J Neurosurg Pediatrics 11:302–306, 2013
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) has become the procedure of choice for treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus.
While patient selection is the most critical factor in determining the success of an ETV procedure, the technical challenge lies in the proper site of fenestration and the successful creation of a patent stoma.
Positioning of a single balloon catheter at the level or below the floor of the third ventricle to achieve an optimal ventriculostomy can at times be challenging.
Here, the authors describe the use of a double-barrel balloon catheter (NeuroBalloon catheter), which facilitates positioning across, as well as dilation of, the floor of the third ventricle.
The surgical technique and nuances of using the NeuroBalloon catheter and the experience in more than 1000 cases are described. The occurrence of vascular injury was less than 0.1%, and the risk of balloon rupture was less than 2%.
The authors found that the placement and deployment of this balloon catheter facilitate the creation of an adequate ventriculostomy in a few simple steps.
Neurosurg Rev (2012) 35:485–495
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is defined as the eruption of blood in the cerebral ventricular system and is mostly secondary to spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage and aneurysmal and arteriovenous malformation rupture. IVH is a proven risk factor of increased mortality and poor functional outcome. Its seriousness is correlated not only with the amount of blood but also with the involvement of the third and fourth ventricles.
There are four mechanisms that explain the pathophysiology of this event: acute obstructive hydrocephalus, the mass effect exerted by the blood clot, the toxicity of bloodbreaking products on the adjacent brain parenchyma, and, lastly, the development of a chronic hydrocephalus. It is thus obvious that the clearance of blood from the ventricles should be a therapeutic goal.
In cases of acute hydrocephalus, external ventricular drainage is a mandatory step, but proven often insufficient. The concomitant use of intraventricular fibrinolytics such as recombinant tissue plasminogen activator or urokinase seems to be beneficial at least in the context of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, in which their use is now accepted but not yet validated by a randomized trial. Given the potential neurotoxicity of these agents, further research is needed in order to identify the best treatment for intraventricular fibrinolysis (IVF).
The endoscopic retrieval of intraventricular blood was also described recently and seems to be as efficient as IVF, but its use is limited to specialized centers.
IVH represents a therapeutic challenge for neurosurgeons, neurologists, and intensivists. Thus, a better understanding of this dramatic event will help in better tailoring the treatment strategies.
Neurosurgery 70:847–859, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318236717f
Treatment of an isolated fourth ventricle should be considered when clinical symptoms or a significant mass effect occur.
OBJECTIVE: To report clinical and radiographic outcomes after endoscopic transaqueductal or transcisternal stent placement into the fourth ventricle. METHODS: In 19 patients (age, 34th week of gestation-20 years; median age, 17.5 months), 22 endoscopic procedures were performed. Either an aqueductoplasty or, in cases with a supratentorially extended fourth ventricular component, an interventricular fenestration was performed. In all patients, a stent connected to the cerebrospinal fluid–diverting shunt was placed through the fenestration. Surgical complications and radiological and clinical outcomes are reported.
RESULTS: All 19 patients had a mean follow-up of 26.9 ± 18.2 months. No persisting neurological complications were observed; 27.3% of patients experienced complete resolution of presenting symptoms, whereas 68.3% demonstrated partial resolution. Symptoms with short duration (< 4 weeks) resolved completely, whereas long-standing symptoms partially improved. Short-term shunt complications (n = 2; insufficient catheter placement and subdural hygroma) and a need for long-term stent revisions (n = 3; stent retraction and shunt revision for other causes) were observed. The mean fourth ventricular volume was reduced after surgery (44.2 ± 25.8 to 23.1 ± 21.9 mL; P < .01). Pontine diameter increased from 0.9 ± 0.3 to 1.2 ± 0.3 cm (P < .01) after surgery. Both effects were still demonstrated on later radiological follow-up of 24.4 ± 14.2 months (fourth ventricular size, 24.7 ± 28.1 mL; P < .01; pontine diameter, 1.3 ± 0.3 cm; P < .01).
CONCLUSION: The clinical and radiological outcomes after endoscopic aqueductoplasty and interventriculostomy in children with an isolated fourth ventricle indicate that this procedure is feasible, effective, and safe.
Neurosurg Focus 30 (4):E3, 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2011.2.FOCUS10301
Simultaneous endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) and tumor biopsy is a widely accepted therapeutic and diagnostic procedure for patients with noncommunicating hydrocephalus secondary to a pineal region tumor. Multiple approaches have been advocated, including the use of a steerable fiberoptic or rigid lens endoscope via 1 or 2 trajectories. However, the optimal approach has not been established based on the individual anatomical characteristics of the patient.
Methods. A retrospective review of patients undergoing simultaneous ETV and tumor biopsy was undertaken. Preoperative MR images were examined to measure the width of the anterior third ventricle and maximal diameters of the tumor, Monro foramen (right), and massa intermedia. The distances between the tumor and massa intermedia, tumor and anterior commissure, midbrain and massa intermedia, and the dorsum sella and anterior commissure were also recorded. Single and dual trajectory approaches were compared using paired t-tests for each parameter.
Results. Over an 8-year interval, 15 patients underwent simultaneous ETV and tumor management. These patients ranged from 6 to 71 years of age (mean 36.7 years); 5 were younger than 18 years of age. Seven were treated using a dual trajectory approach, and 8 were treated using a single trajectory approach. All cases were completed without complications or the need for an additional CSF diversionary procedure within 6 months. The diagnostic yield at biopsy was 86.7%. There were no statistically significant differences between the single and dual trajectory groups for the measured parameters. However, the dual trajectory group demonstrated a larger anterior third ventricular diameter (1.43 vs 1.21 cm, p = 0.29). The single trajectory group trended toward a smaller tumor– anterior commissure interval (2.23 vs 2.51 cm, p = 0.24) and a larger dorsum sella–anterior commissure distance (1.67 vs 1.49 cm, p = 0.28).
Conclusions. These data confirm the safety and diagnostic efficacy of simultaneous ETV and biopsy for tumors of the pineal region. Although no statistically significant differences were seen in the authors’ recorded measurements, several trends suggest a role for a tailored approach to selecting a single or dual trajectory approach when using a rigid endoscope
Neurosurgery 68:788–803, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318207ac91
Intracranial cysts containing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may be developmental or acquired.
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the results of endoscopic neurosurgery in the management of intracranial CSF cysts.
METHODS: In a 7-year period, 64 consecutive patients underwent endoscopic neurosurgery for CSF cysts. Group 1 consisted of 13 patients with acquired cysts; group 2 included 51 patients with developmental cysts. In all cases, the cyst walls were fenestrated through small burr holes with frameless guided operative endoscopes. Follow-up ranged from 1 to 6 years (mean, 3.4 years).
RESULTS: There were no mortality and no permanent morbidity, apart from a patient (1.6%) who remained neurologically intact but required ventriculoperitoneal shunting because of intraoperative hemorrhage. The planned fenestrations could be performed in all patients except 2, owing to thick, opaque cyst walls. In group 1, 6 patients fully recovered and remained intact throughout the follow-up, whereas 7 improved but had various degrees of neurological disabilities that were related to their initial diseases. Radiological results were excellent in all cases. In group 2, there were 7 asymptomatic patients who remained unchanged and 44 ‘‘symptomatic’’ patients: 40 (91%) clinically improved, 4 (9%) remained unchanged, and none worsened. Cyst size decreased in 37 patients (74%) and remained unchanged in 13 (26%).
CONCLUSION: In this series, patients of different ages, harboring cysts of various sizes and locations, could be satisfactorily treated with endoscopic neurosurgery.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:517–526.DOI 10.1007/s00701-010-0933-x
Endoscopic and stereotactic surgery have gained widespread acceptance as minimally invasive tools for the diagnosis of intracerebral pathologies. We investigated the specific advantages and disadvantages of each technique in the assessment of periventricular lesions.
Method This study included a retrospective series of 70 patients with periventricular lesions. Endoscopic surgery was performed in 17 patients (mean age, 37 years; range, 4 months–78 years) and stereotactic biopsy in 55 patients (mean age, 63 years; range, 23–80 years), including two patients who underwent both procedures.
Results Hydrocephalus was present in 13/17 patients in the endoscopic group (77%) and in 11/55 patients in the stereotactic group (20%). Diagnosis was achieved in all patients in the endoscopic group and in all but one patient in the stereotactic group, in whom histological diagnosis was obtained by endoscopic biopsy during a second operation. In the endoscopic group, additional procedures performed included ventriculostomy (2/17), cyst fenestration (3/17), endoscopic shunt revision (3/17) and placement of Rickham reservoirs or external cerebrospinal fluid drains (6/17). Adverse events occurred in one patient after endoscopy (chronic subdural hematoma) and in two patients after stereotactic surgery (one mild hemiparesis and one transitory paresis of the contralateral leg).
Conclusions Endoscopic and stereotactic surgery have distinct advantages and disadvantages in approaching periventricular lesions. The advantages of endoscopy encompass the possibility to perform additional surgical procedures during the same session (e.g. tumour reduction, third ventriculostomy, fenestration of a cyst). The visual control reduces the hazard of injury to anatomical structures and allows for a better control of bleeding although there is a considerable blind-out in such situations. The advantages of stereotactic surgery include a smaller approach and precise planning of the trajectory. It is usually performed under local anaesthesia. Both methods provide a safe and efficient therapeutic option in periventricular lesions with low surgical-related morbidity.
Childs Nerv Syst.DOI 10.1007/s00381-011-1399-8
Endoscopic cystocisternotomy is one of three surgical methods used to treat middle cranial fossa arachnoid cysts. There is debate about which method is the best.
Objective The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of endoscopic cystocisternotomy for treatment of arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa.
Methods Thirty-two patients with arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa who had undergone endoscopic cystocisternal fenestration between 2004 and 2009 were studied retrospectively. Data were obtained on clinical and neuroradiological presentation, indications to treat, surgical technique, complications, and the results of clinical and neuroradiological follow-up.
Results Among the 27 patients with symptoms before surgery, 8 had disappearance of symptoms and 17 had improvement of symptoms. The cyst was reduced in size or it completely disappeared in 24 (75%) patients. The incidence rate of complications was 18.8%.
Conclusions Endoscopic cystocisternal fenestration is an effective treatment for symptomatic arachnoid cysts of the middle cranial fossa and should be the initial surgical procedure.
Neurosurgery 68:179–187, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181ffae71
The endoscopic removal of third ventricular colloid cysts has been developed as an alternative to microsurgical transcortical-transventricular and transcallosal approaches.
OBJECTIVE: To examine the value of endoscopic technique by reviewing the large number of endoscopically treated patients with long-term follow-up in 2 neurosurgical centers.
METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for all patients admitted for resection of a third ventricular colloid cyst to the Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Centre (Nijmegen, the Netherlands) and the Hoˆ pital Henri Mondor (Paris, France) between 1994 and 2007. Both clinical and radiological symptoms and operative results were evaluated.
RESULTS: Postdischarge clinical follow-up was available for 85 patients over a mean period of 4 years 3 months. Permanent morbidity occurred in 1 patient (persisting preoperative memory deficit). Follow-up imaging of 80 evaluable patients showed that total or nearly total cyst removal was possible in 46 individuals (57.5%). Residual cyst was present in 34 patients (42.5%), and 6 required repeated endoscopic surgery for symptomatic regrowth. Recurrent cysts were mainly seen within the first 2 years after surgery.
CONCLUSION: It is debatable whether the higher numbers of recurrent or residual cysts can be justified by the slightly lower complication rates achieved with endoscopic removal. However, results have been improving over the years. Moreover, the modifications observed on control magnetic resonance images justify the need for regular control imaging for at least the first 2 years postoperatively.
Childs Nerv Syst. DOI 10.1007/s00381-010-1339-z
As the number of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (E3V) operations increase, new rare complications are encountered. In this article, a complication caused by bone particles that migrated into the third ventricle will be described. Additionally, the methods of avoidance as well as the necessity of a new approach will be discussed.
Methods After the video images of the first and second operations of a patient who was subjected to E3V twice were compared, it was discovered that one of the bone particles within the ventricle had occluded the ostium after the second operation. Most of the bones were removed and their pathological investigations were performed.
Results Video images of the patient, surgical observations of the second operation, emergence of the time of dysfunction, and other similar cases in the literature were assessed, and it was concluded that the bones that localized intraventricularly were living tissues.
Discussion Abandoning usage of bone dust for sealing burr holes is a solution to avoid this complication. In addition, it should be kept in mind that intraventricular bone particles might grow and lead to obstructions. If such particles are detected, removal of the bones in certain locations before formation of neovascularization can be an option.
Neurosurgery 67[ONS Suppl 2]:ons321–ons324, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3181f74548.
Neuroendoscopy is increasingly used as an adjunctive tool in intracranial aneurysm surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To assess the versatility of a prototype continuously variable-view rigid endoscope in visualizing the anterior cerebral artery complex.
METHODS: In 5 formaldehyde-fixed, arterially injected specimens, a standard frontolateral approach was used on both sides. After meticulous microsurgical dissection using this approach, the prototype of a multivariable rigid endoscope (EndoCAMeleon; Karl Storz GmbH & Co, Tuttlingen, Germany) was inserted. It is a rigid endoscope that is capable of changing its angle of view while remaining stationary and shape invariant. We inspected the anterior cerebral artery complex, using and testing the capabilities of the device.
RESULTS: The continuously variable viewing mechanism enables the surgeon to adjust the field of view continuously and to optimize the visualization of the neurovascular structures. Because of the rigid tip combined with the continuously variable viewing mechanism, the need to move the endoscope within the surgical field was minimal. The field of view changes, but the tip itself hardly moves. The EndoCAMeleon was able to enhance both the visibility of the anterior cerebral artery complex and the accessibility of the A1 and A2 arterial walls to a range of approximately 270 degrees.
CONCLUSION: The EndoCAMeleon enhances the visibility of the anterior cerebral artery complex and facilitates endoscope-assisted inspection, planning of clip application, and clip control.
Neurosurg Q 2010;20:142–145
Study Design: A comparative randomized prospective clinical study.
Background and Purpose: The endoscopic approach to colloid cysts of the third ventricle is receiving increasing interest. However, its effectiveness is a matter of discussion. The aim of the study was to present a direct and long-term outcome after endoscopy of a colloid cyst versus microsurgery.
Materials and Methods: Ten patients with colloid cysts were prospectively analyzed. Group A consisted of 5 patients treated endoscopically, whereas 5 patients treated using a transcorticaltransventricular approach comprised group B. Clinically, symptoms of raised intracranial pressure were predominant. All patients had hydrocephalus. Tumor diameter ranged from 10 to 27 mm. The mean follow-up period was 22 months.
Results: The mean surgery time was 122 minutes in group A and 201 minutes in group B. Hospital stay was 1.5 days in the intensive care unit and 2.5 days in the ward in group A as compared with 3.5 days in the intensive care unit and 7 days in the ward in group B.
Postoperative complications in group A were in the form of 1 transient hemiparesis and 1 transient short-term memory loss. Two patients in group B suffered transient short-term memory loss postoperatively and 1 patient suffered from transient hemiparesis. Clinically, the preoperative symptoms resolved in all the patients. One patient who underwent microsurgery required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt postoperatively. All patients who underwent endoscopy remained shunt independent.
Conclusions: The endoscopic approach to colloid cysts of the third ventricle is safe, effective, and carries a low complication rate. Endoscopy may be recommended as a treatment option.
Minim Invas Neurosurg 2009;52: 281 – 286. DOI http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0029-1242776
Extended endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approaches (extended EETA) are increasingly being explored for lesions around the sella and the frontal skull base. These approaches, however, require significant surgical expertise and training that can only be obtained in high-volume centers and therefore these approaches are not generalizable to the whole neurosurgical community. Also, these approaches require significant skull base destruction and reconstruction, which comes with a high risk of CSF fistulas.
The aim of this article is to describe a combined supraorbital keyhole-endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach as an alternative surgical strategy to the extended EETA that is easier to perform and that leaves the skull base anatomy more intact.
Technique: Two fairly common neurosurgical approaches, the supraorbital keyhole approach and the endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal approach, are combined into a single-stage or two-stage surgical procedure. The procedure can be performed as a single neurosurgeon-serial approach and as a two neurosurgeon-parallel simultaneous approach. The philosophy and technique of this combined approach will be described.
Conclusion: The combined supraorbital keyhole-EETA approach can be used without extra surgical training or expertise and with preservation of skull base anatomy for sellar, perisellar and frontal skull base tumors.
Childs Nerv Syst (2010) 26:163–172.DOI 10.1007/s00381-009-0952-1
Purpose Middle fossa arachnoid cysts (MFAC) are a relatively common, benign pathology that pose a therapeutic challenge for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The optimal surgical strategy and indication to treat are still debated by neurosurgeons. We reviewed our experience and results in a group of patients treated with endoscopic fenestration with the aim to assess indications to treat and clinical and neuroradiological results. Methods The data on 40 patients operated with endoscopic fenestration for MFAC in two centres, “Anna Meyer” Children’sHospital, Florence, Italy, and Royal Liverpool Children’s Hospital “Alder Hey”, Liverpool, UK, between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed with prospective followup. We analysed clinical and neuroradiological presentation, indications to treat, surgical technique, complications, and clinical and neuroradiological follow-up. Results There were 30 males and ten females: mean age, 7.8 years; mean follow-up, 21 months. The neuronavigation system was used in 12 patients in the English cohort. Thirty-seven patients (92.5%) had a satisfactory clinical outcome. The cyst was reduced in size or completely disappeared in 29 patients (72.5%). There was no death or significant morbidity associated with the procedure. Four patients required further surgical treatment. Four patients experienced a post-traumatic intracystic bleeding after surgery. Conclusion Compared to microsurgical fenestration and cyst shunting, our experience with endoscopic fenestration was as effective and safe but less invasive. Each case must be assessed with its individual characteristics to define the optimal surgical strategy. Successful treatment may not reduce the risk of post-traumatic head injury haemorrhage.
Child’s Nervous System
Purpose Middle fossa arachnoid cysts (MFAC) are a relatively common, benign pathology that pose a therapeutic challenge for both symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. The optimal surgical strategy and indication to treat are still debated by neurosurgeons. We reviewed our experience and results in a group of patients treated with endoscopic fenestration with the aim to assess indications to treat and clinical and neuroradiological results.
Methods The data on 40 patients operated with endoscopic fenestration for MFAC in two centres, “Anna Meyer” Children’s Hospital, Florence, Italy, and Royal Liverpool Children’s Hospital “Alder Hey”, Liverpool, UK, between 2001 and 2007 were retrospectively reviewed with prospective follow-up. We analysed clinical and neuroradiological presentation, indications to treat, surgical technique, complications, and clinical and neuroradiological follow-up.
Results There were 30 males and ten females: mean age, 7.8 years; mean follow-up, 21 months. The neuronavigation system was used in 12 patients in the English cohort. Thirty-seven patients (92.5%) had a satisfactory clinical outcome. The cyst was reduced in size or completely disappeared in 29 patients (72.5%). There was no death or significant morbidity associated with the procedure. Four patients required further surgical treatment. Four patients experienced a post-traumatic intracystic bleeding after surgery.
Conclusion Compared to microsurgical fenestration and cyst shunting, our experience with endoscopic fenestration was as effective and safe but less invasive. Each case must be assessed with its individual characteristics to define the optimal surgical strategy. Successful treatment may not reduce the risk of post-traumatic head injury haemorrhage.