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Daily bibliographic review of the Neurosurgery Department. La Fe University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

Predictive factors for recurrence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic subdural hematoma

J Neurosurg 127:1117–1125, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common type of intracranial hemorrhage in elderly patients. Many studies have suggested various factors that may be associated with the recurrence of CSDH. However, the results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among patient factors, recurrence, and clinical outcomes of CSDH after burr hole surgery performed during an 11-year period at twin hospitals.

METHODS Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for CSDH recurrence. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% CIs for CSDH recurrence based on many variables. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the differences in the mean modified Rankin Scale score between categories for each risk factor during each admission and at the last follow-up.

RESULTS This study was a retrospective analysis of 756 consecutive patients with CSDH who underwent burr hole surgery at the Hanyang University Medical Center (Seoul and Guri) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014. During the 6-month follow-up, 104 patients (13.8%) with recurrence after surgery for CSDH were identified. Independent risk factors for recurrence were as follows: age > 75 years (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03–2.88; p = 0.039), obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), and a bilateral operation.

CONCLUSIONS This study determined the risk factors for recurrence of CSDH and their effects on outcomes. Further studies are needed to account for these observations and to determine their underlying mechanisms.

Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma: unilateral or bilateral drainage?

J Neurosurg 126:1905–1911, 2017

Bilateral chronic subdural hematoma (bCSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition frequently associated with the need for retreatment. The reason for the high rate of retreatment has not been thoroughly investigated. Thus, the authors focused on determining which independent predictors are associated with the retreatment of bCSDH with a focus on surgical laterality.

METHODS In a national database of CSDHs (Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study) the authors retrospectively identified all bCSDHs treated in the 4 Danish neurosurgical departments over the 3-year period from 2010 to 2012. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to determine the relationship between retreatment of bCSDH and clinical, radiological, and surgical variables.

RESULTS Two hundred ninety-one patients with bCSDH were identified, and 264 of them underwent unilateral (136 patients) or bilateral (128 patients) surgery. The overall retreatment rate was 21.6% (57 of 264 patients). Cases treated with unilateral surgery had twice the risk of retreatment compared with cases undergoing bilateral surgery (28.7% vs 14.1%, respectively, p = 0.002). In accordance with previous studies, the data also showed that a separated hematoma density and the absence of postoperative drainage were independent predictors of retreatment.

CONCLUSIONS In bCSDHs bilateral surgical intervention significantly lowers the risk of retreatment compared with unilateral intervention and should be considered when choosing a surgical procedure.

 

Hematoma growth after unilateral drainage of bilateral CSDH

J Neurosurg 126:755–759, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a recurrence rate of 9.2%–26.5% after bur hole surgery. Occasionally patients with bilateral CSDH undergo unilateral surgery because the contralateral hematoma is deemed to be asymptomatic, and in some of these patients the contralateral hematoma may subsequently enlarge, requiring additional surgery. The authors investigated the factors related to the growth of these hematomas.

METHODS Ninety-three patients with bilateral CSDH who underwent unilateral bur hole surgery at Aizu Chuo Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis. Findings on preoperative MRI, preoperative thickness of the drained hema-toma, and the influence of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs were considered and evaluated in univariate and multivari-ate analyses.

RESULTS The overall growth rate was 19% (18 of 93 hematomas), and a significantly greater percentage of the hematomas that were iso- or hypointense on preoperative T1-weighted imaging showed growth compared with other hematomas (35.4% vs 2.3%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that findings on preoperative T1-weighted MRI were the sole significant predictor of hematoma growth, and other factors such as antiplatelet or anti-coagulant drug use, patient age, patient sex, thickness of the treated hematoma, and T2-weighted MRI findings were not significantly related to hematoma growth. The adjusted odds ratio for hematoma growth in the T1 isointense/hypointense group relative to the T1 hyperintense group was 25.12 (95% CI 3.89–51.58, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS The findings of preoperative MRI, namely T1-weighted sequences, may be useful in predicting the growth of hematomas that did not undergo bur hole surgery in patients with bilateral CSDH.

 

Foramen magnum meningiomas: surgical results and risks predicting poor outcomes based on a modified classification

J Neurosurg 126:661–676, 2017

This study aimed to evaluate neurological function and progression/recurrence (P/R) outcome of foramen magnum meningioma (FMM) based on a modified classification.

METHODS This study included 185 consecutive patients harboring FMMs (mean age 49.4 years; 124 females). The authors classified the FMMs into 4 types according to the previous classification of Bruneau and George as follows: Type A (n = 49, 26.5%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows below the vertebral artery (VA); Type B (n = 39, 21.1%), the dural attachment of the lesion grows above the VA; Type C1 (n = 84, 45.4%), the VA courses across the lesion with or without VA encasement or large lesions grow both above and below the bilateral VA; and Type C2 (n = 13, 7.0%), Type C1 plus partial/total encasement of the VA and extradural growth.

RESULTS The median preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score was 80. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 154 patients (83.2%). Lower cranial nerve morbidity was lowest in Type A lesions (16.3%). Type C2 lesions were inherently larger (p = 0.001), had a greater percentage of ventrolateral location (p = 0.009) and VA encase-ment (p < 0.001), lower GTR rate (p < 0.001), longer surgical duration (p = 0.015), higher morbidity (38.5%), higher P/R rate (30.8%, p = 0.009), and poorer recent KPS score compared with other types. After a mean follow-up duration of 110.3 months, the most recent follow-up data were obtained in 163 patients (88.1%). P/R was observed in 13 patients (7.2%). The median follow-up KPS score was 90. Compared with preoperative status, recent neurological status was improved in 91 (49.2%), stabilized in 76 (41.1%), and worsened in 18 (9.7%) patients. The multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression model demonstrated Type C2 (HR 3.94, 95% CI 1.04–15.0, p = 0.044), nontotal resection (HR 6.30, 95% CI 1.91–20.8, p = 0.003), and pathological mitosis (HR 7.11, 95% CI 1.96–25.8, p = 0.003) as independent adverse predictors for tumor P/R. Multivariate logistic regression analysis identified nontotal resection (OR 4.06, 95% CI 1.16–14.2, p = 0.029) and pathological mitosis (OR 6.29, 95% CI 1.47–27.0, p = 0.013) as independent risks for poor outcome (KPS score < 80).

CONCLUSIONS The modified classification helped to predict surgical outcome and P/R in addition to the position of the lower cranial nerves. Preoperative imaging studies and neurological function should be reviewed carefully to establish an individualized management strategy to improve long-term outcome.

Reoperation for Recurrent Glioblastoma and Its Association With Survival Benefit

multifocal glioblastoma

Neurosurgery 79:678–689, 2016

Glioblastoma is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor. Despite current treatment, recurrence is inevitable. There are no clear guidelines for treatment of recurrent glioblastoma.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate factors at initial surgery predictive of reoperation, and the prognostic variables associated with survival, including reoperation for recurrence.

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed, including adult patients diagnosed with glioblastoma between January 2010 and December 2013. Student t test and Fisher exact test compared continuous and categorical variables between reoperation and nonreoperation groups. Univariable and Cox regression multivariable analysis was performed.

RESULTS: In a cohort of 204 patients with de novo glioblastoma, 49 (24%) received reoperation at recurrence. The median overall survival in the reoperation group was 20.1 months compared with 9.0 months in the nonreoperation group (P = .001). Reoperation was associated with longer overall survival in our total population (hazard ratio, 0.646; 95% confidence interval, 0.543-0.922; P = .016) but subject to selection bias. Subgroup analyses excluding patients unlikely to be considered for reoperation suggested a much less significant effect of reoperation on survival, which warrants further study with larger cohorts. Factors at initial surgery predictive for reoperation were younger age, smaller tumor size, initial extent of resection $50%, shorter inpatient stay, and maximal initial adjuvant therapy. When unfavorable patient characteristics are excluded, reoperation is not an independent predictor of survival.

CONCLUSION: Patients undergoing reoperation have favorable prognostic characteristics, which may be responsible for the survival difference observed. We recommend that a large clinical registry be developed to better aid consistent and homogenous data collection.

The Simpson grading revisited

PSMeningioma

J Neurosurg 125:551–560, 2016

Recent advances in radiotherapy and neuroimaging have called into question the traditional role of aggressive resections in patients with meningiomas. In the present study the authors reviewed their institutional experience with a policy based on maximal safe resections for meningiomas, and they analyzed the impact of the degree of resection on functional outcome and progression-free survival (PFS).

Methods The authors retrospectively analyzed 901 consecutive patients with primary meningiomas (716 WHO Grade I, 174 Grade II, and 11 Grade III) who underwent resections at the University Hospital of Bonn between 1996 and 2008. Clinical and treatment parameters as well as tumor characteristics were analyzed using standard statistical methods.

Results The median follow-up was 62 months. PFS rates at 5 and 10 years were 92.6% and 86.0%, respectively. Younger age, higher preoperative Karnofsky Performance Scale (KPS) score, and convexity tumor location, but not the degree of resection, were identified as independent predictors of a good functional outcome (defined as KPS Score 90– 100). Independent predictors of PFS were degree of resection (Simpson Grade I vs II vs III vs IV), MIB-1 index (< 5% vs 5%–10% vs >10%), histological grade (WHO I vs II vs III), tumor size (≤ 6 vs > 6 cm), tumor multiplicity, and location. A Simpson Grade II rather than Grade I resection more than doubled the risk of recurrence at 10 years in the overall series (18.8% vs 8.5%). The impact of aggressive resections was much stronger in higher grade meningiomas.

Conclusions A policy of maximal safe resections for meningiomas prolongs PFS and is not associated with increased morbidity.

A study of prognostic factors in 45 cases of atypical meningioma

Radiation Therapy for Residual or Recurrent Atypical Meningioma

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1661–1667

Atypical meningioma differs from Grade I meningioma in terms of high recurrence rate and short life expectancy. We evaluated the clinical course of atypical meningioma and investigated prognostic factors affecting its outcomes.

Method: We reviewed 45 patients with atypical meningioma who underwent surgical intervention between January 2000 and December 2013. The mean age of the patients and mean follow-up period was 58.7 years and 81.0 months, respectively. Analyses included factors such as patient age, gender, location and size of tumor, extent of surgical resection (Simpson Grading System), and MIB-1 labeling index (LI). Univariate analysis was used to detect prognostic factors associated with recurrence and survival.

Results: The 5-year recurrence-free rate for all 45 patients was 58.4 %; 5 and 10-year survival rates were 83.2 % and 79.9 %, respectively. In univariate analyses, age >60 years, and MIB-1 LI correlated with disease recurrence, whereas age >60 years, subtotal surgical resection, MIB-1 LI, and indication for radiotherapy correlated with death. MIB-1 LI levels higher than 12.8 % and 19.7 % predicted recurrence and death, respectively. In our cohort, 26 patients received postoperative radiotherapy including conventional radiation (n = 21) or gamma knife radiosurgery (n = 5). Postoperative radiotherapy did not decrease recurrence rates in our cohort (p = 0.63). Six and two patients who died during the study period underwent conventional radiation and radiosurgery, respectively.

Conclusions: Age, male gender, extent of surgical resection, and higher MIB-1 LI influenced the outcome of atypical meningioma. In our cohort, postoperative radiotherapy failed to provide long-term tumor control. Following incomplete surgical resection of atypical meningioma in elderly patients, adjuvant postoperative radiotherapy may not be an ideal treatment option, particularly when MIB-1 LI is higher than 19.7 %.

Opening the Internal Hematoma Membrane Does Not Alter the Recurrence Rate of Chronic Subdural Hematomas: A Prospective Randomized Trial

Is systematic post-operative CT scan indicated after chronic subdural hematoma surgery?

WORLD NEUROSURGERY 92: 31-36, AUGUST 2016

Factors determining the recurrence of chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) are not clear. Whether opening the so-called internal hematoma membrane is useful has not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether splitting the inner hematoma membrane influences the recurrence rate in patients undergoing burr-hole craniotomy for CSDH.

METHODS: Fifty-two awake patients undergoing surgery for 57 CSDHs were prospectively randomized to either partial opening of the inner hematoma membrane (group A) or not (group B) after enlarged burr-hole craniotomy and hematoma evacuation. Drainage was left in situ for several days postoperatively. Groups were comparable with regard to demographic, clinical, and imaging variables. Outcome was assessed after 3e6 weeks for the combined outcome variable of reoperation or residual hematoma of one third or more of the original hematoma thickness.

RESULTS: Fourteen patients underwent reoperation for clinical deterioration or residual hematoma during follow- up (n = 6 in group A, 21%; n = 8 in group B, 28 %) (P = 0.537). Residual hematoma of ≥ one third not requiring surgery was present in 7 patients in group A (25%) and 10 patients in group B (36%) (P = 0.383). The overall cumulative failure rate (reoperation or hematoma thickness ≥ one third) was 13/28 (46%) in group A and 18/28 in group B (P = 0.178; relative risk, 0.722 [95% confidence interval, 0.445-1.172]; absolute risk reduction -16% =95% confidence interval, -38% to 8%]).

CONCLUSIONS: Opening the internal hematoma membrane does not alter the rate of patients requiring revision surgery and the number of patients showing a marked residual hematoma 6 weeks after evacuation of a CSDH.

 

Origin of craniopharyngiomas: implications for growth pattern, clinical characteristics, and outcomes of tumor recurrence

Origin of craniopharyngiomas

J Neurosurg 125:24–32, 2016

Craniopharyngiomas are associated with a high rate of recurrence. The surgical management of recurrent lesions has been among the most challenging neurosurgical procedures because of the craniopharyngioma’s complex topographical relationship with surrounding structures. The aim of this study was to define the determinative role of the site of origin on the growth pattern and clinical features of recurrent craniopharyngiomas.

Methods The authors performed a retrospective analysis of 52 patients who had undergone uniform treatment by a single surgeon. For each patient, data concerning symptoms and signs, imaging features, hypothalamic-pituitary function, and recurrence-free survival rate were collected.

Results For children, delayed puberty was more frequent in the group with Type I (infradiaphragmatic) craniopharyngioma than in the group with Type TS (tuberoinfundibular and suprasellar extraventricular) lesions (p < 0.05). For adults, blindness was more frequent in the Type I group than in the Type TS group (p < 0.05). Nausea or vomiting, delayed puberty, and growth retardation were more frequent in children than in adults (p < 0.05). Overall clinical outcome was good in 48.07% of the patients and poor in 51.92%. Patients with Type TS recurrent tumors had significantly worse functional outcomes and hypothalamic function than patients with the Type I recurrent tumors but better pituitary function especially in children.

Conclusions The origin of recurrent craniopharyngiomas significantly affected the symptoms, signs, functional outcomes, and hypothalamic-pituitary functions of patients undergoing repeated surgery. Differences in tumor growth patterns and site of origin should be considered when one is comparing outcomes and survival across treatment paradigms in patients with recurrent craniopharyngiomas.

Is systematic post-operative CT scan indicated after chronic subdural hematoma surgery?

Is systematic post-operative CT scan indicated after chronic subdural hematoma surgery?

Acta Neurochir (2016) 158:1241–1246

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the interest of systematic post-operative CTscan after unilateral chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) evacuation. To achieve this goal, we chose to evaluate the ability of postoperative CT scan to predict the most frequent complication of CSDH: hematoma recurrence.

Methods We performed a retrospective case–control study. Cases were defined as patients who had CSDH recurrence; controls were those who did not.We first studied clinical data and pre-operative CT scan data. We then studied postoperative CT scan data: hematoma thickness and its decrease, persistence of midline shift, its value and its decrease, and presence of compressive pneumocephalus.

Results Among 654 patients, 15 were defined as cases, and were matched with 30 non-recurrent patients defined as controls. Regarding systematic post-operative CT scan findings, unilateral CSDH recurrence was clearly associated with the persistence of midline shift induced by the presence of compressive pneumocephalus.

Conclusions Systematic post-operative CT scan after unilateral CSDH evacuation could predict hematoma recurrence. We therefore considered it as recommended, to adapt the clinical and radiological follow-up of CSDH patients.

Recurrence of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Following Resection in Adults: Does Preoperative Embolization Increase the Risk?

Recurrence of Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations Following Resection in Adults- Does Preoperative Embolization Increase the Risk?

Neurosurgery 78:562–571, 2016

Complete surgical resection of arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), documented by postoperative angiography, is generally felt to represent cure, obviating the need for long-term follow-up imaging. Although AVM recurrence has been reported in the pediatric population, this phenomenon has only rarely been documented in adults. Recurrence after treatment solely with embolization, however, has been reported more frequently. Thus, patients undergoing multimodal therapy with surgery following preoperative embolization may also be at higher risk for recurrence.

OBJECTIVE: To determine if preoperative embolization contributes to recurrences of AVMs after complete surgical resection.

METHODS: A retrospective study of patients undergoing AVM resection was performed. Those with complete surgical AVM resection, confirmed by negative early postoperative cerebral angiography and with available follow-up angiographic imaging .6 months postoperatively were included.

RESULTS: Two hundred three patients underwent AVM resection between 1995 and 2012. Seventy-two patients met eligibility criteria. There were 3 recurrences (4%). Deep venous drainage and diffuse type of AVM nidus were significantly associated with recurrence. Although preoperative embolization did not reach statistical significance as an independent risk factor, radiographic data supported its role in every case, with the site of recurrence correlating with deep regions of nidus previously obliterated by embolization.

CONCLUSION: AVM recurrences in the adult population may have a multifactorial origin. Although deep venous drainage and diffuse nidus are clearly risk factors, preoperative embolization may also be a contributing factor with the potential for recurrence of unresected but embolized portions of the AVM. Follow-up angiography at 1 to 3 years appears to be warranted.

Bur hole craniostomy for chronic subdural hematoma

Bur hole craniostomy for chronic subdural hematoma

J Neurosurg 123:65–74, 2015

There is inconsistency among the perioperative management strategies currently used for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Moreover, postoperative complications such as acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence affect clinical outcome of cSDH surgery. This study evaluated the risk factors associated with acute intracranial bleeding and cSDH recurrence and identified an effective perioperative strategy for cSDH patients.

Methods A retrospective study of patients who underwent bur hole craniostomy for cSDH between 2008 and 2012 was performed.

Results A consecutive series of 303 cSDH patients (234 males and 69 females; mean age 67.17 years) was analyzed. Postoperative acute intracranial bleeding developed in 14 patients (4.57%) within a mean of 3.07 days and recurrence was observed in 37 patients (12.21%) within a mean of 31.69 days (range 10–104 days) after initial bur hole craniostomy. The comorbidities of hematological disease and prior shunt surgery were clinical factors associated with acute bleeding. There was a significant risk of recurrence in patients with diabetes mellitus, but recurrence did not affect the final neurological outcome (p = 0.776). Surgical details, including the number of operative bur holes, saline irrigation of the hematoma cavity, use of a drain, and type of postoperative ambulation, were not significantly associated with outcome. However, a large amount of drainage was associated with postoperative acute bleeding.

Conclusions Bur hole craniostomy is an effective surgical procedure for initial and recurrent cSDH. Patients with hematological disease or a history of prior shunt surgery are at risk for postoperative acute bleeding; therefore, these patients should be carefully monitored to avoid overdrainage. Surgeons should consider informing patients with diabetes mellitus that this comorbidity is associated with an increased likelihood of recurrence.

Aneurysm diameter as a risk factor for pretreatment rebleeding: a meta-analysis

MCA aneurysm

J Neurosurg 122:921–928, 2015

Aneurysmal rerupture prior to treatment is a major cause of death and morbidity in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Recognizing risk factors for aneurysmal rebleeding is particularly relevant and might help to identify the aneurysms that benefit from acute treatment. It is uncertain if the size of the aneurysm is related to rebleeding. This meta-analysis was performed to evaluate whether an association could be determined between aneurysm diameter and the rebleeding rate before treatment. Potentially confounding factors such age, aneurysm location, and the presence of hypertension were also evaluated.

Methods The authors systematically searched the PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases up to April 3, 2013, for studies of patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage that reported the association between aneurysm diameter and pretreatment aneurysmal rebleeding. The Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria were used to evaluate study quality.

Results Seven studies, representing 2121 patients, were included in the quantitative analysis. The quality of the studies was low in 2 and very low in 5. Almost all of the studies used 10 mm as the cutoff point for size among other classes, and only one used 7 mm. An analysis was performed with this best unifiable cutoff point. Overall rebleeding occurred in 360 (17.0%) of 2121 patients (incidence range, from study to study, 8.7%–28.4%). The rate of rebleeding in small and large aneurysms was 14.0% and 23.6%, respectively. The meta-analysis of the 7 studies revealed that larger size aneurysms were at a higher risk for rebleeding (OR 2.56 [95% CI 1.62–4.06]; p = 0.00; I2 = 60%). The sensitivity analysis did not alter the results. Five of the 7 studies reported data regarding age; 4 studies provided age-adjusted results and identified a persistent relationship between lesion size and the risk of rebleeding. The presence of hypertension was reported in two studies and was more prevalent in patients with rebleeding in one of these. Location (anterior vs posterior circulation) was reported in 5 studies, while in 4 there was no difference in the rebleeding rate. One study identified a lower risk of rebleeding associated with posterior location aneurysms.

Conclusions This meta-analysis showed that aneurysm size is an important risk factor for aneurysmal rebleeding and should be used in the clinical risk assessment of individual patients. The authors’ results confirmed the current guidelines and underscored the importance of acute treatment for large ruptured aneurysms.

Unsuccessful Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy: A Single-Center Experience of 10 228 Cases

Unsuccessful Percutaneous Endoscopic Lumbar Discectomy- A Single-Center Experience of 10 228 Cases

Neurosurgery 76:372–381, 2015

Percutaneous endoscopic lumbar discectomy (PELD) has remarkably evolved with successful results. Although PELD has gained popularity for the treatment of herniated disc (HD), the risk of surgical failure may be a major obstacle to performing PELD. We analyzed unsuccessful cases requiring reoperation.

OBJECTIVE: To find common causes of surgical failure and elucidate the limitations of the conventional PELD technique.

METHODS: A retrospective review was performed on all patients who had undergone PELD between January 2001 and December 2012. Unsuccessful PELD was defined as a case requiring reoperation within 6 weeks after primary surgery. Chart review was done, and preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative radiographic reviews were performed. All unsuccessful PELD cases were classified according to the type of HD, location of herniation, extruded disc migration, working channel position, and intraoperative and postoperative findings.

RESULTS: In 12 years, 10 228 patients had undergone PELD; 436 (4.3%) cases were unsuccessful. The causes were incomplete removal of HDs in 283 patients (2.8%), recurrence in 78 (0.8%), persistent pain even after complete HD removal in 41 (0.4%), and approach-related pain in 21 (0.2%). Incomplete removal of the HD was caused by inappropriate positioning (95 cases; 33.6%) of the working channel and occurred in central HDs (91 cases; 32.2%), migrated HDs (70 cases; 24.7%), and axillary type HDs (63 cases; 22.3%).

CONCLUSION: Proper surgical indications and good working channel position are important for successful PELD. PELD techniques should be specifically designed to remove the disc fragments in various types of HD.

Factors Predicting Recurrence After Resection of Clival Chordoma

Clivus chordomas

Neurosurgery 76:179–186, 2015

Clival chordomas frequently recur because of their location and invasiveness.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical, operative, and anatomic factors associated with clival chordoma recurrence.

METHODS: Retrospective review of clival chordomas treated at our center from 1993 to 2013.

RESULTS: Fifty patients (56% male) with median age of 59 years (range, 8-76) were newly diagnosed with clival chordoma of mean diameter 3.3 cm (range, 1.5-6.7). Symptoms included headaches (38%), diplopia (36%), and dysphagia (14%). Procedures included transsphenoidal (n = 34), transoral (n = 4), craniotomy (n = 5), and staged approaches (n = 7). Gross total resection (GTR) rate was 52%, with 83%mean volumetric reduction, values that improved over time.While the lower third of the clivus was the least likely superoinferior zone to contain tumor (upper third = 72%/middle third = 82%/lower third = 42%), it most frequently contained residual tumor (upper third = 33%/middle third = 38%/lower third = 63%; P , .05). Symptom improvement rates were 61% (diplopia) and 53% (headache). Postoperative radiation included proton beam (n = 19), cyberknife (n = 7), intensity-modulated radiation therapy (n = 6), external beam (n = 10), and none (n = 4). At last follow-up of 47 patients, 23 (49%) remain disease-free or have stable residual tumor. Lower third of clivus progressed most after GTR (upper/mid/lower third = 32%/ 41%/75%). In a multivariate Cox proportional hazards model, male gender (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.2/P = .03), subtotal resection (HR = 5.0/P = .02), and the preoperative presence of tumor in the middle third (HR = 1.2/P = .02) and lower third (HR = 1.8/P = .02) of the clivus increased further growth or regrowth, while radiation modality did not.

CONCLUSION: Our findings underscore long-standing support for GTR as reducing chordoma recurrence. The lower third of the clivus frequently harbored residual or recurrent tumor, despite staged approaches providing mediolateral (transcranial 1 endonasal) or superoinferior (endonasal 1 transoral) breadth. There was no benefit of proton-based over photonbased radiation, contradicting conventional presumptions.

Volumetric MRI assessment of glioblastoma

Volumetric MRI assessment of GBM.jpg

J Neurosurg 121:536–542, 2014

Robust methodology that allows objective, automated, and observer-independent measurements of brain tumor volume, especially after resection, is lacking. Thus, determination of tumor response and progression in neurooncology is unreliable. The objective of this study was to determine if a semi-automated volumetric method for quantifying enhancing tissue would perform with high reproducibility and low interobserver variability.

Methods. Fifty-seven MR images from 13 patients with glioblastoma were assessed using our method, by 2 neuroradiologists, 1 neurosurgeon, 1 neurosurgical resident, 1 nurse practitioner, and 1 medical student. The 2 neuroradiologists also performed traditional 1-dimensional (1D) and 2-dimensional (2D) measurements. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) assessed interobserver variability between measurements. Radiological response was determined using Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors (RECIST) guidelines and Macdonald criteria. Kappa statistics described interobserver variability of volumetric radiological response determinations.

Results. There was strong agreement for 1D (RECIST) and 2D (Macdonald) measurements between neuroradiologists (ICC = 0.42 and 0.61, respectively), but the agreement using the authors’ novel automated approach was significantly stronger (ICC = 0.97). The volumetric method had the strongest agreement with regard to radiological response (k = 0.96) when compared with 2D (k = 0.54) or 1D (k = 0.46) methods. Despite diverse levels of experience of the users of the volumetric method, measurements using the volumetric program remained remarkably consistent in all users (0.94).

Conclusions. Interobserver variability using this new semi-automated method is less than the variability with traditional methods of tumor measurement. This new method is objective, quick, and highly reproducible among operators with varying levels of expertise. This approach should be further evaluated as a potential standard for response assessment based on contrast enhancement in brain tumors.

Patterns of Aneurysm Recurrence After Microsurgical Clip Obliteration

Patterns of Aneurysm Recurrence After Microsurgical Clip Obliteration

Neurosurgery 72:65–69, 2013

Microsurgical clip obliteration remains a time-honored and viable option for the treatment of select aneurysms with very low rates of recurrence.

OBJECTIVE: We studied previously clipped aneurysms that were found to have recurrences to better understand the patterns and configurations of these rare entities.

METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of 2 prospectively maintained databases of aneurysm treatments from 2 institutions spanning 14 years to identify patients with recurrence of previously clipped intracranial aneurysms.

RESULTS: Twenty-six aneurysm recurrences were identified. Three types of recurrence were identified: type I, proximal to the clip tines; type II, distal; and type III, lateral. The most common type of recurrence was that arising distal to the clip tines (46.1%), and the least frequently encountered recurrence was that arising proximal to the tines (19.2%). Laterally located recurrences were found in 34.6% of cases.

CONCLUSION: We describe 3 different patterns of aneurysm recurrence with respect to clip application: those occurring proximal, distal, or lateral to the clip tines.

Independent predictors for recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:1541–1548 DOI 10.1007/s00701-012-1399-9

Chronic subdural hematoma is characterized by blood in the subdural space that evokes an inflammatory reaction. Numerous factors potentially associated with recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma have been reported, but these factors have not been sufficiently investigated. In this study, we evaluated the independent risk factors of recurrence.

Methods We analyzed data for 420 patients with chronic subdural hematoma treated by the standard surgical procedure for hematoma evacuation at our institution.

Results Ninety-two (21.9 %) patients experienced at least one recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma during the study period. We did not identify any significant differences between chronic subdural hematoma recurrence and current antiplatelet therapy. The recurrence rate was 7 % for the homogeneous type, 21 % for the laminar type, 38 % for the separated type, and 0 % for the trabecular type. The rate of recurrence was significantly lower in the homogeneous and trabecular type than in the laminar and separated type. We performed a multivariate logistic regression analysis and found that postoperative midline shifting (OR, 3.6; 95 % CI, 1.618-7.885; p00.001), diabetes mellitus (OR, 2.2; 95 % CI, 1.196-3.856; p=0.010), history of seizure (OR, 2.6; 95 % CI, 1.210-5.430; p=0.014), width of hematoma (OR, 2.1; 95 % CI, 1.287-3.538; p=0.003), and anticoagulant therapy (OR, 2.7; 95 % CI, 1.424-6.960; p=0.005) were independent risk factors for the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma.

Conclusions We have shown that postoperative midline shifting (≥5 mm), diabetes mellitus, preoperative seizure, preoperative width of hematoma (≥20 mm), and anticoagulant therapy were independent predictors of the recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma. According to internal architecture of hematoma, the rate of recurrence was significantly lower in the homogeneous and the trabecular type than the laminar and separated type.

Visual Outcomes After Surgical Treatment of Adult Craniopharyngiomas

Neurosurgery 71:715–721, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318262146b

Craniopharyngiomas (CRPs) often cause visual deterioration (VD) due to the close vicinity of the optic apparatus.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate longitudinal visual outcomes after surgery of CRP and determine the prognostic factors thereof.

METHODS: One hundred forty-six adult patients who underwent surgery for newly diagnosed CRP were retrospectively reviewed. There were 87 male patients (60%), and the median age was 41 years (range, 18-75). The mean follow-up duration was 88.7 months (range, 24-307). A visual impairment score was used to assess the short-term (,1 month) and long-term (.2 years) visual outcomes.

RESULTS: Gross total removal was performed in 53 patients (36%), and tumor recurrence occurred in 40 patients (27%). The average preoperative, short- and longterm visual impairment scores were 44.4, 38.5, and 38.1, respectively, on a 0- to 100-point scale (with 100 indicating the worst vision). Short- and long-term VD occurred in 28 (19%) and 39 patients (27%), respectively. Subtotal removal (STR) alone (P = .010; OR = 4.8), short-termVD (P<.001; OR = 39.7), and tumor recurrence (P<.001; OR = 28.2) were significant risk factors for long-term VD in the multivariate analysis. Patients undergoing STR alone had higher tumor recurrence rates in comparison with those who underwent gross total removal or STR with adjuvant therapy (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: Short-term VD secondary to the surgical insult and the recurrence of the tumor were strong predictors of long-term visual outcomes after surgical treatment for CRP. STR alone may be an ineffective strategy for achieving tumor control and optimal visual outcomes in patients with CRP.

Significance of Simpson grading system in modern meningioma surgery

J Neurosurg 117:121–128, 2012. http://thejns.org/doi/abs/10.3171/2012.3.JNS111945

Techniques for the surgical treatment of meningioma have undergone many improvements since Simpson established the neurosurgical dogma for meningioma surgery in his seminal paper published in 1957. This study aims to assess the clinical significance and limitations of the Simpson grading system in relation to modern surgery for WHO Grade I benign meningiomas and to explore the potential of the cell proliferation index to complement the limitations in predicting their recurrence.

Methods. The surgical records of patients who underwent resection of intracranial meningiomas at the University of Tokyo Hospital between January 1995 and August 2010 were retrospectively analyzed. The authors investigated the relationships between recurrence-free survival (RFS) and Simpson grade or MIB-1 labeling index value.

Results. A total of 240 patients harboring 248 benign meningiomas were included in this study. Simpson Grade IV resection was associated with a significantly shorter RFS than Simpson Grade I, II, or III resection (p < 0.001), while no statistically significant difference was noted in RFS between Simpson Grades I, II, and III. Among meningiomas treated by Simpson Grade II and III resections, however, multivariate analysis revealed that an MIB-1 index of 3% or higher was associated with a significantly shorter time to recurrence.

Conclusions. The clinical significance of the different management strategies related to Simpson Grade I–III resection may have been diluted in the modern surgical era. The MIB-1 index can differentiate tumors with a high risk of recurrence, which could be beneficial for planning tailored optimal follow-up strategies. The results of this study appear to provide a significant backing for the recent shift in meningioma surgery from attempting aggressive resection to valuing the quality of the patient’s life.

Neurosurgery Department. “La Fe” University Hospital. Valencia, Spain

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