Acta Neurochir (2013) 155:25–31
Tuberculum sellae meningiomas present a special challenge because of their proximity to major arteries, visual pathways, and the hypothalamus. The aim of this study was to determine the prognostic determinants of clinical and visual outcomes of these tumors, focusing on the functional reversibility of an unserviceable eye after surgery.
Methods We retrospectively reviewed 86 patients on the basis of clinical and radiological factors that appeared to affect outcome. The visual acuity and visual fields were analyzed according to the visual impairment score (VIS). Unserviceable visual acuity included no perception of light (NPL), hand movement (HM), and counting fingers (CF). Ophthalmological functioning was tested in the preoperative period, the postoperative short-term period (≤2 weeks after surgery), and the postoperative long-term period (>6 months after surgery). Our own clinical outcome criteria including tumor control, visual improvement, and complications were used for evaluation.
Results Seventy-four of 86 patients (86 %) underwent total removal of the tumor. In three of these cases (3.4 %), recurrence developed. Thirty patients were classified into the “Excellent” group, 21 into the “Good” group, 20 into the “Fair” group, and 15 into the “Poor” group. In multivariate analysis, adhesion to optic nerve was an independent and significant predictor of clinical outcome. Favorable visual outcomes in both short- and long-term postoperative periods were achieved in 80.8%of cases. Preoperative and short-term visual outcomes were closely related to long-term visual outcome. Six of eight patients with preoperative CF status showed reversibility to a serviceable status after surgery. However, there was no conversion to serviceable status from NPL or HM.
Conclusions For patients with unilateral unserviceable visual function, maintenance of serviceable visual function on the opposite side might be more important. Of the patients with unserviceable visual function, careful surgery might be able to improve the visual function in CF eyes.
J Neurosurg 117:1013–1021, 2012
The objective of this study was to evaluate the ophthalmological outcome, nonvisual morbidity, and surgical complications after tuberculum sellae meningioma (TSM) removal using a superior interhemispheric approach.
Methods. In the last decade, 20 consecutive patients with TSM underwent operations using the superior interhemispheric approach. Visual acuity, visual field, and ocular fundus examination were assessed both preoperatively and 6-months postoperatively. Nonvisual morbidity was determined at an early postoperative period and at 6 months based on assessment of the Karnofsky Performance Scale score, leakage of CSF, endocrinological status, and olfactory function, which was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS). The potential brain injury related to the approach was assessed by MRI at 6 months. Magnetic resonance imaging was then performed yearly to detect a recurrence.
The mean follow up was 56.3 ± 34 months.
Results. The primary presenting symptom for diagnosis of TSM in 20 patients (female:male ratio of 6.6:1, mean age 59.1 ± 11.1 years) was visual disturbance in 12 patients (60%), headache in 4 (20%), cognitive alteration in 1 (5%), epilepsy in 2 (10%), and accidental in 1 (5%). In a total of 40 eyes, 17 eyes in 11 patients presented with preoperative deterioration of visual acuity. Postoperatively, the visual acuity improved in 13 eyes in 8 patients (72.8%), remained unchanged in 3 eyes in 2 patients (18.2%) and deteriorated in 1 patient (9%). The nonvisual morbidity included olfactory deterioration in 7 patients (35%), and panhypopituitarism in 1 patient (5%). No patients experienced a CSF leak. The impact of olfactory deterioration on the quality of life, as estimated by a VAS score (range 0–10), was a mean of 5.7 ± 2.2 (95% CI 4.1–7.3). On the follow-up MRI, no additional lesions or recurrences were observed on the medial aspect of the frontal lobe along the surgical corridor.
Conclusions. The superior interhemispheric approach appears to be effective in resolving the problem of visual deterioration due to a TSM, without inducing surgical injury on the brain surface along the surgical corridor. Olfactory deterioration remained the challenging predominant nonvisual morbidity using this approach.
J Neurosurg 115:802–810, 2011.DOI: 10.3171/2011.5.JNS101812
Various surgical approaches, such as uni- and bifrontal, frontolateral, and pterional approaches, havebeen advocated for tuberculum sellae meningiomas. The authors retrospectively reviewed the effectiveness of a bilateralsubfrontal approach for tuberculum sellae meningiomas with special attention to ophthalmological outcomesand complications.
Methods. Between 1993 and 2009, 34 patients underwent surgery for removal of tuberculum sellae meningiomasat Osaka City University. Tumor size ranged from 14 to 45 mm. Thirty-two of 34 patients presented with visualdisturbances before the surgery. The visual functions in all patients were assessed using a visual impairment score(VIS) before and after surgery. Postoperative visual examination was performed 2 weeks after surgery. Long-termfollow-up examinations were conducted 1 year after surgery.
Results. Radical resection (Simpson Grades I and II) was accomplished in 27 patients, and subtotal or partialresection (Simpson Grades III and IV) was achieved in 7. There was no deterioration in postoperative visual outcome.Twenty-nine (90.6%) of 32 patients showed improved VIS compared with preoperative VIS. The average VIS was38.1 preoperatively, 23.5 in the short-term postoperative period, and 21.8 in the long-term postoperative period. Inthe short-term postoperative period, the visual function in 6 patients normalized, and visual problems persisted in theremaining 26. Six (23%) of 26 patients showed further improvement in VIS during the long-term follow-up period,and no patient exhibited a worsened VIS during this time. One patient complained of hyposmia after surgery, butthere was no indication of related complications such as CSF leakage or frontal brain contusion.
Conclusions. The bilateral subfrontal approach was previously avoided because of the relatively high rate ofcomplications in earlier surgical series of tuberculum sellae meningiomas. However, after developments in microsurgicaltechniques in recent years, the bilateral subfrontal approach can now provide satisfactory visual outcomes withminimal postoperative complications. Careful preservation of the blood supply to optic apparatus and early unroofingof the optic canal using a bilateral subfrontal approach led to further improvement in long-term postoperative visual outcome.
Neurosurg Rev. DOI 10.1007/s10143-011-0340-7
The paper describes a retrospective study of a consecutive series of 20 midline anterior cranial fossa meningiomas (five of the olfactory groove, 14 of the tuberculum sellae, and one clinoidal), which were operated on via a supraorbital keyhole approach between 2002 and 2008.
The series includes three males and 17 females (mean age 57 years, mean size of the tumors 3.5×3 cm, and mean follow-up 48 months). Gross total excision was achieved in 18 cases and subtotal resection in two. Out of 14 patients with visual deficits, nine patients improved, one remained stable, and three deteriorated. Two patients presented a recurrence 3 years after surgery. One peri-operative death was recorded.
The subgroup of patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas was analyzed in details. A meta-analysis of the major series of such meningiomas in the last 20 years has been performed in order to compare results of different surgical techniques. With regard to primary outcomes of these tumors, gross total removal, restoration of visual function, morbidity, mortality, and recurrence rates, the supraorbital approach, for selected cases, seems to offer valuable results, comparable with those reported in conventional and endoscopic approaches and with very low surgical aggressiveness. However, statistical data available from the literature, particularly on visual function, are still too limited to draw definitive conclusions.
The best surgical option for the individual patient cannot yet be standardized and should be chosen on the basis of tumor anatomy, pre-operative clinical symptoms, and surgeon’s experience.
Acta Neurochir (2011) 153:1–9. DOI 10.1007/s00701-010-0788-1
Removal of tuberculum sella (TS) meningiomas is traditionally performed through transcranial approaches. Wide use of the endoscope in transphenoidal pituitary surgery is recently accessible through the tuberculum sellae with an endoscope-assisted or purely endoscopic technique. Extended endoscopic approach is an important and alternative route for meningiomas, which are located on the midline originating from the tuberculum sella. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage is an important problem in extended endoscopic approaches. In this report, we discuss surgical limitations and nuances of endoscopic transphenoidal approach from a retrospective analysis of nine patients with TS meningiomas.
Methods: Endoscopic transphenoidal approach was performed for seven women and two men (mean age, 51.1 years; age range, 32–78 years) with TS meningiomas between July 2007 and March 2010 in the Department of Neurosurgery, Kocaeli, Turkey.
Results: Total removal was achieved in six of nine patients. An improvement of the preoperative visual deficits was observed in six of the nine patients. Multilayer closure was performed for reconstruction, and lumbar external drainage was used for all patients for 3–5 days. CSF leakage was not seen in any of the patients after the operation and removal of the drainage.
Conclusion: Endoscopic extended transphenoidal approach is still not a standardized procedure for TS meningiomas, but it may be considered as an alternative procedure in selected cases.
Acta Neurochirurgica DOI: 10.1007/s00701-009-0492-1
Suprasellar meningiomas usually present with visual deterioration, including decreased visual acuity and/or visual field defects. Suprasellar meningiomas have a close relationship with the optic apparatus, arteries of the anterior circulation, pituitary stalk and hypothalamus, which makes safe surgical resection a challenge especially with dissection around an already compromised optic apparatus. In this report 21 patients operated on for a suprasellar meningioma over a 4-year period are reviewed. Postoperative outcome and visual recovery are evaluated, including analysis of its determinants.
Methods Over a 4-year period (2002–2006), patients surgically treated for suprasellar meningiomas were included in this retrospective study. All tumors were located at the tuberculum sellae and diaphragma sellae dura. Clinical and neuro-ophthalmological examinations, imaging studies, endocrinological evaluation and follow-up data were reviewed retrospectively. The influence of patient age, sex, duration of symptoms, extent of visual impairment, tumor size , extent into optic canal, consistency, operative respectability were analyzed as potential prognostic factors for postoperative visual outcome.
Results Twenty-one patients were included in this retrospective study. Ages ranged from 25 to 65 years (mean: 43 years). All patients had visual acuity loss and visual field defects. Symptom duration ranged from 2 to 36 months (mean: 17 months). Tumor removal was complete in 17 patients, and subtotal resection was performed in four patients. There was one case of postoperative mortality. The follow-up duration ranged from 24 to 48 months (mean: 28 months). At the last follow-up 12 patients (60%) had achieved visual improvement, whereas vision was unchanged in eight patients (40%). None of the patients had visual deterioration during their follow-up. A univariate analysis of clinical and surgical parameters thought to be related to visual outcome showed that the duration of symptoms, preoperative visual status, tumor size and adherence to the internal carotid arteries and/or anterior cerebral artery had a significant impact on visual outcome.
Conclusion The extent and duration of visual symptoms, size of the tumor and vascular adherence were prognostic factors affecting visual recovery after microsurgical resection of suprasellar meningiomas.
Ganna, Ahmed, Dehdashti, Amir R., Karabatsou, Konstantina and Gentili, Fred. British Journal of Neurosurgery,23:4,422-430, (2009).
We report our experience with the treatment of tuberculum sellae meningiomas using the fronto-basal interhemispheric approach. A retrospective analysis was performed on a series of 24 patients with tuberculum sellae meningiomas who were operated between March 2000 and January 2007. Patients’ presenting symptoms, radiological images, operative reports, and clinical follow-up data were reviewed with special consideration for visual outcome. Visual deterioration was the presenting symptom in all patients, followed by headache in 9 patients (37.5%). The average duration of visual symptoms was 17.6 months. The average tumor diameter was 2.63 cm; encasement of the carotid artery was identified in 7 patients (29%). Complete tumor removal was achieved in 21 patients (87.5%). Mean follow-up period was 52 months. Vision improved in 19 patients (79%), remained stable in 4 (17%) and deteriorated in 1 patient (4%). The degree of tumor removal or visual outcome were both unrelated to the tumor size (p=0.2 and p=0.6 respectively). While the degree of preoperative visual deficit did not affect the visual improvement rate in the whole group (p=0.9), those patients with improvement to good functional vision (>20/40) after the surgery, had a less severe preoperative deficit (p<0.001). The most common complication was anosmia (29.1%) and there was no mortality. The frontobasal interhemispheric approach is safe and provides a direct anatomical approach to tuberculum sellae meningiomas with relatively low incidence of complications. Patients with improved vision to good functional level had a better preoperative visual status.