Neurosurgery Blog


Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Factors Associated With Pre- and Postoperative Seizures in 1033 Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Meningioma Resection

Neurosurgery 81:297–306, 2017

Risk factors for pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningiomas are understudied compared to other brain tumors.

OBJECTIVE: To report seizure frequency and identify factors associated with pre- and postoperative seizures in a large single-center population study of patients undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma.

METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1033 subjects undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma at the author’s institution (1991-2014). Multivariate regression was used to identify variables significantly associated with pre- and postoperative seizures.

RESULTS: Preoperative seizures occurred in 234 (22.7%) subjects. At 5 years postoperative, probability of seizure freedom was 89.9% among subjects without preoperative seizures and 62.2% with preoperative seizures. Multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of preoperative seizures: presence of ≥1 cmperitumoral edema (odds ratio [OR]: 4.45, 2.55-8.50), nonskull base tumor location (OR: 2.13, 1.26-3.67), greater age (OR per unit increase: 1.03, 1.01-1.05), while presenting symptom of headache (OR: 0.50, 0.29- 0.84) or cranial nerve deficit (OR: 0.36, 0.17-0.71) decreased odds of preoperative seizures. Postoperative seizures after dischargewere associated with preoperative seizures (OR: 5.70, 2.57-13.13), in-hospital seizure (OR: 4.31, 1.28-13.67), and among patients without preoperative seizure, occurrence ofmedical or surgical complications (OR 3.39, 1.09-9.48). Perioperative anti-epileptic drug use was not associated with decreased incidence of postoperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS: Nonskull base supratentorial meningiomaswith surrounding edema have the highest risk for preoperative seizure. Long-term follow-up showing persistent seizures in meningioma patients with preoperative seizures raises the possibility that these patients may benefit from electrocorticographic mapping of adjacent cortex and resection of noneloquent, epileptically active cortex.

Volumetric growth rates of meningioma and its correlation with histological diagnosis and clinical outcome

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:435–445

Tumour growth has been used to successfully predict progression-free survival in low-grade glioma. This systematic review sought to establish the evidence base regarding the correlation of volumetric growth rates with histological diagnosis and potential to predict clinical outcome in patients with meningioma.

Methods This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Databases were searched for full text English articles analysing volumetric growth rates in patients with a meningioma.

Results Four retrospective cohort studies were accepted, demonstrating limited evidence of significantly different tumour doubling rates and shapes of growth curves between benign and atypical meningiomas. Heterogeneity of patient characteristics and timing of volumetric assessment, both pre- and post-operatively, limited pooled analysis of the data. No studies performed statistical analysis to demonstrate the clinical utility of growth rates in predicting clinical outcome.

Conclusion This systematic review provides limited evidence in support of the use of volumetric growth rates in meningioma to predict histological diagnosis and clinical outcome to guide future monitoring and treatment.

Lateral Orbitotomy Approach for Lesions Involving the Middle Fossa

Neurosurgery 80:309–322, 2017

Classically used for treatment of orbital lesions,the lateral orbitotomy with cantholysis can be combined with a temporal craniectomy for lesions involving the middle cranial fossa.

OBJECTIVE: To present a single-center experience with the lateral orbitotomy approach for lesions involving the middle fossa.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent lateral orbitotomies from April 2012 to July 2015. Excluding patients with solely intraorbital pathologies, 13 patients’clinical and radio- graphic records were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Signs/symptoms in the 13 patients (ages 28-81) included proptosis (69%), decreased visual acuity (31%), diplopia (54%), and afferent pupillary defect (69%). Pathologies were meningioma (8), esthesioneuroblastoma, lymphoma, chordoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical goals were maximal safe resection in 8 patients, palliative debulking in 3 patients, and cavernous sinus biopsy in 2 patients. In 8 patients for whom maximal resection was the goal, 2 had gross total resection, while 6 had near-total resection. All patients (3) for whom palliation was the goal had symptomatic improvement. Both cavernous sinus biopsies obtained diagnostic tissue without complications. All patients with proptosis (n = 9) and diplopia (n = 7), and 2 of 4 patients with decreased visual acuity had improvement in their symptoms. No patient reported worsening of their symptoms. Mean follow-up was 12 mo (2-30 mo). Complica- tions included oculorrhea (1), pseudomeningocele (2), transient ptosis (2), and forehead numbness (1).

CONCLUSION: The lateral orbitotomy is a promising approach for carefully selected lesions with involvement of both the lateral orbit and middle cranial fossa. It provides minimally invasive access for biopsy, decompression, or resection.

Analysis of the surgical benefits of 5-ALA–induced fluorescence in intracranial meningiomas

J Neurosurg 125:1408–1419, 2016

One of the most important causes for recurrence of intracranial meningiomas is residual tumor tissue that remains despite assumed complete resection. Recently, intraoperative visualization of meningioma tissue by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)–induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible surgical benefits of PpIX fluorescence for detection of meningioma tissue.

Methods 5-ALA was administered preoperatively to 190 patients undergoing resection of 204 intracranial meningiomas. The meningiomas’ PpIX fluorescence status, fluorescence quality (strong or vague), and intratumoral fluorescence homogeneity were investigated during surgery. Additionally, specific sites, including the dural tail, tumor-infiltrated bone flap, adjacent cortex, and potential satellite lesions, were analyzed for PpIX fluorescence in selected cases.

Results PpIX fluorescence was observed in 185 (91%) of 204 meningiomas. In the subgroup of sphenoorbital meningiomas (12 of 204 cases), the dural part showed visible PpIX fluorescence in 9 cases (75%), whereas the bony part did not show any PpIX fluorescence in 10 cases (83%). Of all fluorescing meningiomas, 168 (91%) showed strong PpIX fluorescence. Typically, most meningiomas demonstrated homogeneous fluorescence (75% of cases). No PpIX fluorescence was observed in any of the investigated 89 dural tails. In contrast, satellite lesions could be identified through PpIX fluorescence in 7 cases. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrated bone flaps could be visualized by PpIX fluorescence in all 13 cases. Notably, PpIX fluorescence was also present in the adjacent cortex in 20 (25%) of 80 analyzed cases.

Conclusions The authors’ data from this largest patient cohort to date indicate that PpIX fluorescence enables intraoperatively visualization of most intracranial meningiomas and allows identification of residual tumor tissue at specific sites. Thus, intraoperative detection of residual meningioma tissue by PpIX fluorescence might in future reduce the risk of recurrence.

Unilateral endonasal transcribriform approach with septal transposition for olfactory groove meningioma: can olfaction be preserved?


Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1965–1972

Loss of olfaction has been considered inevitable in endoscopic endonasal resection of olfactory groove meningiomas. Olfaction preservation may be feasible through an endonasal unilateral transcribriform approach, with the option for expansion using septal transposition and contralateral preservation of the olfactory apparatus.

Methods An expanded unilateral endonasal transcribriform approach with septal transposition was performed in five cadaver heads. The approach was applied in a surgical case of a 24 × 26-mm olfactory groove meningioma originating from the right cribriform plate with partially intact olfaction.

Results The surgical approach offered adequate exposure to the anterior skull base bilaterally. The nasal/septal mucosa was preserved on the contralateral side. Gross total resection of the meningioma was achieved with the successful preservation of the contralateral olfactory apparatus and preoperative olfaction. Six months later, the left nasal cavity showed no disruption of the mucosal lining and the right side was at the appropriate stage of healing for a harvested nasoseptal flap. One year later, the preoperative olfactory function was intact and favorably viewed by the patient. Objective testing of olfaction showed microsomia.

Conclusions Olfaction preservation may be feasible in the endoscopic endonasal resection of a unilateral olfactory groove meningioma through a unilateral transcribriform approach with septal transposition and preservation of the contralateral olfactory apparatus.

Cystic meningioma: radiological, histological, and surgical particularities in 43 patients


Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1955–1964

The presence of cysts is a rare occurrence for intracranial meningiomas in adults. We report our experience in a large consecutive series of cystic meningiomas.

Method: We prospectively collected data for a dedicated database of cystic meningioma cases between January 2004 and December 2011 in two tertiary neurosurgical centers. Studied data included preoperative imaging, surgical records, and pathology reports.

Results: Among 1214 surgeries for intracranial meningioma, we identified 43 cases of cystic meningioma, corresponding to an incidence of 3.5 %. The most common localization was the hemispheric convexity (17/43 cases). Twenty-eight patients had intratumoral cysts, nine peritumoral, and five mixed intra and extratumoral. In 29 patients with available diffusion imaging, ADC coefficients were significantly lower in grade IIIII tumors compared to grade I (p = 0.01). Complete resection of the cystic components was possible in 27/43 patients (63 %); partial resection in 4/43 (9 %); in 6/43 (14 %) cyst resection was not possible but multiple biopsies were performed from the cystic walls; in another 6/43 (14 %) the cystic wall was not identified during surgery. Cells with neoplastic features were identified within the cyst walls at pathology in 26/43 cases (60 %). All patients were followed-up for 24 months; long-term follow-up was available only in 32 patients for an average period of 49 months (range, 36–96 months). No recurrence requiring surgery was observed.

Conclusions Cystic meningiomas are rare. Cells with neoplastic features are often identified within the cyst walls. Complete cyst resection is recommendable when considered technically feasible and safe.

Genomic landscape of intracranial meningiomas


J Neurosurg 125:525–535, 2016

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms in adults. Current histopathological grading schemes do not consistently predict their natural history. Classic cytogenetic studies have disclosed a progressive course of chromosomal aberrations, especially in high-grade meningiomas. Furthermore, the recent application of unbiased nextgeneration sequencing approaches has implicated several novel genes whose mutations underlie a substantial percentage of meningiomas. These insights may serve to craft a molecular taxonomy for meningiomas and highlight putative therapeutic targets in a new era of rational biology-informed precision medicine.

Optic nerve pial circulation in tuberculum meningioma surgery


J Neurosurg 125:565–569, 2016

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas frequently produce visual loss by direct compression from tumor, constriction of the optic nerve (ON) under the falciform ligament, and/or ON ischemia. The authors hypothesized that changes in visual function after tumor removal may be related to changes in blood supply to the ON that might be seen in the pial circulation at surgery. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography was used to attempt to document these changes at surgery.

The first patient in whom the technique was used had a left-sided, 1.4-cm, tuberculum meningioma. Time-lapse comparison of images was done postsurgery, and the comparison of video images revealed both faster initial filling and earlier complete filling of the ON pial circulation, suggesting improved pial blood flow after surgical decompression. In follow-up the patient had significant improvements in both visual acuity and visual fields function. Intraoperative ICG angiography of the ON can demonstrate measurable changes in pial vascular flow that may be predictive of postoperative visual outcome.

The predictive value of this technique during neurosurgical procedures around the optic apparatus warrants further investigation in a larger cohort.

Long-Term Results of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas

Long-Term Results of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas

Neurosurgery 79:58–68, 2016

Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is well established in the management of inaccessible, recurrent, or residual benign skull base meningiomas. Most series report clinical outcome parameters and complications in the short intermediate period after radiosurgery. Reports of long-term tumor control and neurological status are still lacking.

OBJECTIVE: To report the presentation, treatment, and long-term outcome of skull base meningiomas after GKRS.

METHODS: From a prospectively collected institutional review board-approved database, we selected patients with a World Health Organization grade I skull base meningioma treated with a single-session GKRS and a minimum of 60 months follow-up. One hundred thirty-five patients, 54.1% males (n = 73), form the cohort. Median age was 54 years (19-80). Median tumor volume was 4.7 cm3 (0.5-23). Median margin dose was 15 Gy (7.5-36). Median follow-up was 102.5 months (60.1-235.4). Patient and tumor characteristics were assessed to determine the predictors of neurological function and tumor progression.

RESULTS: At last follow-up, tumor volume control was achieved in 88.1% (n = 119). Post- GKRS clinical improvement or stability was reported in 61.5%. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial progression-free survival rates were 100%, 95.4%, and 68.8%, respectively. Favorable outcome (both tumor control and clinical preservation/improvement) was attained in 60.8% (n = 79). Pre-GKRS performance status (Karnofsky Performance Scale) was shown to influence tumor progression (P = .001) and post-GKRS clinical improvement/preservation (P = .003).

CONCLUSION: GKRS offers a highly durable rate of tumor control for World Health Organization grade I skull base meningiomas, with an acceptably low incidence of neurological deficits. The Karnofsky Performance Scale at the time of radiosurgery serves as a reliable long-term predictor of overall outcome.

Seizures in supratentorial meningioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Meningiomas in Pregnancy- A Clinicopathologic Study of 17 Cases

J Neurosurg 124:1552–1561, 2016

Meningioma is the most common benign intracranial tumor, and patients with supratentorial meningioma frequently suffer from seizures. The rates and predictors of seizures in patients with meningioma have been significantly under-studied, even in comparison with other brain tumor types. Improved strategies for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of seizures in patients with meningioma is an important goal, because tumor-related epilepsy significantly impacts patient quality of life.

Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of PubMed for manuscripts published between January 1980 and September 2014, examining rates of pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningioma, and evaluating potential predictors of seizures with separate meta-analyses.

Results: The authors identified 39 observational case series for inclusion in the study, but no controlled trials. Preoperative seizures were observed in 29.2% of 4709 patients with supratentorial meningioma, and were significantly predicted by male sex (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.30–2.34); an absence of headache (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04–3.25); peritumoral edema (OR 7.48, 95% CI 6.13–9.47); and non–skull base location (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04–3.25). After surgery, seizure freedom was achieved in 69.3% of 703 patients with preoperative epilepsy, and was more than twice as likely in those without peritumoral edema, although an insufficient number of studies were available for formal meta-analysis of this association. Of 1085 individuals without preoperative epilepsy who underwent resection, new postoperative seizures were seen in 12.3% of patients. No difference in the rate of new postoperative seizures was observed with or without perioperative prophylactic anticonvulsants.

Conclusions: Seizures are common in supratentorial meningioma, particularly in tumors associated with brain edema, and seizure freedom is a critical treatment goal. Favorable seizure control can be achieved with resection, but evidence does not support routine use of prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients without seizures. Limitations associated with systematic review and meta-analysis should be considered when interpreting these results.

Surgical management of medium and large petroclival meningiomas: a single institution’s experience of 199 cases with long-term follow-up

Surgical management of medium and large petroclival meningiomas

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:409–425

Petroclival meningiomas (PCMs) were once regarded as ‘inoperable’ due to their complex anatomy and limited surgical exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgically treated PCMs larger than 2 cm.

Methods A series of 199 consecutive patients (137 females, 68.8 %) with PCMs larger than 2 cm from between 1993 and 2003 were included. The clinical charts, radiographs, and follow-ups were evaluated.

Results Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 111 (55.8 %) patients, subtotal resection (STR) in 65, and partial resection (PR) in 23. Cranial nerve dysfunctions were the most common complications and occurred in 133 (66.8 %) cases. The surgical mortality was 2.0 %. The Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores significantly decreased 1 month after the operations (preoperative KPS=76.8 and postoperative KPS = 64.8; p = 0.011, Paired-samples t test). Long-term follow-ups were obtained in 142 patients, the follow-up duration was 171.6 months, and the most recent KPS was 83.2. Permanent morbidities remained in 24 patients (18.9 %). Multivariate analysis revealed that brainstem edema and tumors larger than 4 cm in diameter were independent risk factors in terms of outcomes (KPS < 80). The recurrence/ progression rates were 14.5, 31.8, and 53.3 % for the GTR, STR, and PR cases, respectively (p =0.002, Pearson χ2 test). Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the remnants exhibited good tumor control.

Conclusions Favorable outcomes and low mortality were achieved with the microsurgical management of medium and large PCMs; however, the rates of cranial nerves dysfunction remained high. Radically aggressive resection might not be judicious in terms of postoperative morbidity. The preoperative evaluations and intraoperative findings were informative regarding the outcomes. The low follow-up rate likely compromised our findings, and additional consecutive studies were required.

Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine/paracrine signaling: underestimated implication of growth hormone receptor

Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine-paracrine signaling

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:1731–1740

Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor classified as benign, but tight adhesion and significant local infiltration to the vital structures are common. In spite of improvement of modern microsurgery techniques and precise anatomical understanding not few cases of this tumor recur, and long-termtumor control and maintenance of quality of life are sometimes difficult. However, very little is known about the effects of the molecular characters of craniopharyngioma on the prognosis.

Methods Ninety eight cases of craniopharyngioma surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Hospital and Kohnan Hospital from April 1996 to May 2014, 45 males and 53 females aged from 2 to 80 years (mean, 40.84 years) were retrospectively reviewed, and postoperative outcomes and the possible involvement of the autocrine/ paracrine mechanism were investigated. The patients were followed up at intervals of 6 months to assess tumor recurrence, and clinical outcomes were correlated with the findings of immunohistochemical examinations used growth hormone receptor (GHR) and downstream hormones. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 209 months.

Results Hormone expression was examined in 88 patients, of which 46 specimens (52.3 %) showed high expression of GHR. The GHR high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p=0.007). Simultaneous high expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR was found in 33 specimens (37.5 %), and the high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p=0.011). No other hormones showed statistically significant differences in outcomes.

Conclusions High expression of GHR is associated with shorter duration of postoperative stable disease in patients with craniopharyngioma. If the surgical specimens were craniopharyngiomas with high GHR expression, GH supplementation would be introduced quite prudently.

Higher-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Meningiomas to Determine Intratumoral Consistency

Higher-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Meningiomas to Determine Intratumoral Consistency

Neurosurgery 77:653–659, 2015

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) analyzes shear wave movement through tissue to determine stiffness. In a prior study, measurements with firstgeneration brain MRE techniques correlated with intraoperative observations of overall meningioma stiffness.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a higher-resolution MRE technique to preoperatively detect intratumoral variations compared with surgeon assessment.

METHODS: Fifteen meningiomas in 14 patients underwent MRE. Tumors with regions of distinctly different stiffness were considered heterogeneous. Intratumoral portions were considered hard if there was a significant area ≥6 kPa. A 5-point scale graded intraoperative consistency. A durometer semiquantitatively measured surgical specimen hardness. Statistics included x2, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: For MRE and surgery, 9 (60%) and 7 (47%) tumors were homogeneous, 6 (40%) and 8 (53%) tumors were heterogeneous, 6 (40%) and 10 (67%) tumors had hard portions, and 14 (93%) and 12 (80%) tumors had soft portions, respectively. MRE sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for heterogeneity, 75%, 100%, 100%, and 87%; for hardness, 60%, 100%, 100%, and 56%; and for softness, 100%, 33%, 86%, and 100%. Overall, 10 tumors (67%) matched well with MRE and intraoperative consistency and correlated between intraoperative observations (P = .02) and durometer readings (P = .03). Tumor size ≤3.5 cm or vascular tumors were more likely to be inconsistent (P < .05).

CONCLUSION: MRE was excellent at ruling in heterogeneity with hard portions but less effective in ruling out heterogeneity and hard portions, particularly in tumors more vascular or ≤3.5 cm. MRE is the first technology capable of prospectively evaluating intratumoral stiffness and, with further refinement, will likely prove useful in preoperative planning.

Can Preoperative Imaging Predict Tumor Involvement of the Anterior Clinoid in Clinoid Region Meningiomas?

Can Preoperative Imaging Predict Tumor Involvement of the Anterior Clinoid in Clinoid Region Meningiomas?

Neurosurgery 77:525–530, 2015

Anterior clinoid region meningiomas may infiltrate the bone over which they arise, therefore requiring an anterior clinoidectomy to achieve a Simpson grade 1 resection. A clinoidectomy, however, is not without risks.

OBJECTIVE: We performed a study of diagnostic accuracy investigating whether preoperative imaging could predict tumor involvement of the clinoid, and thereby tailor the degree of bony removal.

METHODS: Patients having undergone resection of a clinoid region meningioma between 2001 and 2011 were identified. Included in further analysis were those patients in whom a clinoidectomy was performed with subsequent pathologically confirmed presence or absence of tumor in the clinoid process on decalcified specimens. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to pathology results, independently reviewed available preoperative imaging and stated whether or not they anticipated the clinoid to be involved by tumor. Interobserver agreement and the ability to accurately predict tumor involvement of the clinoid were then analyzed.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were included in the final analysis. Interobserver agreement was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging to predict tumor involvement was 89% and 52%, respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 1.85 and 0.20. Positive and negative predictive values were 73% and 76%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Preoperative imaging of clinoid region meningiomas can accurately predict the presence or absence of tumor involvement of the clinoid in only approximately 75% of cases. In light of the fact that a quarter of patients with radiographically negative clinoids will have tumor present on pathological analysis, we recommend a clinoidectomy for all clinoid region meningiomas.

Intracranial meningioma surgery in the elderly (over 65 years): prognostic factors and outcome

Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas

Acta Neurochir 157 (9): 1549-1557

Meningiomas are more prevalent in elderly individuals; however, the surgical outcome and prognostic factors in this age group are unclear. This retrospective study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of elderly patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent surgical resection.


Eighty-six patients (aged ≥65) diagnosed with an intracranial meningioma were surgically treated at our department. The clinical, radiological, and follow-up data were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify relationships between factors [age, sex, neurological condition, concomitant disease, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classification, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, tumor location and size, peritumoral edema, and Simpson resection grade] and outcome.


One patient (1.2 %) died within 30 days of surgery. The morbidity rate was 37.2 %. Postoperative morbidities occurred more frequently in the patients with preoperative neurological deficits than in those without (p = 0.049). Univariate analysis identified significant relationships between a low KPS score (≤70) at discharge and preoperative neurological deficits, low preoperative KPS score (≤70), and critical tumor location (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariate logistic analysis, only the preoperative KPS score remained significant for the KPS score at discharge (p = 0.005); there was no significant association with the most recent KPS score.


The outcome of intracranial meningioma resection in elderly individuals is favorable if the preoperative KPS score is >70 and no neurological deficits are present. Treatment decisions should be patient-specific, and additional factors should be considered when operations are performed in patients with a low preoperative KPS score or neurological deficits.

Birth desires and intentions of women diagnosed with a meningioma

Petroclival meningioma outcomes

J Neurosurg 122:1151–1156, 2015

To the authors’ knowledge, no previous study has examined the impact of meningioma diagnosis on women’s birth desires and intentions. In an exploratory study, the authors surveyed women affected by meningioma to determine their attitudes toward childbearing and the influences, including physician recommendations, on this major life decision and compared their responses to those of women in the general population.

Methods Meningioma survivors from the Meningioma Mommas online support group participated in an online survey that included questions on their birth desires and intentions, whether the risk of disease recurrence influenced their reproductive decisions, and risks communicated to them by their physicians. Using chi-square and rank-sum tests, the authors compared the survey participants’ responses with those of the general population as assessed by the 2006– 2010 National Survey of Family Growth. Logistic regression was used to adjust for differences in age, race, ethnicity, education, parity, pregnancy status, and infertility status in these populations.

Results Respondents with meningioma were more likely than those in the general population to report wanting a baby (70% vs 54%, respectively), intending to have a baby (27% vs 12%, respectively), and being very sure about this intention (10% vs 2%, respectively). More than half (32 of 61) of the women of childbearing age reported being advised by a physician about potential risk factors for recurrence of the meningioma, and pregnancy was the most commonly cited risk factor (26 of 61). The most common factor influencing birth desires and intentions was risk of the meningioma returning and requiring more treatment, which was reported by nearly two-thirds of the women in their childbearing years.

Conclusions A majority of the meningioma survivors of childbearing age who completed the survey reported a desire for children, although concern about the risk of meningioma recurrence was an important factor for these women when making reproductive decisions. Physicians are in a position to educate their patients on potential risk factors for recurrence and to provide contact information for services such as counseling and family planning.

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Meningiomas: Current Concepts and Future Perspectives

Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Intracranial Meningiomas- Current Concepts and Future Perspectives

Neurosurgery 76:362–371, 2015

Meningiomas are among the most common adult brain tumors. Although the optimal management of meningiomas would provide complete elimination of the lesion, this cannot always be accomplished safely through resection. Therefore, other therapeutic modalities, such as stereotactic radiosurgery (as primary or adjunctive therapy), have emerged.

In the current review, we have provided an overview of the historical outcomes of various radiosurgical modalities applied in the management of meningiomas. Furthermore, we provide a discussion on key factors (eg World Health Organization grade, lesion size, and lesion location) that affect tumor control and adverse event rates. We discuss recent changes in our understanding of meningiomas, based on molecular and genetic markers, and how these will change our perspective on the management of meningiomas.

We conclude by outlining the areas in which knowledge gaps persist and provide suggestions as to how these can be addressed.

An evidence-based treatment algorithm for the management of WHO Grade II and III meningiomas

Management of WHO Grade II and III meningiomas

Neurosurg Focus 38 (3):E3, 2015

The management of WHO Grade II “atypical” meningiomas (AMs) and Grade III “malignant” meningiomas (MMs) remains controversial and under-investigated in prospective studies. The roles of surgery, radiation therapy, radiosurgery, and chemotherapy have been incompletely delineated. This has left physicians to decipher how they should treat patients on a case-by-case basis.

In this study, the authors review the English-language literature on the management and clinical outcomes associated with AMs and MMs diagnosed using the WHO 2000/2007 grading criteria. Twenty-two studies for AMs and 7 studies for MMs were examined in detail. The authors examined clinical decision points using the literature and concepts from evidence-based medicine.

Acknowledging the retrospective nature of the studies concerning AM and MM, the authors did find evidence for the following clinical strategies: 1) maximal safe resection of AM and MM; 2) active surveillance after gross-total resection of AM; 3) adjuvant radiation therapy after subtotal resection of AM, especially in the absence of putative radioresistant features; and 4) adjuvant radiation therapy after resection of MM.

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for meningiomas arising from the tentorium

Gamma Knife radiosurgery for meningiomas arising from the tentorium- a 22-year experienceJ Neurooncol (2015) 121:129–134

In order to evaluate long term clinical and imaging outcomes, the authors retrospectively reviewed our 22-year experience using stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for tentorial meningiomas.

Thirty-nine patients with tentorial meningiomas underwent SRS using various Gamma Knife technologies between 1988 and 2010. The most common presenting symptoms were headache, dizziness or disequilibrium, and ataxia. The median tumor volume was 4.6 cm3 (range 0.5–36.6 cm3) and the median radiation dose to the tumor margin was 14 Gy (range 8.9–18 Gy). The median follow-up period was 41 months (range 6–183 months).

At the last imaging follow-up, tumor volumes decreased in 22 patients (57 %), remained stable in 13 patients (33 %), and increased in 4 patients (10 %). The progression-free survival after SRS was 97 % at 1 year, and 92 % at 5 years. At the last clinical followup, 35 patients (90 %) showed no change in symptoms, 1 patient (2 %) showed improvement of their neurologic symptom, and 3 patients (8 %) demonstrated worsening symptoms. The rate of symptom worsening after SRS was 5 % at 1 year, and 10 % at 5 years. Asymptomatic peritumoral edema after SRS occurred in 2 patients (5 %). Symptomatic adverse radiation effect developed in 2 patients (5 %).

SRS for tentorial meningiomas provided long-term effective tumor control and a low risk of radiation related complications.

Surgery of Intradural Extramedullary Tumors: Retrospective Analysis of 107 Cases

Intradural extramedullary tumors

Neurosurgery 75:509–514, 2014

Intradural extramedullary tumors (IDEMTs) are uncommon lesions that cause pain and neurological deficits.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effects of surgery for IDEMTs.

METHODS: This cohort study recruited all patients operated on for IDEMTs at the Department of Neurology and Psychiatry of Sapienza University of Rome from January 2003 to January 2013. The analysis was conducted on clinical records evaluation over a 1-year follow-up. The Graphic Rating Scale was used to assess pain. Neurological deficits were detected through neurological examination. Quality of life was evaluated with the EuroQol (EQ-5D). Statistical interpretation of the data was performed with SPSS version 19 software.

RESULTS: One hundred seven patients were recruited. Three were lost to follow-up. Patients reported lower level of pain 1 year after surgery (before surgery, 6.05; after surgery, 3.65). Mean comparison showed a significant decrease of 22.400 (P , .001). Ninety-two patients (88.5%) were neurologically asymptomatic 1 year after surgery. Only 12 patients (11.5%) presented with a deficit, with a global decrease of 39% (x2 = 27.6; P, .005). The quality of life in patients was middle to high (mean rating of EQ-5D visual analog score, 61.78%). The lowest levels of quality of life were found in patients with sphincter dysfunctions (mean, 33.4).

CONCLUSION: Surgery for IDEMTs has a good outcome. Patients reported lower levels of pain and a drastic reduction in neurological symptoms 1 year after surgery. The quality of life is middle to high. It is influenced mainly by the neurological outcome.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain


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Neurosurgery CNS: Flash Fluorescence for MCA Bypass Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endovascular-Surgical Approach to Cavernous dAVF

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 4

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 3

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Surgery of AVMs in Motor Areas

NeurosurgeryCNS: The Fenestrated Yaşargil T-Bar Clip

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS. ‘Double-Stick Tape’ Technique for Offending Vessel Transposition in Microvascular Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Advances in the Treatment and Outcome of Brain Stem Cavernous Malformation Surgery: 300 Patients

3T MRI Integrated Neuro Suite

NeurosurgeryCNS: 3D In Vivo Modeling of Vestibular Schwannomas and Surrounding Cranial Nerves Using DIT

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 7

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 6

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 5

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 4

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Corticotomy Closure Avoids Subdural Collections After Hemispherotomy

NeurosurgeryCNS: Operative Nuances of Side-to-Side in Situ PICA-PICA Bypass Procedure

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Fusiform Aneurysms of the Anterior Communicating Artery

NeurosurgeryCNS. Initial Clinical Experience with a High Definition Exoscope System for Microneurosurgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro.

NeurosurgeryCNS: Neuronavigation for Neuroendoscopic Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS:New Aneurysm Clip System for Particularly Complex Aneurysm Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: AICA/PICA Anatomical Variants Penetrating the Subarcuate Fossa Dura

Craniopharyngioma Supra-Orbital Removal

NeurosurgeryCNS: Use of Flexible Hollow-Core CO2 Laser in Microsurgical Resection of CNS Lesions

NeurosurgeryCNS: Ulnar Nerve Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

NeurosurgeryCNS: ICG Videoangiography

NeurosurgeryCNS: Inappropiate aneurysm clip applications

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