b) shape (triangular or round/ oval/irregular), (c) aneurysmal neck (absent or present), (d) horizontal direction (posteriomedial or posteriolateral), and (e) PComA origin (apex, no PComA, or base). The intermodality (between CTA and DSA) and interobserver (between the two readers) agreement were determined for each finding.We also evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CTA for distinguishing ID and aneurysm, using DSA as the reference standard.

Results The mean κ values of intermodality agreement for the size, shape, aneurysmal neck, horizontal direction, and PComA origin were 0.88, 0.87, 0.84, 0.71, and 0.56, respectively. All interobserver agreements of CTA and DSA were excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTA for differentiating aneurysms from IDs were 94.6, 100, and 98.0 %, respectively.

Conclusion CTA may be a useful noninvasive modality for differential diagnosis of ID and aneurysm at the ICA–PComA junction.

Anatomy and morphology of giant aneurysms

Giant aneurysms

Acta Neurochir (2014) 156:1–10

Giant intracranial aneurysms are rare and heterogeneous lesions with complex vascular anatomy. The aim of this retrospective study was to provide a comprehensive description of the anatomical features of giant aneurysms.

Methods We identified 125 patients with 129 giant aneurysms (≥25 mm) who were treated between 1987 and 2007 at the Department of Neurosurgery of Helsinki University Central Hospital (HUCH). All the imaging studies and medical records were reviewed for relevant information.

Results The distribution of the giant aneurysms among regions was as follows: internal carotid artery (ICA) 39 %, middle cerebral artery (MCA) 32 %, vertebrobasilar and posterior cerebral artery (VB-PCA) region 25 %, and anterior cerebral artery (ACA) including the anterior communicating artery 5%. The cavernous ICA segment (n =21, 16 %) and the MCA bifurcation (n =25, 19 %) were the most frequent specific locations. Half (n =11) of all fusiform aneurysms were found in the VB-PCA region. As many as 41 % of the giant MCA aneurysms were ruptured. Major anatomic variations were found in three (2 %) and multiple giant aneurysms in three (2 %) patients.Wall calcification was noted in 24 % and intraluminal thrombosis in 33 % of ruptured giant aneurysms (n =42).

Conclusions The majority of giant aneurysms are located in the ICA and MCA regions, while the ACA region is an exceptional site. The MCA region is the most common site for ruptured giant aneurysms. Associated anatomic variations and the multiplicity of giant aneurysms are a rare finding.

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysmal Bleb Formation

Computational Fluid Dynamic Analysis of Intracranial Aneurysmal Bleb Formation

Neurosurgery 73:1061–1069, 2013

The management of unruptured aneurysms is controversial, with the decision to treat influenced by aneurysm characteristics including size and morphology. Aneurysmal bleb formation is thought to be associated with an increased risk of rupture.

OBJECTIVE: To correlate computational fluid dynamic (CFD) indices with bleb formation.

METHODS: Anatomic models were constructed from 3-dimensional rotational angiography data in 27 patients with cerebral aneurysms harboring a single bleb. Additional models representing the aneurysm before bleb formation were constructed by digitally removing the bleb. We characterized hemodynamic features of models both with and without the blebs using CFDs. Flow structure, wall shear stress (WSS), pressure, and oscillatory shear index (OSI) were analyzed.

RESULTS: There was a statistically significant association between bleb location at or adjacent to the point of maximal WSS (74%, P = .019), irrespective of rupture status. Aneurysmal blebs were related to the inflow or outflow jet in 89% of cases (P < .001), whereas 11% were unrelated. Maximal wall pressure and OSI were not significantly related to bleb location. The bleb region attained a lower WSS after its formation in 96% of cases (P < .001) and was also lower than the average aneurysm WSS in 86% of cases (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Cerebral aneurysm blebs generally form at or adjacent to the point of maximal WSS and are aligned with major flow structures. Wall pressure and OSI do not contribute to determining bleb location. The measurement of WSS using CFD models may potentially predict bleb formation and thus improve the assessment of rupture risk in unruptured aneurysms.

Intra-arterial Injection Fluorescein Videoangiography in Aneurysm Surgery


Neurosurgery 72[ONS Suppl 2]:ons141–ons150, 2013

To visualize blood flow in the arteries and aneurysm during surgery, intravenous fluorescence videoangiography has been used. However, the image contrast with this procedure is diminished by repeated study because the dye remains for about 10 minutes after injection.

OBJECTIVE: To determine the optimal dye concentration and to clarify the usefulness of fluorescein videoangiography by intra-arterial dye injection.

METHODS: In the pilot study, fluorescein sodium dissolved at various concentrations was illuminated with excitation light, and fluorescence was detected by cameras. The fluorescence of 0.001% fluorescein sodium solution mixed with plasma at various concentrations was then examined. In 13 aneurysm patients, dye solution was administered through the catheter for intraoperative digital subtraction angiography. The intravenous injection method was also performed, and the findings were compared.

RESULTS: Dye was clinically used at a concentration of 0.005% to 0.1% on the basis of the results of the pilot study. Fluorescence emission from the vessels and aneurysms was clearly observed by both methods; however, arterial injection provided brighter emission, resulting in clearer demonstration of the bloodstream than venous injection. Dye clearance was also quicker, which allowed repeat injections without delay. Dye filling in the aneurysm indicating incomplete occlusion was detected in 2 cases, and occlusion of the perforating artery was observed in 2 cases.

CONCLUSION: Intra-arterial fluorescein videoangiography provides brighter and clearer imaging of blood flow with a smaller dose of dye than intravenous videoangiography. It can be repeated within a short time and is useful for detecting incomplete clipping or unexpected obstruction of arteries.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain


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