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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Endoscopic endonasal versus transcranial approach to tuberculum sellae and planum sphenoidale meningiomas

J Neurosurg 128:40–48, 2018

Planum sphenoidale (PS) and tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas cause visual symptoms due to compression of the optic chiasm. The treatment of choice is surgical removal with the goal of improving vision and achieving complete tumor removal. Two options exist to remove these tumors: the transcranial approach (TCA) and the endonasal endoscopic approach (EEA). Significant controversy exists regarding which approach provides the best results and whether there is a subset of patients for whom an EEA may be more suitable. Comparisons using a similar cohort of patients, namely, those suitable for gross-total resection with EEA, are lacking from the literature.

METHODS The authors reviewed all cases of PS and TS meningiomas that were surgically removed at Weill Cornell Medical College between 2000 and 2015 (TCA) and 2008 and 2015 (EEA). All cases were shown to a panel of 3 neurosurgeons to find only those tumors that could be removed equally well either through an EEA or TCA to standardize both groups. Volumetric measurements of preoperative and postoperative tumor size, FLAIR images, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps were assessed by 2 independent reviewers and compared to assess extent of resection and trauma to the surrounding brain. Visual outcome and complications were also compared.

RESULTS Thirty-two patients were identified who underwent either EEA (n = 17) or TCA (n = 15). The preoperative tumor size was comparable (mean 5.58 ± 3.42 vs 5.04 ± 3.38 cm3 [± SD], p = 0.661). The average extent of resection achieved was not significantly different between the 2 groups (98.80% ± 3.32% vs 95.13% ± 11.69%, p = 0.206). Postoperatively, the TCA group demonstrated a significant increase in the FLAIR/edema signal compared with EEA patients (4.15 ± 7.10 vs -0.69 ± 2.73 cm3, p = 0.014). In addition, the postoperative diffusion-weighted imaging signal of cytotoxic ischemic damage was significantly higher in the TCA group than in the EEA group (1.88 ± 1.96 vs 0.40 ± 0.55 cm3, p = 0.008). Overall, significantly more EEA patients experienced improved or stable visual outcomes compared with TCA patients (93% vs 56%, p = 0.049). Visual deterioration was greater after TCA than EEA (44% vs 0%, p = 0.012). While more patients experienced postoperative seizures after TCA than after EEA (27% vs 0%, p = 0.038), there was a trend toward more CSF leakage and anosmia after EEA than after TCA (11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.486 and 11.8% vs 0%, p = 0.118, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS In this small single-institution study of similarly sized and located PS and TS meningiomas, EEA provided equivalent rates of resection with better visual results, less trauma to the brain, and fewer seizures. These preliminary results merit further investigation in a larger multiinstitutional study and may support EEA resection by experienced surgeons in a subset of carefully selected PS and TS meningiomas.

Efficacy and outcomes of facial nerve–sparing treatment approach to cerebellopontine angle meningiomas

J Neurosurg 127:1231–1241, 2017

Advanced microsurgical techniques contribute to reduced morbidity and improved surgical management of meningiomas arising within the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). However, the goal of surgery has evolved to preserve the quality of the patient’s life, even if it means leaving residual tumor. Concurrently, Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) has become an acceptable and effective treatment modality for newly diagnosed, recurrent, or progressive meningiomas of the CPA. The authors review their institutional experience with CPA meningiomas treated with GKRS, surgery, or a combination of surgery and GKRS. They specifically focus on rates of facial nerve preservation and characterize specific anatomical features of tumor location with respect to the internal auditory canal (IAC).

METHODS Medical records of 76 patients with radiographic evidence or a postoperative diagnosis of CPA meningioma, treated by a single surgeon between 1992 and 2016, were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm in greatest dimension were treated with GKRS, while patients with tumors 2.5 cm or larger underwent facial nerve–sparing microsurgical resection where appropriate. Various patient, clinical, and tumor data were gathered. Anatomical features of the tumor origin as seen on preoperative imaging confirmed by intraoperative investigation were evaluated for prognostic significance. Facial nerve preservation rates were evaluated.

RESULTS According to our treatment paradigm, 51 (67.1%) patients underwent microsurgical resection and 25 (32.9%) patients underwent GKRS. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 34 (66.7%) patients, and subtotal resection (STR) in 17 (33.3%) patients. Tumors recurred in 12 (23.5%) patients initially treated surgically, requiring additional surgery and/or GKRS. Facial nerve function was unchanged or improved in 68 (89.5%) patients. Worsening facial nerve function occurred in 8 (10.5%) patients, all of whom had undergone microsurgical resection. Upfront treatment with GKRS for CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm was associated with preservation of facial nerve function in all patients over a median follow-up of 46 months, regardless of IAC invasion and tumor origin. Anatomical origin was associated with extent of resection but did not correlate with postoperative facial nerve function. Tumor size, extent of resection, and the presence of an arachnoid plane separating the tumor and the contents of the IAC were associated with postoperative facial nerve outcomes.

CONCLUSIONS CPA meningiomas remain challenging lesions to treat, given their proximity to critical neurovascular structures. GKRS is a safe and effective option for managing CPA meningiomas smaller than 2.5 cm without associated mass effect or acute neurological symptoms. Maximal safe resection with preservation of neurological function can be performed for tumors 2.5 cm or larger without significant risk of facial nerve dysfunction, and, when combined with GKRS for recurrence and/or progression, provides excellent disease control. Anatomical features of the tumor origin offer critical insights for optimizing facial nerve preservation in this cohort.

A novel weighted scoring system for estimating the risk of rapid growth in untreated intracranial meningiomas

J Neurosurg 127:971–980, 2017

Advances in neuroimaging techniques have led to the increased detection of asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas (IMs). Despite several studies on the natural history of IMs, a comprehensive evaluation method for estimating the growth potential of these tumors, based on the relative weight of each risk factor, has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a weighted scoring system that estimates the risk of rapid tumor growth to aid treatment decision making.

METHODS The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 232 patients with presumed IM who had been prospectively followed up in the absence of treatment from 1997 to 2013. Tumor volume was measured by imaging at each follow-up visit, and the growth rate was determined by regression analysis. Predictors of rapid tumor growth (defined as ≥ 2 cm3/year) were identified using a logistic regression model; each factor was awarded a score based on its own coefficient value. The probability (P) of rapid tumor growth was estimated using the following formula:

[Eq. 1]

RESULTS Fifty-nine tumors (25.4%) showed rapid growth. Tumor size (OR per cm3 1.07, p = 0.000), absence of calcification (OR 3.87, p = 0.004), peritumoral edema (OR 2.74, p = 0.025), and hyperintense or isointense signal on T2- weighted MRI (OR 3.76, p = 0.049) were predictors of tumor growth rate. In the Asan Intracranial Meningioma Scoring System (AIMSS), tumor size was categorized into 3 groups of < 2.5 cm, ≥ 2.5 to < 4.0 cm, and ≥ 4.0 cm in diameter and awarded a score of 0, 3, and 6, respectively; the parameters of calcification and peritumoral edema were categorized into 2 groups based on their presence or absence and given a score of 0 or 2 and 1 or 0, respectively; and the signal on T2-weighted MRI was categorized into 2 groups of hypointense and hyperintense/isointense and given a score of 0 or 2, respectively. The risk of rapid tumor growth was estimated to be < 10% when the total score was 0–2, 10%–50% when the total score was 3–6, and ≥ 50% when the total score was 7–11 (Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test, p = 0.9958). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.86.

CONCLUSIONS The authors suggest a weighted scoring system (AIMSS) that predicts the specific probability of rapid tumor growth for patients with untreated IM. This scoring system will aid treatment decision making in clinical settings by screening out patients at high risk for rapid tumor growth.

Correlation of volumetric growth and histological grade in 50 meningiomas

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2169–2177

Advances in radiological imaging techniques have enabled volumetric measurements of meningiomas to be easily monitored using serial imaging scans. There is limited literature on the relationship between tumour growth rates and the WHO classification of meningiomas despite tumour growth being a major determinant of type and timing of intervention. Volumetric growth has been successfully used to assess growth of low-grade glioma; however, there is limited information on the volumetric growth rate (VGR) of meningiomas. This study aimed to determine the reliability of VGR measurement in patients with meningioma, assess the relationship between VGR and 2016 WHO grading as well as clinical applicability of VGR in monitoring meningioma growth.

Methods All histologically proven intracranial meningiomas that underwent resection in a single centre between April 2009 and April 2014 were reviewed and classified according to the 2016 edition of the Classification of the Tumours of the CNS. Only patients who had two pre-operative scans that were at least 3 months apart were included in the study. Two authors performed the volumetric measurements using the Slicer 3D software independently and the inter-rater reliability was assessed. Multiple regression analyses of factors affecting the VGR and VDE of meningiomas were performed using the R statistical software with p < 0.05 considered to be statistically significant.

Results Of 548 patients who underwent resection of their meningiomas, 66 met the inclusion criteria. Sixteen cases met the exclusion criteria (NF2, spinal location, previous surgical or radiation treatment, significant intra-osseous component and poor quality imaging). Forty-two grade I and 8 grade II meningiomas were included in the analysis. The VGR was significantly higher for grade II meningiomas. Using receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, the optimal threshold that distinguishes between grade I and II meningiomas is 3 cm3/year. Higher histological grade, high initial tumour volume, MRI T2-signal hyperintensity and presence of oedema were found to be significant predictors of higher VGR.

Conclusion Reliable tools now exist to evaluate and monitor volumetric growth of meningiomas. Grade II meningiomas have significantly higher VGR compared with grade I meningiomas and growth of more than 3 cm3/year is strongly suggestive of a higher grade meningioma. A larger, multi-centre prospective study to investigate the applicability of velocity of growth to predict the outcome of patients with meningioma is warranted.

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Limitations of the endonasal endoscopic approach in treating olfactory groove meningiomas

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:1875–1885

To review current management strategies for olfactory groove meningioma (OGM)s and the recent literature comparing endoscopic endonasal (EEA) with traditional transcranial (TCA) approaches.

Methods A PubMed search of the recent literature (2011– 2016) was performed to examine outcomes following EEA and TCA for OGM. The extent of resection, visual outcome, postoperative complications and recurrence rates were analyzed using percentages and proportions, the Fischer exact test and the Student’s t-test using Graphpad PRISM 7.0Aa (San Diego, CA) software.

Results There were 444 patients in the TCA group with a mean diameter of 4.61 (±1.17) cm and 101 patients in the EEA group with a mean diameter of 3.55 (± 0.58) cm (p = 0.0589). GTR was achieved in 90.9% (404/444) in the TCA group and 70.2% (71/101) in the EEA group (p < 0.0001). Of the patients with preoperative visual disturbances, 80.7% (21/26) of patients in the EEA cohort had an improvement in vision compared to 12.83%(29/226) in the TCA group (p < 0.0001). Olfaction was lost in 61% of TCA and in 100% of EEA patients. CSF leaks and meningitis occurred in 25.7% and 4.95% of EEA patients and 6.3% and 1.12% of TCA patients, respectively (p < 0.0001; p = 0.023).

Conclusions Our updated literature review demonstrates that despite more experience with endoscopic resection and skull base reconstruction, the literature still supports TCA over EEA with respect to the extent of resection and complications. EEA may be an option in selected cases where visual improvement is the main goal of surgery and postoperative anosmia is acceptable to the patient or in medium-sized tumors with existing preoperative anosmia. Nevertheless, based on our results, it seems more prudent at this time to use TCA for the majority of OGMs.

Factors Associated With Pre- and Postoperative Seizures in 1033 Patients Undergoing Supratentorial Meningioma Resection

Neurosurgery 81:297–306, 2017

Risk factors for pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningiomas are understudied compared to other brain tumors.

OBJECTIVE: To report seizure frequency and identify factors associated with pre- and postoperative seizures in a large single-center population study of patients undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma.

METHODS: Retrospective chart review of 1033 subjects undergoing resection of supratentorial meningioma at the author’s institution (1991-2014). Multivariate regression was used to identify variables significantly associated with pre- and postoperative seizures.

RESULTS: Preoperative seizures occurred in 234 (22.7%) subjects. At 5 years postoperative, probability of seizure freedom was 89.9% among subjects without preoperative seizures and 62.2% with preoperative seizures. Multivariate analysis identified the following predictors of preoperative seizures: presence of ≥1 cmperitumoral edema (odds ratio [OR]: 4.45, 2.55-8.50), nonskull base tumor location (OR: 2.13, 1.26-3.67), greater age (OR per unit increase: 1.03, 1.01-1.05), while presenting symptom of headache (OR: 0.50, 0.29- 0.84) or cranial nerve deficit (OR: 0.36, 0.17-0.71) decreased odds of preoperative seizures. Postoperative seizures after dischargewere associated with preoperative seizures (OR: 5.70, 2.57-13.13), in-hospital seizure (OR: 4.31, 1.28-13.67), and among patients without preoperative seizure, occurrence ofmedical or surgical complications (OR 3.39, 1.09-9.48). Perioperative anti-epileptic drug use was not associated with decreased incidence of postoperative seizures.

CONCLUSIONS: Nonskull base supratentorial meningiomaswith surrounding edema have the highest risk for preoperative seizure. Long-term follow-up showing persistent seizures in meningioma patients with preoperative seizures raises the possibility that these patients may benefit from electrocorticographic mapping of adjacent cortex and resection of noneloquent, epileptically active cortex.

Volumetric growth rates of meningioma and its correlation with histological diagnosis and clinical outcome

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:435–445

Tumour growth has been used to successfully predict progression-free survival in low-grade glioma. This systematic review sought to establish the evidence base regarding the correlation of volumetric growth rates with histological diagnosis and potential to predict clinical outcome in patients with meningioma.

Methods This systematic review was conducted according to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Databases were searched for full text English articles analysing volumetric growth rates in patients with a meningioma.

Results Four retrospective cohort studies were accepted, demonstrating limited evidence of significantly different tumour doubling rates and shapes of growth curves between benign and atypical meningiomas. Heterogeneity of patient characteristics and timing of volumetric assessment, both pre- and post-operatively, limited pooled analysis of the data. No studies performed statistical analysis to demonstrate the clinical utility of growth rates in predicting clinical outcome.

Conclusion This systematic review provides limited evidence in support of the use of volumetric growth rates in meningioma to predict histological diagnosis and clinical outcome to guide future monitoring and treatment.

Lateral Orbitotomy Approach for Lesions Involving the Middle Fossa

Neurosurgery 80:309–322, 2017

Classically used for treatment of orbital lesions,the lateral orbitotomy with cantholysis can be combined with a temporal craniectomy for lesions involving the middle cranial fossa.

OBJECTIVE: To present a single-center experience with the lateral orbitotomy approach for lesions involving the middle fossa.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients underwent lateral orbitotomies from April 2012 to July 2015. Excluding patients with solely intraorbital pathologies, 13 patients’clinical and radio- graphic records were retrospectively reviewed.

RESULTS: Signs/symptoms in the 13 patients (ages 28-81) included proptosis (69%), decreased visual acuity (31%), diplopia (54%), and afferent pupillary defect (69%). Pathologies were meningioma (8), esthesioneuroblastoma, lymphoma, chordoma, Ewing’s sarcoma, and squamous cell carcinoma. Surgical goals were maximal safe resection in 8 patients, palliative debulking in 3 patients, and cavernous sinus biopsy in 2 patients. In 8 patients for whom maximal resection was the goal, 2 had gross total resection, while 6 had near-total resection. All patients (3) for whom palliation was the goal had symptomatic improvement. Both cavernous sinus biopsies obtained diagnostic tissue without complications. All patients with proptosis (n = 9) and diplopia (n = 7), and 2 of 4 patients with decreased visual acuity had improvement in their symptoms. No patient reported worsening of their symptoms. Mean follow-up was 12 mo (2-30 mo). Complica- tions included oculorrhea (1), pseudomeningocele (2), transient ptosis (2), and forehead numbness (1).

CONCLUSION: The lateral orbitotomy is a promising approach for carefully selected lesions with involvement of both the lateral orbit and middle cranial fossa. It provides minimally invasive access for biopsy, decompression, or resection.

Analysis of the surgical benefits of 5-ALA–induced fluorescence in intracranial meningiomas

J Neurosurg 125:1408–1419, 2016

One of the most important causes for recurrence of intracranial meningiomas is residual tumor tissue that remains despite assumed complete resection. Recently, intraoperative visualization of meningioma tissue by 5-aminolevulinic acid (5-ALA)–induced protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) fluorescence was reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible surgical benefits of PpIX fluorescence for detection of meningioma tissue.

Methods 5-ALA was administered preoperatively to 190 patients undergoing resection of 204 intracranial meningiomas. The meningiomas’ PpIX fluorescence status, fluorescence quality (strong or vague), and intratumoral fluorescence homogeneity were investigated during surgery. Additionally, specific sites, including the dural tail, tumor-infiltrated bone flap, adjacent cortex, and potential satellite lesions, were analyzed for PpIX fluorescence in selected cases.

Results PpIX fluorescence was observed in 185 (91%) of 204 meningiomas. In the subgroup of sphenoorbital meningiomas (12 of 204 cases), the dural part showed visible PpIX fluorescence in 9 cases (75%), whereas the bony part did not show any PpIX fluorescence in 10 cases (83%). Of all fluorescing meningiomas, 168 (91%) showed strong PpIX fluorescence. Typically, most meningiomas demonstrated homogeneous fluorescence (75% of cases). No PpIX fluorescence was observed in any of the investigated 89 dural tails. In contrast, satellite lesions could be identified through PpIX fluorescence in 7 cases. Furthermore, tumor-infiltrated bone flaps could be visualized by PpIX fluorescence in all 13 cases. Notably, PpIX fluorescence was also present in the adjacent cortex in 20 (25%) of 80 analyzed cases.

Conclusions The authors’ data from this largest patient cohort to date indicate that PpIX fluorescence enables intraoperatively visualization of most intracranial meningiomas and allows identification of residual tumor tissue at specific sites. Thus, intraoperative detection of residual meningioma tissue by PpIX fluorescence might in future reduce the risk of recurrence.

Unilateral endonasal transcribriform approach with septal transposition for olfactory groove meningioma: can olfaction be preserved?

unilateral-endonasal-transcribriform-approach-with-septal-transposition-for-olfactory-groove-meningioma-can-olfaction-be-preserved

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1965–1972

Loss of olfaction has been considered inevitable in endoscopic endonasal resection of olfactory groove meningiomas. Olfaction preservation may be feasible through an endonasal unilateral transcribriform approach, with the option for expansion using septal transposition and contralateral preservation of the olfactory apparatus.

Methods An expanded unilateral endonasal transcribriform approach with septal transposition was performed in five cadaver heads. The approach was applied in a surgical case of a 24 × 26-mm olfactory groove meningioma originating from the right cribriform plate with partially intact olfaction.

Results The surgical approach offered adequate exposure to the anterior skull base bilaterally. The nasal/septal mucosa was preserved on the contralateral side. Gross total resection of the meningioma was achieved with the successful preservation of the contralateral olfactory apparatus and preoperative olfaction. Six months later, the left nasal cavity showed no disruption of the mucosal lining and the right side was at the appropriate stage of healing for a harvested nasoseptal flap. One year later, the preoperative olfactory function was intact and favorably viewed by the patient. Objective testing of olfaction showed microsomia.

Conclusions Olfaction preservation may be feasible in the endoscopic endonasal resection of a unilateral olfactory groove meningioma through a unilateral transcribriform approach with septal transposition and preservation of the contralateral olfactory apparatus.

Cystic meningioma: radiological, histological, and surgical particularities in 43 patients

cystic-meningioma-radiological-histological-and-surgical-particularities-in-43-patients

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1955–1964

The presence of cysts is a rare occurrence for intracranial meningiomas in adults. We report our experience in a large consecutive series of cystic meningiomas.

Method: We prospectively collected data for a dedicated database of cystic meningioma cases between January 2004 and December 2011 in two tertiary neurosurgical centers. Studied data included preoperative imaging, surgical records, and pathology reports.

Results: Among 1214 surgeries for intracranial meningioma, we identified 43 cases of cystic meningioma, corresponding to an incidence of 3.5 %. The most common localization was the hemispheric convexity (17/43 cases). Twenty-eight patients had intratumoral cysts, nine peritumoral, and five mixed intra and extratumoral. In 29 patients with available diffusion imaging, ADC coefficients were significantly lower in grade IIIII tumors compared to grade I (p = 0.01). Complete resection of the cystic components was possible in 27/43 patients (63 %); partial resection in 4/43 (9 %); in 6/43 (14 %) cyst resection was not possible but multiple biopsies were performed from the cystic walls; in another 6/43 (14 %) the cystic wall was not identified during surgery. Cells with neoplastic features were identified within the cyst walls at pathology in 26/43 cases (60 %). All patients were followed-up for 24 months; long-term follow-up was available only in 32 patients for an average period of 49 months (range, 36–96 months). No recurrence requiring surgery was observed.

Conclusions Cystic meningiomas are rare. Cells with neoplastic features are often identified within the cyst walls. Complete cyst resection is recommendable when considered technically feasible and safe.

Genomic landscape of intracranial meningiomas

genomic-meningiomas

J Neurosurg 125:525–535, 2016

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial neoplasms in adults. Current histopathological grading schemes do not consistently predict their natural history. Classic cytogenetic studies have disclosed a progressive course of chromosomal aberrations, especially in high-grade meningiomas. Furthermore, the recent application of unbiased nextgeneration sequencing approaches has implicated several novel genes whose mutations underlie a substantial percentage of meningiomas. These insights may serve to craft a molecular taxonomy for meningiomas and highlight putative therapeutic targets in a new era of rational biology-informed precision medicine.

Optic nerve pial circulation in tuberculum meningioma surgery

optic-nerve-pial-circulation-in-tuberculum-meningioma-surgery

J Neurosurg 125:565–569, 2016

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas frequently produce visual loss by direct compression from tumor, constriction of the optic nerve (ON) under the falciform ligament, and/or ON ischemia. The authors hypothesized that changes in visual function after tumor removal may be related to changes in blood supply to the ON that might be seen in the pial circulation at surgery. Indocyanine green (ICG) angiography was used to attempt to document these changes at surgery.

The first patient in whom the technique was used had a left-sided, 1.4-cm, tuberculum meningioma. Time-lapse comparison of images was done postsurgery, and the comparison of video images revealed both faster initial filling and earlier complete filling of the ON pial circulation, suggesting improved pial blood flow after surgical decompression. In follow-up the patient had significant improvements in both visual acuity and visual fields function. Intraoperative ICG angiography of the ON can demonstrate measurable changes in pial vascular flow that may be predictive of postoperative visual outcome.

The predictive value of this technique during neurosurgical procedures around the optic apparatus warrants further investigation in a larger cohort.

Long-Term Results of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas

Long-Term Results of Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Skull Base Meningiomas

Neurosurgery 79:58–68, 2016

Gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is well established in the management of inaccessible, recurrent, or residual benign skull base meningiomas. Most series report clinical outcome parameters and complications in the short intermediate period after radiosurgery. Reports of long-term tumor control and neurological status are still lacking.

OBJECTIVE: To report the presentation, treatment, and long-term outcome of skull base meningiomas after GKRS.

METHODS: From a prospectively collected institutional review board-approved database, we selected patients with a World Health Organization grade I skull base meningioma treated with a single-session GKRS and a minimum of 60 months follow-up. One hundred thirty-five patients, 54.1% males (n = 73), form the cohort. Median age was 54 years (19-80). Median tumor volume was 4.7 cm3 (0.5-23). Median margin dose was 15 Gy (7.5-36). Median follow-up was 102.5 months (60.1-235.4). Patient and tumor characteristics were assessed to determine the predictors of neurological function and tumor progression.

RESULTS: At last follow-up, tumor volume control was achieved in 88.1% (n = 119). Post- GKRS clinical improvement or stability was reported in 61.5%. The 5-, 10-, and 15-year actuarial progression-free survival rates were 100%, 95.4%, and 68.8%, respectively. Favorable outcome (both tumor control and clinical preservation/improvement) was attained in 60.8% (n = 79). Pre-GKRS performance status (Karnofsky Performance Scale) was shown to influence tumor progression (P = .001) and post-GKRS clinical improvement/preservation (P = .003).

CONCLUSION: GKRS offers a highly durable rate of tumor control for World Health Organization grade I skull base meningiomas, with an acceptably low incidence of neurological deficits. The Karnofsky Performance Scale at the time of radiosurgery serves as a reliable long-term predictor of overall outcome.

Seizures in supratentorial meningioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Meningiomas in Pregnancy- A Clinicopathologic Study of 17 Cases

J Neurosurg 124:1552–1561, 2016

Meningioma is the most common benign intracranial tumor, and patients with supratentorial meningioma frequently suffer from seizures. The rates and predictors of seizures in patients with meningioma have been significantly under-studied, even in comparison with other brain tumor types. Improved strategies for the prediction, treatment, and prevention of seizures in patients with meningioma is an important goal, because tumor-related epilepsy significantly impacts patient quality of life.

Methods: The authors performed a systematic review of PubMed for manuscripts published between January 1980 and September 2014, examining rates of pre- and postoperative seizures in supratentorial meningioma, and evaluating potential predictors of seizures with separate meta-analyses.

Results: The authors identified 39 observational case series for inclusion in the study, but no controlled trials. Preoperative seizures were observed in 29.2% of 4709 patients with supratentorial meningioma, and were significantly predicted by male sex (OR 1.74, 95% CI 1.30–2.34); an absence of headache (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04–3.25); peritumoral edema (OR 7.48, 95% CI 6.13–9.47); and non–skull base location (OR 1.77, 95% CI 1.04–3.25). After surgery, seizure freedom was achieved in 69.3% of 703 patients with preoperative epilepsy, and was more than twice as likely in those without peritumoral edema, although an insufficient number of studies were available for formal meta-analysis of this association. Of 1085 individuals without preoperative epilepsy who underwent resection, new postoperative seizures were seen in 12.3% of patients. No difference in the rate of new postoperative seizures was observed with or without perioperative prophylactic anticonvulsants.

Conclusions: Seizures are common in supratentorial meningioma, particularly in tumors associated with brain edema, and seizure freedom is a critical treatment goal. Favorable seizure control can be achieved with resection, but evidence does not support routine use of prophylactic anticonvulsants in patients without seizures. Limitations associated with systematic review and meta-analysis should be considered when interpreting these results.

Surgical management of medium and large petroclival meningiomas: a single institution’s experience of 199 cases with long-term follow-up

Surgical management of medium and large petroclival meningiomas

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:409–425

Petroclival meningiomas (PCMs) were once regarded as ‘inoperable’ due to their complex anatomy and limited surgical exposure. This study aimed to evaluate the long-term outcomes of surgically treated PCMs larger than 2 cm.

Methods A series of 199 consecutive patients (137 females, 68.8 %) with PCMs larger than 2 cm from between 1993 and 2003 were included. The clinical charts, radiographs, and follow-ups were evaluated.

Results Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 111 (55.8 %) patients, subtotal resection (STR) in 65, and partial resection (PR) in 23. Cranial nerve dysfunctions were the most common complications and occurred in 133 (66.8 %) cases. The surgical mortality was 2.0 %. The Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) scores significantly decreased 1 month after the operations (preoperative KPS=76.8 and postoperative KPS = 64.8; p = 0.011, Paired-samples t test). Long-term follow-ups were obtained in 142 patients, the follow-up duration was 171.6 months, and the most recent KPS was 83.2. Permanent morbidities remained in 24 patients (18.9 %). Multivariate analysis revealed that brainstem edema and tumors larger than 4 cm in diameter were independent risk factors in terms of outcomes (KPS < 80). The recurrence/ progression rates were 14.5, 31.8, and 53.3 % for the GTR, STR, and PR cases, respectively (p =0.002, Pearson χ2 test). Gamma Knife radiosurgery for the remnants exhibited good tumor control.

Conclusions Favorable outcomes and low mortality were achieved with the microsurgical management of medium and large PCMs; however, the rates of cranial nerves dysfunction remained high. Radically aggressive resection might not be judicious in terms of postoperative morbidity. The preoperative evaluations and intraoperative findings were informative regarding the outcomes. The low follow-up rate likely compromised our findings, and additional consecutive studies were required.

Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine/paracrine signaling: underestimated implication of growth hormone receptor

Prognostic factors of craniopharyngioma with special reference to autocrine-paracrine signaling

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:1731–1740

Craniopharyngioma is a slow-growing tumor classified as benign, but tight adhesion and significant local infiltration to the vital structures are common. In spite of improvement of modern microsurgery techniques and precise anatomical understanding not few cases of this tumor recur, and long-termtumor control and maintenance of quality of life are sometimes difficult. However, very little is known about the effects of the molecular characters of craniopharyngioma on the prognosis.

Methods Ninety eight cases of craniopharyngioma surgically treated at the Department of Neurosurgery, Tohoku University Hospital and Kohnan Hospital from April 1996 to May 2014, 45 males and 53 females aged from 2 to 80 years (mean, 40.84 years) were retrospectively reviewed, and postoperative outcomes and the possible involvement of the autocrine/ paracrine mechanism were investigated. The patients were followed up at intervals of 6 months to assess tumor recurrence, and clinical outcomes were correlated with the findings of immunohistochemical examinations used growth hormone receptor (GHR) and downstream hormones. The follow-up period ranged from 3 to 209 months.

Results Hormone expression was examined in 88 patients, of which 46 specimens (52.3 %) showed high expression of GHR. The GHR high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p=0.007). Simultaneous high expression of growth hormone (GH) and GHR was found in 33 specimens (37.5 %), and the high expression group had a significantly shorter duration of postoperative stable disease compared with the low expression group (logrank test, p=0.011). No other hormones showed statistically significant differences in outcomes.

Conclusions High expression of GHR is associated with shorter duration of postoperative stable disease in patients with craniopharyngioma. If the surgical specimens were craniopharyngiomas with high GHR expression, GH supplementation would be introduced quite prudently.

Higher-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Meningiomas to Determine Intratumoral Consistency

Higher-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Elastography in Meningiomas to Determine Intratumoral Consistency

Neurosurgery 77:653–659, 2015

Magnetic resonance elastography (MRE) analyzes shear wave movement through tissue to determine stiffness. In a prior study, measurements with firstgeneration brain MRE techniques correlated with intraoperative observations of overall meningioma stiffness.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of a higher-resolution MRE technique to preoperatively detect intratumoral variations compared with surgeon assessment.

METHODS: Fifteen meningiomas in 14 patients underwent MRE. Tumors with regions of distinctly different stiffness were considered heterogeneous. Intratumoral portions were considered hard if there was a significant area ≥6 kPa. A 5-point scale graded intraoperative consistency. A durometer semiquantitatively measured surgical specimen hardness. Statistics included x2, sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicative values, and Spearman rank correlation coefficient.

RESULTS: For MRE and surgery, 9 (60%) and 7 (47%) tumors were homogeneous, 6 (40%) and 8 (53%) tumors were heterogeneous, 6 (40%) and 10 (67%) tumors had hard portions, and 14 (93%) and 12 (80%) tumors had soft portions, respectively. MRE sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values were as follows: for heterogeneity, 75%, 100%, 100%, and 87%; for hardness, 60%, 100%, 100%, and 56%; and for softness, 100%, 33%, 86%, and 100%. Overall, 10 tumors (67%) matched well with MRE and intraoperative consistency and correlated between intraoperative observations (P = .02) and durometer readings (P = .03). Tumor size ≤3.5 cm or vascular tumors were more likely to be inconsistent (P < .05).

CONCLUSION: MRE was excellent at ruling in heterogeneity with hard portions but less effective in ruling out heterogeneity and hard portions, particularly in tumors more vascular or ≤3.5 cm. MRE is the first technology capable of prospectively evaluating intratumoral stiffness and, with further refinement, will likely prove useful in preoperative planning.

Can Preoperative Imaging Predict Tumor Involvement of the Anterior Clinoid in Clinoid Region Meningiomas?

Can Preoperative Imaging Predict Tumor Involvement of the Anterior Clinoid in Clinoid Region Meningiomas?

Neurosurgery 77:525–530, 2015

Anterior clinoid region meningiomas may infiltrate the bone over which they arise, therefore requiring an anterior clinoidectomy to achieve a Simpson grade 1 resection. A clinoidectomy, however, is not without risks.

OBJECTIVE: We performed a study of diagnostic accuracy investigating whether preoperative imaging could predict tumor involvement of the clinoid, and thereby tailor the degree of bony removal.

METHODS: Patients having undergone resection of a clinoid region meningioma between 2001 and 2011 were identified. Included in further analysis were those patients in whom a clinoidectomy was performed with subsequent pathologically confirmed presence or absence of tumor in the clinoid process on decalcified specimens. Two neuroradiologists, blinded to pathology results, independently reviewed available preoperative imaging and stated whether or not they anticipated the clinoid to be involved by tumor. Interobserver agreement and the ability to accurately predict tumor involvement of the clinoid were then analyzed.

RESULTS: Sixty-two patients were included in the final analysis. Interobserver agreement was 100%. Sensitivity and specificity of preoperative imaging to predict tumor involvement was 89% and 52%, respectively, with positive and negative likelihood ratios of 1.85 and 0.20. Positive and negative predictive values were 73% and 76%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Preoperative imaging of clinoid region meningiomas can accurately predict the presence or absence of tumor involvement of the clinoid in only approximately 75% of cases. In light of the fact that a quarter of patients with radiographically negative clinoids will have tumor present on pathological analysis, we recommend a clinoidectomy for all clinoid region meningiomas.

Intracranial meningioma surgery in the elderly (over 65 years): prognostic factors and outcome

Tuberculum Sellae Meningiomas

Acta Neurochir 157 (9): 1549-1557

Meningiomas are more prevalent in elderly individuals; however, the surgical outcome and prognostic factors in this age group are unclear. This retrospective study aimed to identify the prognostic factors of elderly patients with intracranial meningiomas who underwent surgical resection.

Methods

Eighty-six patients (aged ≥65) diagnosed with an intracranial meningioma were surgically treated at our department. The clinical, radiological, and follow-up data were retrospectively reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic analyses were performed to identify relationships between factors [age, sex, neurological condition, concomitant disease, American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) classification, preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, tumor location and size, peritumoral edema, and Simpson resection grade] and outcome.

Results

One patient (1.2 %) died within 30 days of surgery. The morbidity rate was 37.2 %. Postoperative morbidities occurred more frequently in the patients with preoperative neurological deficits than in those without (p = 0.049). Univariate analysis identified significant relationships between a low KPS score (≤70) at discharge and preoperative neurological deficits, low preoperative KPS score (≤70), and critical tumor location (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, and p = 0.04, respectively). In the multivariate logistic analysis, only the preoperative KPS score remained significant for the KPS score at discharge (p = 0.005); there was no significant association with the most recent KPS score.

Conclusion

The outcome of intracranial meningioma resection in elderly individuals is favorable if the preoperative KPS score is >70 and no neurological deficits are present. Treatment decisions should be patient-specific, and additional factors should be considered when operations are performed in patients with a low preoperative KPS score or neurological deficits.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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