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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Infundibular dilation and aneurysm at the origin of the posterior communicating artery: differential diagnosis by CT angiography

Infundibular dilation and aneurysm at the origin of the posterior communicating artery- differential diagnosis by CT angiography

Neuroradiology (2014) 56:917–923

Infundibular dilation (ID) and aneurysm at the internal carotid artery (ICA)–posterior communicating artery (PComA) junction can be difficult to distinguish but may differ in clinical significance. The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of CT angiography (CTA) in differentially diagnosing IDs and small unruptured aneurysms at the ICA– PComA junction.

Methods This retrospective study comprised 88 patients diagnosed with 107 protrusions (70 IDs and 37 aneurysms <5 mm; 19 bilateral lesions) at the ICA–PComA junction who underwent both CTA and digital subtraction angiography (DSA). Two neuroradiologists independently reviewed CTA and DSA images according to these criteria: (a) size (maximum dimension <3 or ≥3 mm), (b) shape (triangular or round/ oval/irregular), (c) aneurysmal neck (absent or present), (d) horizontal direction (posteriomedial or posteriolateral), and (e) PComA origin (apex, no PComA, or base). The intermodality (between CTA and DSA) and interobserver (between the two readers) agreement were determined for each finding.We also evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of CTA for distinguishing ID and aneurysm, using DSA as the reference standard.

Results The mean κ values of intermodality agreement for the size, shape, aneurysmal neck, horizontal direction, and PComA origin were 0.88, 0.87, 0.84, 0.71, and 0.56, respectively. All interobserver agreements of CTA and DSA were excellent. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTA for differentiating aneurysms from IDs were 94.6, 100, and 98.0 %, respectively.

Conclusion CTA may be a useful noninvasive modality for differential diagnosis of ID and aneurysm at the ICA–PComA junction.

Anterior petroclinoid fold fenestration: an adjunct to clipping of postero-laterally projecting posterior communicating aneurysms

Anterior petroclinoid fold fenestration- an adjunct to clipping of postero-laterally projecting posterior communicating aneurysms

Neurosurg Rev (2014) 37:637–641

Proximally located posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, projecting postero-laterally in proximity to the tentorium, may pose a technical challenge for microsurgical clipping due to obscuration of the proximal aneurysmal neck by the anterior petroclinoid fold.

We describe an efficacious technique utilizing fenestration of the anterior petroclinoid fold to facilitate visualization and clipping of PCoA aneurysms abutting this aspect of the tentorium. Of 86 cases of PCoA aneurysms treated between 2003 and 2013, the technique was used in nine (10.5 %) patients to allow for adequate clipping. A 3 mm fenestration in the anterior petroclinoid ligament is created adjacent and lateral to the anterior clinoid process. This fenestration is then widened into a small wedge corridor by bipolar coagulation.

In all cases, the proximal aneurysm neck was visualized after the wedge fenestration. Additionally, an adequate corridor for placement of the proximal clip blade was uniformly established. All cases were adequately clipped, with complete occlusion of the aneurysm neck and funduswith preservation of the PCoA. There were two intraoperative ruptures not related to creation of the wedge fenestration. One patient experienced post-operative partial third nerve palsy, which resolved during follow-up.

We describe a technique of fenestration of the anterior petroclinoid fold to establish a critical and safe corridor for both visualization and clipping of PCoA aneurysms.

Microsurgical clipping of true posterior communicating artery aneurysms

Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:1707–1710

“True” posterior communicating artery (PCOM) aneurysms are rare variants in which the aneurysm arises solely from the PCOM rather than the junction of the internal carotid artery and the PCOM.

Methods It is critical to note that for true PCOM aneurysms, the neck arises distal to the origin of the PCOM and therefore lies in what is traditionally an intra-operative blind spot. The PCOM must be followed posteriorly to visualise the aneurysm neck for microsurgical clipping.

Conclusions A thorough pre-operative understanding of this unique anatomy is essential in minimising morbidity associated with microsurgical clipping of this aneurysm configuration.

Surgical Management of Giant Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 71[ONS Suppl 1]:ons43–ons51, 2012

Giant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms (> 25 mm) are rare lesions associated with a poor prognosis and high rates of morbidity and mortality.

OBJECTIVE: To review the clinical results of giant PCoA aneurysms surgically treated at our institution, focusing on operative nuances.

METHODS: All cases of giant PCoA aneurysms treated surgically at our institution were identified from a prospectively maintained patient database. Patient demographic factors, medical comorbidities, rupture status, neurological presentation, clinical outcomes, and surgical records were critically reviewed.

RESULTS: From 1989 to 2010, 11 patients (10 women) underwent surgical clipping of giant PCoA aneurysms. Presenting signs and symptoms included cranial nerve palsies, diminished mental status, headache, visual changes, and seizures. Five aneurysms were ruptured on admission. All aneurysms were clipped primarily except 1, which was treated by parent artery sacrifice and extracranial-to-intracranial bypass after intraoperative aneurysm rupture. Perioperative morbidity and mortality rates were 36% (4 of 11) and 18.3% (2 of 11), respectively. Excellent or good clinical outcomes, defined as modified Rankin Scale scores ≤ 2, were achieved in 86% (5 of 6) of patients available for long-term clinical follow-up (mean, 12.5 ± 13.6 months).

CONCLUSION: Giant PCoA aneurysms are rare vascular lesions that may present with a variety of neurological signs and symptoms. These lesions can be successfully managed surgically with satisfactory morbidity and mortality rates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the largest surgical series of giant PCoA aneurysms published to date.

Superciliary keyhole surgery for unruptured posterior communicating artery aneurysms with oculomotor nerve palsy: maximizing symptomatic resolution and minimizing surgical invasiveness

Journal of Neurosurgery Oct 2011 / Vol. 115 / No. 4 / Pages 700-706

For oculomotor nerve palsy (ONP) induced by unruptured posterior communicating artery (PCoA) aneurysms, the authors performed surgical clipping via a superciliary keyhole approach as an optimal treatment modality with high efficiency and low invasiveness. In this study, they then evaluated the technical feasibility, safety, clinical outcomes, including recovery from ONP as well as cosmetic results, and durability of the procedure.

METHODS Thirteen patients presenting with complete (7 patients) or incomplete (6 patients) ONP underwent surgery via a superciliary approach. The operative video record was used to evaluate the technical feasibility, neurological examinations and CT were performed to analyze the safety of the treatment, and neuroophthalmological examinations and 3D CT angiography were undertaken to determine the effectiveness and durability of the treatment.

RESULTS In all cases, the aneurysms were successfully clipped using a 3.5-cm eyebrow incision and supraorbital minicraniotomy. The mean operative time was 108 ± 24 minutes. Twelve (92.3%) of the 13 patients showed complete resolution of the ONP. All 6 patients (100%) with incomplete ONP recovered completely within 1–2 months after surgery, whereas 6 (85.7%) of the 7 patients with complete ONP recovered completely within 1–6 months after surgery. Cosmetic results for the operative wounds were excellent without frontalis palsy. The durability of the treatment was ascertained based on 3D CT angiograms obtained 1 year after surgery.

CONCLUSIONS Surgical clipping via a superciliary keyhole approach can be an optimal treatment modality for PCoA aneurysms inducing ONP because it is effective, safe, and durable.

Posterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: Technical Pitfalls

Neurosurg Q 2010;20:74–81

The posterior communicating artery aneurysms correspond on 25% of all ruptured aneurysms. The clinical course is typically a subarachnoid hemorrhage and third nerve palsy. We intend to introduce a new classification for PComA aneurysms to help neurosurgeons in day-to-day practice present. We review our experience in PComA aneurysms and discuss the main factors involving morbidity, mortality, signs and symptoms, and prognosis of these aneurysms.

Material and Methods: We reviewed historical records, images, surgical videos, and CDs of 46 surgically clipped aneurysms in 39 patients from June 2000 to July 2009, in 2 Institutions: Hospital Sa˜o Camilo and Santa Paula, Sa˜o Paulo, Brazil. They were classified in 2 groups, the A group composed by patients who presented subarachnoid hemorrhage in acute phase and the B group composed by incidental aneurysms carriers. All patients were classified according to Hunt-Hess scale.

Results: The average age found was 53.6 years old (min 28 to Max 92). The incidence was higher among women (3.6:1). Worse outcomes were observed in group A. The mortality rate was 20% in group A and zero cases in group B. Similar rate was found for rupture cases (20% in A group vs zero in B group). Morbidity was similar for both groups. The mean aneurismal size for A group was 6mm (ranging from 5 to 25mm) and 5.3mm (ranging from 3 to 10 mm) for B group.

Conclusions: Posterior communicating artery aneurysms occurred 3 to 4 times more frequently in women than man. Oculomotor palsy associated with severe headache were commonly related to posterior circulation aneurysms. Type II aneurysms (temporal) were the most frequently found in our study. The worst prognosis in cases with acute bleeding occurred with fetal variant circulation. Intratentorial aneurysms, mainly those with increased Hunt-Hess, have the worst prognosis. Infundibular aneurysms had the best results with surgical clipping.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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