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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Long-term outcomes of microvascular decompression and Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: a retrospective comparison study

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2127–2135

There is still no clear guideline for surgical treatment for patients with medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN). When it comes to which surgical treatment to choose, microvascular decompression (MVD) or Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), we should know the long-term outcome of each treatment.

Methods We analyzed 179 patients undergoing MVD and 52 patients undergoing GKS followed for 1 year or longer. We evaluated the patient’s neurological status including pain relief, complications and recurrence. Results were assessed with Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity and facial numbness scores. Overall outcomes were compared between the two groups based on pain relief and complications.

Results BNI pain intensity and facial numbness scores at the final visit were significantly lower in the MVD group than in the GKS group (P < 0.001, P = 0.04, respectively). Overall outcomes were superior following MVD than following GKS (P < 0.001). Following whichever treatment, there were initially high rates of pain-free status “without medication”: 96.6% in the MVD group and 96.2% in the GKS group. However, 6.1% in the MVD group and 51.9% in the GKS group fell into a “with medication” state within median periods of 1.83 and 3.92 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Kaplan- Meier analysis revealed that pain recurred more often and later in the GKS group than in the MVD group (P < 0.001).

Conclusions Considering the long-term outcomes, MVD should be chosen as the initial surgical treatment for patients with medically refractory TN.

Nerve atrophy in trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular compression and its association with surgical outcomes after microvascular decompression

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:1699–1705

Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is caused by neurovascular compression and is often related to morphological changes in the trigeminal nerve. The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure atrophic changes of trigeminal nerves in patients with TN, and to further investigate whether nerve atrophy affected the efficacy of microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study of 60 consecutive patients with TN and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution three-dimensional MRI. The volume of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerves was measured and compared using 3D Slicer software. Patients with TN underwent primary MVD and regular follow-up for at least 2 years. Associations of nerve atrophy with patient characteristics and operative outcomes were analyzed.

Results The mean volume of the affected trigeminal nerve was significantly reduced in comparison to that of the nonaffected side (65.8 ± 21.1 versus 77.9 ± 19.3 mm3, P = 0.001) and controls (65.8 ± 21.1 versus 74.7 ± 16.5 mm3, P = 0.003). Fifty-two patients (86.7%) achieved complete pain relief without medication immediately after surgery, and 77.6% of patients were complete pain relief at the 2-year follow-up. The Spearman correlation test showed that there was a positive correlation (r=0.46, P = 0.018) between the degree of trigeminal nerve indentation and nerve atrophy. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, two factors, indentation on nerve root (OR = 2.968, P = 0.022) and degree of nerve atrophy (OR = 1.18, P = 0.035), were associated with the long-term outcome.

Conclusions TN is associated with atrophy on the affected nerve. Furthermore, greater nerve atrophy is associated with more severe trigeminal nerve indentation and better long-term outcome following MVD.

Efficacy of primary microvascular decompression versus subsequent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 126:1691–1697, 2017

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, and lancinating pain along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Microvascular decompression (MVD) directly addresses compression of the trigeminal nerve. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing MVD as their first surgical intervention experience greater pain control than patients who undergo subsequent MVD.

METHODS A retrospective review of patient records from 1998 to 2015 identified a total of 942 patients with TN and 500 patients who underwent MVD. After excluding several cases, 306 patients underwent MVD as their first surgical intervention and 175 patients underwent subsequent MVD. Demographics and clinicopathological data and outcomes were obtained for analysis.

RESULTS In patients who underwent subsequent MVD, surgical intervention was performed at an older age (55.22 vs 49.98 years old, p < 0.0001) and the duration of symptoms was greater (7.22 vs 4.45 years, p < 0.0001) than for patients in whom MVD was their first surgical intervention. Patients who underwent initial MVD had improved pain relief and no improvement in pain rates compared with those who had subsequent MVD (95.8% and 4.2% vs 90.3% and 9.7%, respectively, p = 0.0041). Patients who underwent initial MVD had significantly lower rates of facial numbness in the pre- and postoperative periods compared with patients who underwent subsequent MVD (p < 0.0001). The number of complications in both groups was similar (p = 0.4572).

CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrate that patients who underwent other procedures prior to MVD had less pain relief and a higher incidence of facial numbness despite rates of complications similar to patients who underwent MVD as their first surgical intervention.

Microvascular decompression for tinnitus

J Neurosurg 126:1148–1157, 2017

The objective of this study was to examine operative outcomes in cases of microvascular decompression (MVD) of cranial nerve (CN) VIII for tinnitus through a critical review of the literature.

METHODS Forty-three English-language articles were gathered from PubMed and analyzed. In this review, two different case types were distinguished: 1) tinnitus-only symptomatology, which was defined as a patient with tinnitus with or without sensorineural hearing loss; and 2) mixed symptomatology, which was defined as tinnitus with symptoms of other CN dysfunction. This review reports outcomes of those with tinnitus-only symptoms.

RESULTS Forty-three tinnitus-only cases were found in the literature with a 60% positive outcome rate following MVD. Analysis revealed a 5-year cutoff of preoperative symptom duration before which a good outcome can be predicted with 78.6% sensitivity, and after which a poor outcome can be predicted with 80% specificity.

CONCLUSIONS As the 60% success rate is more promising than several other therapeutic options open to the chronic tinnitus sufferer, future research into this field is warranted.

Trigeminal neuralgia due to venous neurovascular conflicts

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159: 237

Implication of veins as neurovascular conflict (NVC) in the genesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) remains a matter of debate. Few reports dealing with venous NVC have been published. The objective of this study is to describe the outcome in a historical cohort of consecutive patients with classical TN due to venous compression.

Methods: All patients with TN treated by microvascular decompression (MVD) from 2005 to 2013 were included if a marked venous compression was found at the surgery either alone or accompanied by an artery. Patients were evaluated for clinical presentation, operative findings and the long-term outcome. Outcome was considered favourable if patients were classed as BNI I or II (i.e. not requiring any medication). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine probability of a favourable outcome at 10 years of follow-up.

Results:  Out of the overall series of 313 patients having been treated by MVD and considered for the study, in 55 (17.5 %) a vein was the main compressive vessel; in 26 (8.3 %) it was the only compressive vessel. Probability of relief with no need for medication at 10 years was 70.6 %. The patients with focal arachnoiditis had a poor long-term outcome, i.e. BNI III-V, in 85.7 % compared with 20.8 % without arachnoiditis (p = 0.0037 Fisher’s exact test). No differences in outcome were found between patients presenting with purely venous compression and patients with mixed compression. Outcome was similarly good for patients with atypical neuralgia when compared to patients with typical clinical presentation.

Conclusions: Venous NVC as a cause of TN is far from rare. MVD with complete liberation of the entire root in cases with clear-cut venous compression on imaging studies gives a good probability of long-term pain relief, thus encouraging to propose surgery for such patients.

Hydrocephalus: an underrated long-term complication of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

External lumbar drain- A pragmatic test for prediction of shunt outcomes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:2203–2206

Hydrocephalus is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery, but its real incidence after microvascular decompression (MVD) for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to focus on the potential association between MVD and hydrocephalus as a surgery-related complication.

Methods All patients who underwent MVD procedure for idiopathic TN at our institute between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed to search for early or late postoperative hydrocephalus.

Results There were 259 consecutive patients affected by idiopathic TN who underwent MVD procedure at our institution between 2009 and 2014 (113 men, 146 women; mean age 59 years, range 30–87 years; mean follow-up 40.92 months, range 8–48 months). Nine patients (3.47 %) developed communicating hydrocephalus after hospital discharge and underwent standard ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. No cases of acute hydrocephalus were noticed.

Conclusions Our study suggests that late communicating hydrocephalus may be an underrated potential long-term complication of MVD surgery.

 

Neurosurgical treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: analysis of 103 cases

GP neuralgia

J Neurosurg 124:1088–1092, 2016

The object of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term follow-up results of glossopharyngeal nerve rhizotomy (GPNR) with or without partial vagus nerve rhizotomy (VNR) for treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN).

Methods A retrospective review of the case notes of patients who had undergone surgery for GPN in the authors’ department between 2008 and 2013 was performed to investigate baseline characteristics and immediate outcomes during the hospitalization. For the long-term results, a telephone survey was performed, and information on pain recurrence and permanent complications was collected. Pain relief meant no pain or medication, any pain persisting after surgery was considered to be treatment failure, and any pain returning during the follow-up period was considered to be pain recurrence. For comparative study, the patients were divided into 2 cohorts, that is, patients treated with GPNR alone and those treated with GPNR+VNR.

Results One hundred three procedures, consisting of GPNR alone in 38 cases and GPNR+VNR in 65 cases, were performed in 103 consecutive patients with GPN. Seventy-nine of the 103 patients could be contacted for the follow-up study, with a mean follow-up duration of 2.73 years (range 1 month–5.75 years). While there were similar results (GPNR vs GPNR+VNR) in immediate pain relief rates (94.7% vs 93.8%), immediate complication rates (7.9% vs 4.6%), and longterm pain relief rates (92.3% vs 94.3%) between the 2 cohorts, a great difference was seen in long-term complications (3.8% vs 35.8%). The long-term complication rate for the combined GPNR+VNR cohort was 9.4 times higher than that in the GPNR cohort. There was no operative or perioperative mortality. Immediate complications occurred in 6 cases, consisting of poor wound healing in 3 cases, and CSF leakage, hoarseness, and dystaxia in 1 case each. Permanent complications occurred in 20 patients (25.3%) and included cough while drinking in 10 patients, pharyngeal discomfort in 8 patients, and hoarseness and dysphagia in 1 case each.

Conclusions In general, this study indicates that GPNR alone or in combination with VNR is a safe, simple, and effective treatment option for GPN. It may be especially valuable for patients who are not suitable for the microvascular decompression (MVD) procedure and for surgeons who have little experience with MVD. Of note, this study renews the significance of GPNR alone, which, the authors believe, is at least valuable for a subgroup of GPN patients, with significantly fewer long-term complications than those for rhizotomy for both glossopharyngeal nerve and rootlets of the vagus nerve.

Degree of distal trigeminal nerve atrophy predicts outcome after microvascular decompression for Type 1a trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin- an anatomical-surgical study-1

J Neurosurg 123:1512–1518, 2015

Trigeminal neuralgia is often associated with nerve atrophy, in addition to vascular compression. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional areas of different portions of the trigeminal nerve on preoperative imaging could be used to predict outcome after microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods A total of 26 consecutive patients with unilateral Type 1a trigeminal neuralgia underwent high-resolution fast-field echo MRI of the cerebellopontine angle followed by MVD. Preoperative images were reconstructed and reviewed by 2 examiners blinded to the side of symptoms and clinical outcome. For each nerve, a computerized automatic segmentation algorithm was used to calculate the coronal cross-sectional area at the proximal nerve near the root entry zone and the distal nerve at the exit from the porus trigeminus. Findings were correlated with outcome at 12 months.

Results After MVD, 17 patients were pain free and not taking medications compared with 9 with residual pain. Across all cases, the coronal cross-sectional area of the symptomatic trigeminal nerve was significantly smaller than the asymptomatic side in the proximal part of the nerve, which was correlated with degree of compression at surgery. Atrophy of the distal trigeminal nerve was more pronounced in patients who had residual pain than in those with excellent outcome. Among the 7 patients who had greater than 20% loss of nerve volume in the distal nerve, only 2 were pain free and not taking medications at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions Trigeminal neuralgia is associated with atrophy of the root entry zone of the affected nerve compared with the asymptomatic side, but volume loss in different segments of the nerve has very different prognostic implications. Proximal atrophy is associated with vascular compression and correlates with improved outcome following MVD. However, distal atrophy is associated with a significantly worse outcome after MVD.

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach

J Neurosurg 122:1429–1432, 2015

Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital craniotomy is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For recurrent TN, difficulties are sometimes encountered when performing reoperation via the same approach because of adhesions and prosthetic materials used in the previous surgery.

In the present case report the authors describe the efficacy of the subtemporal transtentorial approach for use in recurrent TN after MVD via the lateral suboccipital approach. An 86-year-old woman, in whom an MVD via a lateral suboccipital craniotomy had previously been performed for TN, underwent surgery for recurrent TN via the subtemporal transtentorial approach, which provided excellent visualization of the neurovascular relationships and the trigeminal nerve without adhesions due to the previous surgery. Her TN disappeared after the MVD.

The present approach is ideal for visualizing the trigeminal root entry zone, and the neurovascular complex can be easily dissected using a new surgical trajectory. This approach could be another surgical option for reoperation when the previous MVD had been performed via the suboccipital approach

Fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach for posterior petrous meningioma and trigeminal microvascular decompression

Fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach for posterior petrous

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:611–615

Cerebellopontine angle tumor resection and cranial nerve microvascular decompression are usually performed with the aid of the surgical microscope. The endoscope is commonly used as an adjuvant.

Method A retrosigmoid craniectomy is done. Upon dural opening, the endoscope is inserted into the operative field along the petrotentorial junction. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage provides a wider space for introduction of the endoscope and surgical instruments. Traditional microsurgical techniques are used during the entire procedure.

Conclusion A fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach is a safe and effective procedure for cerebellopontine angle tumor resection and cranial nerve microvascular decompression.

Key points

• Careful examination of preoperative studies is needed to identify anatomical peculiarities.

• Patient positioning: the head must be gently flexed and its vertex gently tilted toward the floor.

• Neurophysiologic monitoring and intraoperative navigation.

• Craniectomy: partial exposure of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses.

• Curvilinear dural incision reflected laterally to minimize the risk of sinus injury.

• Opening the cerebellomedullary cistern for CSF drainage and cerebellar relaxation.

• Dynamic endoscopy enhances depth perception and must be performed by a team with experience in endoscopic intracranial surgery.

• Traditional microsurgical techniques have to be applied during the entire operation.

• Multilayer reconstruction, including watertight dural closure.

• Meningiomas causing brainstem shift are not suitable for endoscopic resection.

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin: an anatomical-surgical study

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin- an anatomical-surgical study-1

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:455–466

Veins as the source of trigeminal neuralgias (TN) lead to controversies. Only a few studies have specifically dealt with venous implication in neurovascular conflicts (NVC). The aim of this study was the anatomical-surgical description of the compressive veins found during microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods Patients retained were those in whom a vein was considered compressive, alone, or in association with an artery. The study defined the type of vein involved, its situation along, the location around the root, and management. For this study, denomination of veins in relation with the root was revisited.

Results Of the 326 consecutive patients who underwent MVD from 2005 to 2013, 124 (38.0 %) had a venous conflict, alone in 29 (8.9 %), or in association with an artery in 95 (29.1 %). The compressive veins belonged to one of the two venous systems described: the superficial or the deep superior petrosal venous system (sSPVS or dSPVS). A vein from sSPVS was found compressive in 81 cases (59.6 %), for the major part it was the pontine affluent of the superior petrosal vein (48 cases). The conflict was situated at TREZ in 28.4 %, midcisternal portion in 50.6 %, and porus in 8.6 %. The dSPVS was found compressive in 55 cases (40.4 %), almost always a transverse vein at porus (51 cases). Decompression was coagulation-division of the conflicting vein in 36.8 % and simple cleavage in the other.

Conclusions The study shows the frequent implication of veins in NVC as the source of TN. NVC are not only at TREZ but also at mid-cisternal portion and porus of Meckel cave.

Microvascular decompression under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm

Microvascular decompression under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:329–332

We report microvascular decompression (MVD) under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients with rostral- and perforator-type compression of the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve.

Using either a wireless iPad Mini as a monitor on the microscope or a high-resolution monitor, microscopic and endoscopic views enabled MVD for complete cure of HFS with rostral-type compression (the offender compressing the REZ on the opposite rostral side to the operative approach) or perforator-type compression (the offender tethered to the REZ by the perforator).

MVD under neuroendoscopic view may offer more accurate MVD and complete resolution of HFS.

Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgiaActa Neurochir (2015) 157:311–321

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN), or better named vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGPN), is a rare disorder amounting to 1 % of the incidence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Pain is paroxysmal, of the electrical shooting type, and mainly provoked by stimulation of the pharynx or deep throat, especially during swallowing. Due to its rarity, VGPN is often misdiagnosed. The front line of medical treatment is based on anticonvulsants. Surgery should be considered when the pain is refractory to medications. In most patients, the cause is neurovascular conflict on root entry zone (REZ) or midcistern portion, of the IXth and/or Xth cranial nerves. Compressive vessels can be evidenced by means of a high sensibility and a high specificity resolution MR imaging in most centers.

Present consensus is that the first option of neurosurgical treatment be microvascular decompression. In patients with precarious general conditions, stereotactic radiosurgery may be considered. Also, thermo-rhizotomy at the pars nervosa of foramen jugularis or tractotomy-nucleotomy at brainstem may be alternatives, but these methods entail a significant risk of deficits.

In this article, the authors reviewed the main literature series on neurosurgical treatments of this disease.

Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression

Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression- can it be avoided?

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:93–99

Although microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery has been widely accepted as an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS), delayed relief cases have been frequently reported. Therefore, the value of an immediate redo MVD should be discussed.

Methods This study included 1,435 HFS patients who underwent MVD with intraoperative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring from 2011 through 2013 at XinHua Hospital. These cases were analyzed retrospectively with emphasis on the postoperative outcomes and introaperative findings.

Results After MVD, 1,384 HFS patients obtained relief immediately. The 51 unrelieved patients underwent AMR monitoring again the next day; this was positive in 48 and negative in 3 patients. These three patients with negative AMR obtained relief spontaneously within a week. Among the 48 positive patients, 31 and 11 were underwent redoMVD within a week and 5–22 months, respectively, and all achieved relief after the second operation. Of the six remainig patients, two obtained relief within 2months and 4 remained unchanged in the up-to- 3-year’s follow-up period. In redoMVDs, insufficient decompression of the facial nerve accounted for the failure. Finally, in this database, the immediate postoperative cure rate was 96.4 %; with earlier redo MVD, the final cure rate could be increased to 99.9 %.

Conclusions Despite being a reasonable remedy for HFS in the hands of an experienced neurosurgeon, sometimes small vessels can be missed while managing the main offending arteries during MVDs, which might account for the delayed relief. Therefore, reexamination of the AMR is necessary for unimproved patients; if a positive result is recorded, an immediate redo MVD is suggested.

Repeat microvascular decompression for recurrent idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

TN

DOI: 10.3171/2014.7.JNS132667

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is considered the method of choice to treat idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) refractory to medical treatment. However, repeat MVD for recurrent TN is not well established. In this paper, the authors describe a large case series in which patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN, focusing on outcome, risk factors, and complication rates.

Methods. Between 1990 and 2012, a total of 33 consecutive patients underwent repeat MVD for recurrent TN at the University Medical Center Groningen. The authors performed a retrospective chart review and telephone interviews. Risk factors were analyzed by binary logistic regression analysis.

Results. After 12 months of follow-up, 22 (67%) operations were successful, of which 19 patients were completely free of pain without medication. With multivariate analysis significant risk factors for success were older age (OR 1.11, p < 0.01) and direct absence of pain after repeat MVD (OR 25.2, p < 0.01). Previous neurodestructive procedures did not influence success rates. Facial numbness occurred in 9 patients (27%), while other morbidity was minimal. There was no mortality.

Conclusions. This study demonstrates that repeat MVD is a feasible therapeutic option with good chances of success, even in patients who have undergone neurodestructive procedures. Complication rates, particularly facial numbness, can be avoided if only a limited neurolysis is performed.

Trigeminal nerve atrophy caused by neurovascular compression

Atrophic changes in the trigeminal nerves of patients with trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular compression and their association with the severity of compression and clinical outcomes

J Neurosurg 120:1484–1495, 2014

The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate atrophic changes in trigeminal nerves (TGNs) using measurements of volume (V) and cross-sectional area (CSA) from high-resolution 3-T MR images obtained in patients with unilateral trigeminal neuralgia (TN), and to correlate these data with patient and neurovascular compression (NVC) characteristics and with clinical outcomes.

Methods. Anatomical TGN parameters (V and CSA) were obtained in 50 patients (30 women and 20 men; mean age 56.42 years, range 22–79 years) with classic TN before treatment with microvascular decompression (MVD). Parameters were compared between the symptomatic (ipsilateralTN) and asymptomatic (contralateralTN) sides of the face. Twenty normal control subjects were also included. Two independent observers blinded to the side of pain separately analyzed the images. Measurements of V (from the pons to the entrance of the nerve into Meckel’s cave) and CSA (at 5 mm from the entry of the TGN into the pons) for each TGN were performed using imaging software and axial and coronal projections, respectively. These data were correlated with patient characteristics (age, duration of symptoms before MVD, side of pain, sex, and area of pain distribution), NVC characteristics (type of vessel involved in NVC, location of compression along the nerve, site of compression around the circumference of the root, and degree of compression), and clinical outcomes at the 2-year follow-up after surgery. Comparisons were made using Bonferroni’s test. Interobserver variability was assessed using the Pearson correlation coefficient.

Results. The mean V of the TGN on the ipsilateralTN (60.35 ± 21.74 mm3) was significantly smaller (p < 0.05) than those for the contralateralTN and controls (78.62 ± 24.62 mm3 and 89.09 ± 14.72 mm3, respectively). The mean CSA of the TGN on the ipsilateralTN (4.17 ± 1.74 mm2) was significantly smaller than those for the contralateralTN and controls (5.41 ± 1.89 mm2 and 5.64 ± 0.85 mm2, respectively). The ipsilateralTN with NVC Grade III (marked indentation) had a significantly smaller mean V than the ipsilateralTN with NVC Grade I (mere contact), although it was not significantly smaller than that of the ipsilateralTN with NVC Grade II (displacement or distortion of root). The ipsilateralTN with NVC Grade III had a significantly smaller mean CSA than the ipsilateral TN with NVC Grades I and II (p < 0.05). The TGN on the ipsilateralTN in cured patients had a smaller mean CSA than that on the ipsilateralTN of patients with partial pain relief or treatment failure (p < 0.05). The same finding was almost found in relation to measurements of V, but the p value was slightly higher at 0.05.

Conclusions. Results showed that TGN atrophy in patients with TN can be demonstrated by high-resolution imaging. These data suggest that atrophic changes in TGNs, which significantly correlated with the severity of compression and clinical outcomes, may help to predict long-term prognosis after vascular decompression.

Trigeminal neuralgia occurs and recurs in the absence of neurovascular compression

NVC-TN

J Neurosurg 120:1048–1054, 2014

Vascular compression of the trigeminal nerve is the most common factor associated with the etiology of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Microvascular decompression (MVD) has proven to be the most successful and durable surgical approach for this disorder. However, not all patients with TN manifest unequivocal neurovascular compression (NVC). Furthermore, over time patients with an initially successful MVD manifest a relentless rate of TN recurrence.

Methods. The authors performed a retrospective review of cases of TN Type 1 (TN1) or Type 2 (TN2) involving patients 18 years or older who underwent evaluation (and surgery when indicated) at Oregon Health & Science University between July 2006 and February 2013. Surgical and imaging findings were correlated.

Results. The review identified a total of 257 patients with TN (219 with TN1 and 38 with TN2) who underwent high-resolution MRI and MR angiography with 3D reconstruction of combined images using OsiriX. Imaging data revealed that the occurrence of TN1 and TN2 without NVC was 28.8% and 18.4%, respectively. A subgroup of 184 patients underwent surgical exploration. Imaging findings were highly correlated with surgical findings, with a sensitivity of 96% for TN1 and TN2 and a specificity of 90% for TN1 and 66% for TN2.

Conclusions. Magnetic resonance imaging detects NVC with a high degree of sensitivity. However, despite a diagnosis of TN1 or TN2, a significant number of patients have no NVC. Trigeminal neuralgia clearly occurs and recurs in the absence of NVC.

Role of endoscopy in the microvascular decompression for neurovascular conflicts in the cerebello-pontine angle

neurovascular conflict

Acta Neurochir (2013) 155:1709–1716

Microvascular decompression (MVD) is the surgical intervention designed to resolve neurovascular conflicts (NCs) in the cerebellopontine angle (CPA). Today, endoscopy is commonly used in many neurosurgical procedures. This study aims to retrospectively assess the usefulness of endoscopy during MVD, focusing on microscopic endoscopic-assisted (MEA) MVD.

Methods Between January 2010 and December 2012, 141 patients underwent MVD procedures: 119 (84.5 %) were affected by idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN), 20 (14 %) by hemifacial spasm (HFS), 1 by glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GN) and 1 by TN and GN simultaneously; 128 (91 %) MVD were first time procedures, while 13 (9 %) were recurrences (10 TN, 3 HFS). Visualization techniques used were: pure microscopic in 89 (63 %) cases, fully endoscopic in 12 (8.5 %) and MEA in 40 (28.5 %). The MEA technique was used when the conflict was not clearly identified under microscopic view or it was not certainly resolved.

Results Overall, a NC was found in 130 (92 %) cases, while 11 patients had no intraoperative evidence of NC. Considering specifically the 40 MEA cases, 12 (8.5 % overall) conflicts not clearly visible with the microscope were revealed and solved, a complete conflict resolution was confirmed in 13 (9 % overall) cases, while an incomplete conflict resolution was shown in four cases (3 % overall).

Conclusion Pure microscopic MVD remains the technique of choice. The endoscope is a useful adjunctive imaging tool in confirming NCs identified by the microscope, revealing conflicts missed by the microscopic survey alone and verifying adequate nerve decompression.

Follow-up results of the microvascular decompression operation for hemifacial spasm

FU of our microvascular decompression operation for HFS

Acta Neurochir (2013) 155:1693–1697

Microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS) has been popular, but it may take enough time to master this special operative technique and procedure. This may induce uneven distribution of the number of MVD operations in each institute, possibly resulting in an overall unsatisfactory quality of MVD surgeons. Nakanishi’s approach to MVD operations has the feature of using a, “supine, no retractor” technique, which would achieve various benefits for patients and medical professionals. We would like to recommend this approach for MVD surgeons on the basis of our follow-up outcomes.

Methods A questionnaire, which was based on the method of evaluation for the long-term results of post-MVD operation as recommended by the Japanese Society of MVD, was sent by mail to the 154 HFS patients who had received Nakanishi’s approach at our hospital.

Results Except for 42 patients who had changed their residences, 89 patients (79.5 % of 112) fully answered. The mean postoperative follow-up term was 13.0 years. The 76.4 % of the patients was estimated as excellent. Postoperative deafness was not present. The average value of satisfaction degree for the results of the MVD operation was 87.9 %.

Conclusions This study revealed that Nakanishi’s approach produced good results equivalent of other approaches for HFS patients. This approach is considered to have many advantages comparing to the other approaches. Therefore, we would like to recommend that Nakanishi’s approach would contribute to overall advancement of the level of MVD surgeons.

Detecting the Offending Vessel in Hemifacial Spasm

Value of 3-Dimensional High-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Detecting the Offending Vessel in Hemifacial Spasm

Neurosurgery 73:58–67, 2013

High-resolution 3-dimensional (3-D) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is widely used to predict the neurovascular anatomy within the cerebellopontine angle.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the value of 3-D steady-state free precession imaging (SSFP) and time-of-flight magnetic resonance angiography (TOF MRA) in detecting the offending vessels in hemifacial spasm in comparison to intraoperative endoscopic visualization.

METHODS: 42 patients underwent endoscope-assisted microvascular decompression (MVD). All available preoperative 3-D SSFP and TOF MRA images were checked. Intraoperative videos were captured by a high-definition endoscopic camera attached to endoscopes while exploring the area of facial nerve root exit zone (REZ). Evaluation of the 3-D images was performed by 2 independent groups of observers and compared with the operative findings.

RESULTS: Three-D MRI had an average positive predictive value (PPV) of 89.1% in differentiating between simple and complex compression. Mean accuracy of the images in detection of the offending vessels was 83.3% and 77% according to the first and second groups of observers, respectively. Averaged inter-observer agreement between the 2 groups of observers was substantial, with an averaged Kappa coefficient (K) of 0.56. In the simple compression group, mean accuracy was 97% and 89.4% according to the first and second groups of observers, respectively. Averaged K for agreement was substantial (K = 0.65).

CONCLUSION: According to endoscopic visualization, 3-D SSFP and TOF MRA images are accurate in detecting the offending vessels in simple compression of the facial nerve, and in predicting presence of a complex compression with variable sensitivity in identifying all offending vessels.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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MCA Aneurysm Anatomical Classification Scheme

Blister Aneurysms of the Internal Carotid Artery

Bypass for Complex Basilar Aneurysms

Basilar Invagination and Atlanto-Axial Dislocation Video 1

Indocyanine Green Videoangiography “In Negative” Video 2

Indocyanine Green Videoangiography “In Negative” Video 1

Management of a Recurrent Coiled Giant Posterior Cerebral Artery Aneurysm

Bypass for Complex Basilar Aneurysms

Expanded Endonasal Approach for 2012 MERC

Endoscopic Endonasal Middle Clinoidectomy Video 1

Endoscopic Endonasal Middle Clinoidectomy Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Flash Fluorescence for MCA Bypass Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Flash Fluorescence for MCA Bypass Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Endoscopic Transventricular Lamina Terminalis Fenestration Video 1

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Surgery for Giant PCOM Aneurysms Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endovascular-Surgical Approach to Cavernous dAVF

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 4

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 3

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 2

Neurosurgery CNS: Lateral Supraorbital Approach Applied to Anterior Clinoidal Meningiomas Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Surgery of AVMs in Motor Areas

NeurosurgeryCNS: The Fenestrated Yaşargil T-Bar Clip

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS. ‘Double-Stick Tape’ Technique for Offending Vessel Transposition in Microvascular Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Advances in the Treatment and Outcome of Brain Stem Cavernous Malformation Surgery: 300 Patients

3T MRI Integrated Neuro Suite

NeurosurgeryCNS: 3D In Vivo Modeling of Vestibular Schwannomas and Surrounding Cranial Nerves Using DIT

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 7

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 6

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 5

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 4

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Corticotomy Closure Avoids Subdural Collections After Hemispherotomy

NeurosurgeryCNS: Operative Nuances of Side-to-Side in Situ PICA-PICA Bypass Procedure

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Fusiform Aneurysms of the Anterior Communicating Artery

NeurosurgeryCNS. Initial Clinical Experience with a High Definition Exoscope System for Microneurosurgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro.

NeurosurgeryCNS: Neuronavigation for Neuroendoscopic Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS:New Aneurysm Clip System for Particularly Complex Aneurysm Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: AICA/PICA Anatomical Variants Penetrating the Subarcuate Fossa Dura

Craniopharyngioma Supra-Orbital Removal

NeurosurgeryCNS: Use of Flexible Hollow-Core CO2 Laser in Microsurgical Resection of CNS Lesions

NeurosurgeryCNS: Ulnar Nerve Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

NeurosurgeryCNS: ICG Videoangiography

NeurosurgeryCNS: Inappropiate aneurysm clip applications


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