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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Quantitative study of the correlation between cerebellar retraction factors and hearing loss following microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:145–150

This prospective study quantitatively measured the cerebellar retraction factors, including retraction distance, depth and duration, and evaluated their potential relationship to the development of hearing loss after microvascular decompression (MVD) for hemifacial spasm (HFS).

Methods One hundred ten patients with primary HFS who underwent MVD in our department were included into this study. The cerebellar retraction factors were quantitatively measured on preoperative MR and timed during MVD. Associations of cerebellar retraction and other factors to postoperative hearing loss were analyzed.

Results Eleven (10%) patients developed hearing loss after MVD. Compared with the group without hearing loss, the cerebellar retraction distance, depth and duration of the group with hearing loss were significantly greater (p < 0.05). Multivariate regression analysis showed that greater cerebellar retraction depth and longer retraction duration were significantly associated with a higher incidence of postoperative hearing impairment (p < 0.05).

Conclusion This study strongly suggested a correlation between the cerebellar retraction factors, especially retraction depth and duration, and possibility of hearing loss following MVD for HFS.

 

Long-term follow-up of multimodality treatment for multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:135–144

The treatment for multiple sclerosis-related trigeminal neuralgia (MS-TN) is less efficacious and associated with higher recurrence rates than classical TN. No consensus has been reached in the literature on the choice procedure for MS-TN patients. The aim of this study was to assess the incidence and surgical outcomes of medically refractory MS-TN.

Methods Patient records were retrospectively reviewed for all Manitobans undergoing first procedure for medically refractory MS-TN between 2000 and 2014. Subsequent procedures were then recorded and analyzed in this subgroup of patients. The primary outcome measure was time to treatment failure.

Results The incidence of medically refractory MS-TN was 1.2/million/year. Twenty-one patients with 26 surgically treated sides underwent first rhizotomy including 13 GammaKnife and 13 percutaneous rhizotomies comprised of ten glycerol injections and three balloon compressions. Subsequent procedures were required on 23 sides (88%), including 24 GammaKnife, 19 glycerol injections, 25 balloon compressions, two microvascular decompressions, and four open partial surgical rhizotomies with a total of 99 surgeries on 26 sides (range, 1–12 each).

Conclusions The majority of MS-TN patients become medically refractory and require multiple repeat surgical procedures. MS-TN procedures were associated with high rates of pain recurrence and our data suggests reoperation within 1 year is often necessary. Optimal management strategy in this patient population remains to be determined. Patients need to be counseled on managing expectations as treatments commonly afford only temporary relief.

Intraoperative monitoring of sensory part of the trigeminal nerve using blink reflex during microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:165–169

Intraoperative monitoring during cerebellopontine angle surgery is widely accepted. While techniques which monitor cranial motor nerves are commonly used, monitoring the sensory afferents has been challenging. Considering the reflex arc, blink reflex (BR) might be useful in monitoring the sensory part of the trigeminal nerve, the brainstem connections and the facial nerve.

We describe the case of a patient who developed hemifacial hypoesthesia after microvascular decompression surgery for trigeminal neuralgia. Intraoperative BR showed a severe loss of R1 amplitude.

BR might be a useful intraoperative technique to monitor the sensory part of the trigeminal nerve.

Keywords

Prospective comparison of long-term pain relief rates after first-time microvascular decompression and stereotactic radiosurgery for trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 128:68–77, 2018

Common surgical treatments for trigeminal neuralgia (TN) include microvascular decompression (MVD), stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), and radiofrequency ablation (RFA). Although the efficacy of each procedure has been described, few studies have directly compared these treatment modalities on pain control for TN. Using a large prospective longitudinal database, the authors aimed to 1) directly compare long-term pain control rates for first-time surgical treatments for idiopathic TN, and 2) identify predictors of pain control.

METHODS The authors reviewed a prospectively collected database for all patients who underwent treatment for TN between 1997 and 2014 at the University of California, San Francisco. Standardized collection of data on preoperative clinical characteristics, surgical procedure, and postoperative outcomes was performed. Data analyses were limited to those patients who received a first-time procedure for treatment of idiopathic TN with > 1 year of follow-up.

RESULTS Of 764 surgical procedures performed at the University of California, San Francisco, for TN (364 SRS, 316 MVD, and 84 RFA), 340 patients underwent first-time treatment for idiopathic TN (164 MVD, 168 SRS, and 8 RFA) and had > 1 year of follow-up. The analysis was restricted to patients who underwent MVD or SRS. Patients who received MVD were younger than those who underwent SRS (median age 63 vs 72 years, respectively; p < 0.001). The mean follow-up was 59 ± 35 months for MVD and 59 ± 45 months for SRS. Approximately 38% of patients who underwent MVD or SRS had > 5 years of follow-up (60 of 164 and 64 of 168 patients, respectively). Immediate or short-term (< 3 months) postoperative pain-free rates (Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity score of I) were 96% for MVD and 75% for SRS. Percentages of patients with Barrow Neurological Institute Pain Intensity score of I at 1, 5, and 10 years after MVD were 83%, 61%, and 44%, and the corresponding percentages after SRS were 71%, 47%, and 27%, respectively. The median time to pain recurrence was 94 months (25th–75th quartiles: 57–131 months) for MVD and 53 months (25th–75th quartiles: 37–69 months) for SRS (p = 0.006). A subset of patients who had MVD also underwent partial sensory rhizotomy, usually in the setting of insignificant vascular compression. Compared with MVD alone, those who underwent MVD plus partial sensory rhizotomy had shorter pain-free intervals (median 45 months vs no median reached; p = 0.022). Multivariable regression demonstrated that shorter preoperative symptom duration (HR 1.005, 95% CI 1.001–1.008; p = 0.006) was associated with favorable outcome for MVD and that post-SRS sensory changes (HR 0.392, 95% CI 0.213–0.723; p = 0.003) were associated with favorable outcome for SRS.

CONCLUSIONS In this longitudinal study, patients who received MVD had longer pain-free intervals compared with those who underwent SRS. For patients who received SRS, postoperative sensory change was predictive of favorable outcome. However, surgical decision making depends upon many factors. This information can help physicians counsel patients with idiopathic TN on treatment selection.

The tethered effect of the arachnoid in vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia: a real associated alternative mechanism?

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:151–155

Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGPN) is a rarely seen disease when compared to trigeminal neuralgia. When the pain is resistant to medical therapy, microvascular decompression can be performed if a vascular conflict is suspected on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, arachnoid pathology may play a role in VGPN. We report two cases of VGPN caused by tethered arachnoid, associated with a vascular contact in which pain was reduced by freeing rootlets from arachnoid compression.

We report two cases relating to 50-year-old and 30-year-old men with a history of electric shooting pain triggered by swallowing in the right pharyngeal and auricular regions. Preoperative MRI documented a neurovascular conflict in the first case and an arachnoid cyst in the second. Surgery was performed via a retrosigmoid craniotomy. In both cases, the intraoperative findings documented a tethered arachnoid membrane compressive to cranial nerves IX and X. Untethering was performed by liberation of the rootlets from the arachnoid with microvascular decompression. No additional rhizotomy was performed. The postoperative course was uneventful and pain was relieved in the first case and decreased in the second.

In VGPN, a tethered arachnoid may play a role in causing the neuralgia, either alone or associated with a neuro-vascular conflict.

Microvascular decompression for glossopharyngeal neuralgia: a retrospective analysis of 228 cases

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:117–123

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN) is an uncommon craniofacial pain syndrome caused by neurovascular conflict. Compared to trigeminal neuralgia or hemifacial spasm, the incidence of GPN was very low. Until now, little is known about the long-term outcome following microvascular decompression (MVD) process.

Methods Between 2006 and 2016, 228 idiopathic GPN patients underwent MVD in our department. Those cases were retrospectively reviewed with emphasis on intraoperative findings and long-term postoperative outcomes. The average period of follow-up was 54.3 ± 6.2 months.

Results Intraoperatively, the culprit was identified as the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) in 165 cases (72.3%), the vertebral artery (VA) in 14 (6.1%), vein in 10 (4.4%), and a combination of multiple arteries or venous offending vessels in 39 (17.2%). The immediately postoperative outcome was excellent in 204 cases (89.5%), good in 12 (5.3%), fair in 6 (2.6%) and poor in 6 (2.6%). More than 5-year follow-up was obtained in 107 cases (46.9%), which presented as excellent in 93 (86.9%), good in 6 (5.6%), fair in 3 (2.8%) and poor in 5 (4.7%). Thirty-seven (16.2%) of the patients experienced some postoperative neurological deficits immediately, such as dysphagia, hoarseness and facial paralysis, which has been improved at the last follow-up in most cases, except 2.

Conclusions This investigation demonstrated that MVD is a safe and effective remedy for treatment of GPN.

Long-term outcomes of microvascular decompression and Gamma Knife surgery for trigeminal neuralgia: a retrospective comparison study

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:2127–2135

There is still no clear guideline for surgical treatment for patients with medically refractory trigeminal neuralgia (TN). When it comes to which surgical treatment to choose, microvascular decompression (MVD) or Gamma Knife surgery (GKS), we should know the long-term outcome of each treatment.

Methods We analyzed 179 patients undergoing MVD and 52 patients undergoing GKS followed for 1 year or longer. We evaluated the patient’s neurological status including pain relief, complications and recurrence. Results were assessed with Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) pain intensity and facial numbness scores. Overall outcomes were compared between the two groups based on pain relief and complications.

Results BNI pain intensity and facial numbness scores at the final visit were significantly lower in the MVD group than in the GKS group (P < 0.001, P = 0.04, respectively). Overall outcomes were superior following MVD than following GKS (P < 0.001). Following whichever treatment, there were initially high rates of pain-free status “without medication”: 96.6% in the MVD group and 96.2% in the GKS group. However, 6.1% in the MVD group and 51.9% in the GKS group fell into a “with medication” state within median periods of 1.83 and 3.92 years, respectively (P < 0.001). Kaplan- Meier analysis revealed that pain recurred more often and later in the GKS group than in the MVD group (P < 0.001).

Conclusions Considering the long-term outcomes, MVD should be chosen as the initial surgical treatment for patients with medically refractory TN.

Nerve atrophy in trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular compression and its association with surgical outcomes after microvascular decompression

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:1699–1705

Idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is caused by neurovascular compression and is often related to morphological changes in the trigeminal nerve. The aim of this study was to quantitatively measure atrophic changes of trigeminal nerves in patients with TN, and to further investigate whether nerve atrophy affected the efficacy of microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods We conducted a prospective case-control study of 60 consecutive patients with TN and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls. All subjects underwent high-resolution three-dimensional MRI. The volume of the cisternal segment of trigeminal nerves was measured and compared using 3D Slicer software. Patients with TN underwent primary MVD and regular follow-up for at least 2 years. Associations of nerve atrophy with patient characteristics and operative outcomes were analyzed.

Results The mean volume of the affected trigeminal nerve was significantly reduced in comparison to that of the nonaffected side (65.8 ± 21.1 versus 77.9 ± 19.3 mm3, P = 0.001) and controls (65.8 ± 21.1 versus 74.7 ± 16.5 mm3, P = 0.003). Fifty-two patients (86.7%) achieved complete pain relief without medication immediately after surgery, and 77.6% of patients were complete pain relief at the 2-year follow-up. The Spearman correlation test showed that there was a positive correlation (r=0.46, P = 0.018) between the degree of trigeminal nerve indentation and nerve atrophy. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, two factors, indentation on nerve root (OR = 2.968, P = 0.022) and degree of nerve atrophy (OR = 1.18, P = 0.035), were associated with the long-term outcome.

Conclusions TN is associated with atrophy on the affected nerve. Furthermore, greater nerve atrophy is associated with more severe trigeminal nerve indentation and better long-term outcome following MVD.

Efficacy of primary microvascular decompression versus subsequent microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 126:1691–1697, 2017

Trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is characterized by intermittent, paroxysmal, and lancinating pain along the distribution of the trigeminal nerve. Microvascular decompression (MVD) directly addresses compression of the trigeminal nerve. The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing MVD as their first surgical intervention experience greater pain control than patients who undergo subsequent MVD.

METHODS A retrospective review of patient records from 1998 to 2015 identified a total of 942 patients with TN and 500 patients who underwent MVD. After excluding several cases, 306 patients underwent MVD as their first surgical intervention and 175 patients underwent subsequent MVD. Demographics and clinicopathological data and outcomes were obtained for analysis.

RESULTS In patients who underwent subsequent MVD, surgical intervention was performed at an older age (55.22 vs 49.98 years old, p < 0.0001) and the duration of symptoms was greater (7.22 vs 4.45 years, p < 0.0001) than for patients in whom MVD was their first surgical intervention. Patients who underwent initial MVD had improved pain relief and no improvement in pain rates compared with those who had subsequent MVD (95.8% and 4.2% vs 90.3% and 9.7%, respectively, p = 0.0041). Patients who underwent initial MVD had significantly lower rates of facial numbness in the pre- and postoperative periods compared with patients who underwent subsequent MVD (p < 0.0001). The number of complications in both groups was similar (p = 0.4572).

CONCLUSIONS The results demonstrate that patients who underwent other procedures prior to MVD had less pain relief and a higher incidence of facial numbness despite rates of complications similar to patients who underwent MVD as their first surgical intervention.

Microvascular decompression for tinnitus

J Neurosurg 126:1148–1157, 2017

The objective of this study was to examine operative outcomes in cases of microvascular decompression (MVD) of cranial nerve (CN) VIII for tinnitus through a critical review of the literature.

METHODS Forty-three English-language articles were gathered from PubMed and analyzed. In this review, two different case types were distinguished: 1) tinnitus-only symptomatology, which was defined as a patient with tinnitus with or without sensorineural hearing loss; and 2) mixed symptomatology, which was defined as tinnitus with symptoms of other CN dysfunction. This review reports outcomes of those with tinnitus-only symptoms.

RESULTS Forty-three tinnitus-only cases were found in the literature with a 60% positive outcome rate following MVD. Analysis revealed a 5-year cutoff of preoperative symptom duration before which a good outcome can be predicted with 78.6% sensitivity, and after which a poor outcome can be predicted with 80% specificity.

CONCLUSIONS As the 60% success rate is more promising than several other therapeutic options open to the chronic tinnitus sufferer, future research into this field is warranted.

Trigeminal neuralgia due to venous neurovascular conflicts

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159: 237

Implication of veins as neurovascular conflict (NVC) in the genesis of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) remains a matter of debate. Few reports dealing with venous NVC have been published. The objective of this study is to describe the outcome in a historical cohort of consecutive patients with classical TN due to venous compression.

Methods: All patients with TN treated by microvascular decompression (MVD) from 2005 to 2013 were included if a marked venous compression was found at the surgery either alone or accompanied by an artery. Patients were evaluated for clinical presentation, operative findings and the long-term outcome. Outcome was considered favourable if patients were classed as BNI I or II (i.e. not requiring any medication). Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to determine probability of a favourable outcome at 10 years of follow-up.

Results:  Out of the overall series of 313 patients having been treated by MVD and considered for the study, in 55 (17.5 %) a vein was the main compressive vessel; in 26 (8.3 %) it was the only compressive vessel. Probability of relief with no need for medication at 10 years was 70.6 %. The patients with focal arachnoiditis had a poor long-term outcome, i.e. BNI III-V, in 85.7 % compared with 20.8 % without arachnoiditis (p = 0.0037 Fisher’s exact test). No differences in outcome were found between patients presenting with purely venous compression and patients with mixed compression. Outcome was similarly good for patients with atypical neuralgia when compared to patients with typical clinical presentation.

Conclusions: Venous NVC as a cause of TN is far from rare. MVD with complete liberation of the entire root in cases with clear-cut venous compression on imaging studies gives a good probability of long-term pain relief, thus encouraging to propose surgery for such patients.

Hydrocephalus: an underrated long-term complication of microvascular decompression for trigeminal neuralgia

External lumbar drain- A pragmatic test for prediction of shunt outcomes in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:2203–2206

Hydrocephalus is a common complication of posterior fossa surgery, but its real incidence after microvascular decompression (MVD) for idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (TN) still remains unclear. The aim of this study was to focus on the potential association between MVD and hydrocephalus as a surgery-related complication.

Methods All patients who underwent MVD procedure for idiopathic TN at our institute between 2009 and 2014 were reviewed to search for early or late postoperative hydrocephalus.

Results There were 259 consecutive patients affected by idiopathic TN who underwent MVD procedure at our institution between 2009 and 2014 (113 men, 146 women; mean age 59 years, range 30–87 years; mean follow-up 40.92 months, range 8–48 months). Nine patients (3.47 %) developed communicating hydrocephalus after hospital discharge and underwent standard ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. No cases of acute hydrocephalus were noticed.

Conclusions Our study suggests that late communicating hydrocephalus may be an underrated potential long-term complication of MVD surgery.

 

Neurosurgical treatment of glossopharyngeal neuralgia: analysis of 103 cases

GP neuralgia

J Neurosurg 124:1088–1092, 2016

The object of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term follow-up results of glossopharyngeal nerve rhizotomy (GPNR) with or without partial vagus nerve rhizotomy (VNR) for treating glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN).

Methods A retrospective review of the case notes of patients who had undergone surgery for GPN in the authors’ department between 2008 and 2013 was performed to investigate baseline characteristics and immediate outcomes during the hospitalization. For the long-term results, a telephone survey was performed, and information on pain recurrence and permanent complications was collected. Pain relief meant no pain or medication, any pain persisting after surgery was considered to be treatment failure, and any pain returning during the follow-up period was considered to be pain recurrence. For comparative study, the patients were divided into 2 cohorts, that is, patients treated with GPNR alone and those treated with GPNR+VNR.

Results One hundred three procedures, consisting of GPNR alone in 38 cases and GPNR+VNR in 65 cases, were performed in 103 consecutive patients with GPN. Seventy-nine of the 103 patients could be contacted for the follow-up study, with a mean follow-up duration of 2.73 years (range 1 month–5.75 years). While there were similar results (GPNR vs GPNR+VNR) in immediate pain relief rates (94.7% vs 93.8%), immediate complication rates (7.9% vs 4.6%), and longterm pain relief rates (92.3% vs 94.3%) between the 2 cohorts, a great difference was seen in long-term complications (3.8% vs 35.8%). The long-term complication rate for the combined GPNR+VNR cohort was 9.4 times higher than that in the GPNR cohort. There was no operative or perioperative mortality. Immediate complications occurred in 6 cases, consisting of poor wound healing in 3 cases, and CSF leakage, hoarseness, and dystaxia in 1 case each. Permanent complications occurred in 20 patients (25.3%) and included cough while drinking in 10 patients, pharyngeal discomfort in 8 patients, and hoarseness and dysphagia in 1 case each.

Conclusions In general, this study indicates that GPNR alone or in combination with VNR is a safe, simple, and effective treatment option for GPN. It may be especially valuable for patients who are not suitable for the microvascular decompression (MVD) procedure and for surgeons who have little experience with MVD. Of note, this study renews the significance of GPNR alone, which, the authors believe, is at least valuable for a subgroup of GPN patients, with significantly fewer long-term complications than those for rhizotomy for both glossopharyngeal nerve and rootlets of the vagus nerve.

Degree of distal trigeminal nerve atrophy predicts outcome after microvascular decompression for Type 1a trigeminal neuralgia

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin- an anatomical-surgical study-1

J Neurosurg 123:1512–1518, 2015

Trigeminal neuralgia is often associated with nerve atrophy, in addition to vascular compression. The authors evaluated whether cross-sectional areas of different portions of the trigeminal nerve on preoperative imaging could be used to predict outcome after microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods A total of 26 consecutive patients with unilateral Type 1a trigeminal neuralgia underwent high-resolution fast-field echo MRI of the cerebellopontine angle followed by MVD. Preoperative images were reconstructed and reviewed by 2 examiners blinded to the side of symptoms and clinical outcome. For each nerve, a computerized automatic segmentation algorithm was used to calculate the coronal cross-sectional area at the proximal nerve near the root entry zone and the distal nerve at the exit from the porus trigeminus. Findings were correlated with outcome at 12 months.

Results After MVD, 17 patients were pain free and not taking medications compared with 9 with residual pain. Across all cases, the coronal cross-sectional area of the symptomatic trigeminal nerve was significantly smaller than the asymptomatic side in the proximal part of the nerve, which was correlated with degree of compression at surgery. Atrophy of the distal trigeminal nerve was more pronounced in patients who had residual pain than in those with excellent outcome. Among the 7 patients who had greater than 20% loss of nerve volume in the distal nerve, only 2 were pain free and not taking medications at long-term follow-up.

Conclusions Trigeminal neuralgia is associated with atrophy of the root entry zone of the affected nerve compared with the asymptomatic side, but volume loss in different segments of the nerve has very different prognostic implications. Proximal atrophy is associated with vascular compression and correlates with improved outcome following MVD. However, distal atrophy is associated with a significantly worse outcome after MVD.

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach

Subtemporal transtentorial approach for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia after microvascular decompression via the lateral suboccipital approach

J Neurosurg 122:1429–1432, 2015

Microvascular decompression (MVD) via lateral suboccipital craniotomy is the standard surgical intervention for trigeminal neuralgia (TN). For recurrent TN, difficulties are sometimes encountered when performing reoperation via the same approach because of adhesions and prosthetic materials used in the previous surgery.

In the present case report the authors describe the efficacy of the subtemporal transtentorial approach for use in recurrent TN after MVD via the lateral suboccipital approach. An 86-year-old woman, in whom an MVD via a lateral suboccipital craniotomy had previously been performed for TN, underwent surgery for recurrent TN via the subtemporal transtentorial approach, which provided excellent visualization of the neurovascular relationships and the trigeminal nerve without adhesions due to the previous surgery. Her TN disappeared after the MVD.

The present approach is ideal for visualizing the trigeminal root entry zone, and the neurovascular complex can be easily dissected using a new surgical trajectory. This approach could be another surgical option for reoperation when the previous MVD had been performed via the suboccipital approach

Fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach for posterior petrous meningioma and trigeminal microvascular decompression

Fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach for posterior petrous

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:611–615

Cerebellopontine angle tumor resection and cranial nerve microvascular decompression are usually performed with the aid of the surgical microscope. The endoscope is commonly used as an adjuvant.

Method A retrosigmoid craniectomy is done. Upon dural opening, the endoscope is inserted into the operative field along the petrotentorial junction. Cerebrospinal fluid drainage provides a wider space for introduction of the endoscope and surgical instruments. Traditional microsurgical techniques are used during the entire procedure.

Conclusion A fully endoscopic retrosigmoid approach is a safe and effective procedure for cerebellopontine angle tumor resection and cranial nerve microvascular decompression.

Key points

• Careful examination of preoperative studies is needed to identify anatomical peculiarities.

• Patient positioning: the head must be gently flexed and its vertex gently tilted toward the floor.

• Neurophysiologic monitoring and intraoperative navigation.

• Craniectomy: partial exposure of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses.

• Curvilinear dural incision reflected laterally to minimize the risk of sinus injury.

• Opening the cerebellomedullary cistern for CSF drainage and cerebellar relaxation.

• Dynamic endoscopy enhances depth perception and must be performed by a team with experience in endoscopic intracranial surgery.

• Traditional microsurgical techniques have to be applied during the entire operation.

• Multilayer reconstruction, including watertight dural closure.

• Meningiomas causing brainstem shift are not suitable for endoscopic resection.

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin: an anatomical-surgical study

Trigeminal neuralgia due to neurovascular conflicts from venous origin- an anatomical-surgical study-1

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:455–466

Veins as the source of trigeminal neuralgias (TN) lead to controversies. Only a few studies have specifically dealt with venous implication in neurovascular conflicts (NVC). The aim of this study was the anatomical-surgical description of the compressive veins found during microvascular decompression (MVD).

Methods Patients retained were those in whom a vein was considered compressive, alone, or in association with an artery. The study defined the type of vein involved, its situation along, the location around the root, and management. For this study, denomination of veins in relation with the root was revisited.

Results Of the 326 consecutive patients who underwent MVD from 2005 to 2013, 124 (38.0 %) had a venous conflict, alone in 29 (8.9 %), or in association with an artery in 95 (29.1 %). The compressive veins belonged to one of the two venous systems described: the superficial or the deep superior petrosal venous system (sSPVS or dSPVS). A vein from sSPVS was found compressive in 81 cases (59.6 %), for the major part it was the pontine affluent of the superior petrosal vein (48 cases). The conflict was situated at TREZ in 28.4 %, midcisternal portion in 50.6 %, and porus in 8.6 %. The dSPVS was found compressive in 55 cases (40.4 %), almost always a transverse vein at porus (51 cases). Decompression was coagulation-division of the conflicting vein in 36.8 % and simple cleavage in the other.

Conclusions The study shows the frequent implication of veins in NVC as the source of TN. NVC are not only at TREZ but also at mid-cisternal portion and porus of Meckel cave.

Microvascular decompression under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm

Microvascular decompression under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:329–332

We report microvascular decompression (MVD) under neuroendoscopic view in hemifacial spasm (HFS) patients with rostral- and perforator-type compression of the root exit zone (REZ) of the facial nerve.

Using either a wireless iPad Mini as a monitor on the microscope or a high-resolution monitor, microscopic and endoscopic views enabled MVD for complete cure of HFS with rostral-type compression (the offender compressing the REZ on the opposite rostral side to the operative approach) or perforator-type compression (the offender tethered to the REZ by the perforator).

MVD under neuroendoscopic view may offer more accurate MVD and complete resolution of HFS.

Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia

Vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgiaActa Neurochir (2015) 157:311–321

Glossopharyngeal neuralgia (GPN), or better named vago-glossopharyngeal neuralgia (VGPN), is a rare disorder amounting to 1 % of the incidence of trigeminal neuralgia (TN). Pain is paroxysmal, of the electrical shooting type, and mainly provoked by stimulation of the pharynx or deep throat, especially during swallowing. Due to its rarity, VGPN is often misdiagnosed. The front line of medical treatment is based on anticonvulsants. Surgery should be considered when the pain is refractory to medications. In most patients, the cause is neurovascular conflict on root entry zone (REZ) or midcistern portion, of the IXth and/or Xth cranial nerves. Compressive vessels can be evidenced by means of a high sensibility and a high specificity resolution MR imaging in most centers.

Present consensus is that the first option of neurosurgical treatment be microvascular decompression. In patients with precarious general conditions, stereotactic radiosurgery may be considered. Also, thermo-rhizotomy at the pars nervosa of foramen jugularis or tractotomy-nucleotomy at brainstem may be alternatives, but these methods entail a significant risk of deficits.

In this article, the authors reviewed the main literature series on neurosurgical treatments of this disease.

Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression

Delayed relief of hemifacial spasm after microvascular decompression- can it be avoided?

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:93–99

Although microvascular decompression (MVD) surgery has been widely accepted as an effective treatment for hemifacial spasm (HFS), delayed relief cases have been frequently reported. Therefore, the value of an immediate redo MVD should be discussed.

Methods This study included 1,435 HFS patients who underwent MVD with intraoperative abnormal muscle response (AMR) monitoring from 2011 through 2013 at XinHua Hospital. These cases were analyzed retrospectively with emphasis on the postoperative outcomes and introaperative findings.

Results After MVD, 1,384 HFS patients obtained relief immediately. The 51 unrelieved patients underwent AMR monitoring again the next day; this was positive in 48 and negative in 3 patients. These three patients with negative AMR obtained relief spontaneously within a week. Among the 48 positive patients, 31 and 11 were underwent redoMVD within a week and 5–22 months, respectively, and all achieved relief after the second operation. Of the six remainig patients, two obtained relief within 2months and 4 remained unchanged in the up-to- 3-year’s follow-up period. In redoMVDs, insufficient decompression of the facial nerve accounted for the failure. Finally, in this database, the immediate postoperative cure rate was 96.4 %; with earlier redo MVD, the final cure rate could be increased to 99.9 %.

Conclusions Despite being a reasonable remedy for HFS in the hands of an experienced neurosurgeon, sometimes small vessels can be missed while managing the main offending arteries during MVDs, which might account for the delayed relief. Therefore, reexamination of the AMR is necessary for unimproved patients; if a positive result is recorded, an immediate redo MVD is suggested.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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NeurosurgeryCNS: Surgery of AVMs in Motor Areas

NeurosurgeryCNS: The Fenestrated Yaşargil T-Bar Clip

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS. ‘Double-Stick Tape’ Technique for Offending Vessel Transposition in Microvascular Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Advances in the Treatment and Outcome of Brain Stem Cavernous Malformation Surgery: 300 Patients

3T MRI Integrated Neuro Suite

NeurosurgeryCNS: 3D In Vivo Modeling of Vestibular Schwannomas and Surrounding Cranial Nerves Using DIT

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 7

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 6

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 5

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 4

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microsurgery for Previously Coiled Aneurysms: Experience on 81 Patients: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Corticotomy Closure Avoids Subdural Collections After Hemispherotomy

NeurosurgeryCNS: Operative Nuances of Side-to-Side in Situ PICA-PICA Bypass Procedure

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 3

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS. Waterjet Dissection in Neurosurgery: An Update After 208 Procedures: Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Fusiform Aneurysms of the Anterior Communicating Artery

NeurosurgeryCNS. Initial Clinical Experience with a High Definition Exoscope System for Microneurosurgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 2

NeurosurgeryCNS: Endoscopic Treatment of Arachnoid Cysts Video 1

NeurosurgeryCNS: Typical colloid cyst at the foramen of Monro.

NeurosurgeryCNS: Neuronavigation for Neuroendoscopic Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS:New Aneurysm Clip System for Particularly Complex Aneurysm Surgery

NeurosurgeryCNS: AICA/PICA Anatomical Variants Penetrating the Subarcuate Fossa Dura

Craniopharyngioma Supra-Orbital Removal

NeurosurgeryCNS: Use of Flexible Hollow-Core CO2 Laser in Microsurgical Resection of CNS Lesions

NeurosurgeryCNS: Ulnar Nerve Decompression

NeurosurgeryCNS: Microvascular decompression for hemifacial spasm

NeurosurgeryCNS: ICG Videoangiography

NeurosurgeryCNS: Inappropiate aneurysm clip applications


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