Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:3371–3374
The treatment of intracranial aneurysms has predominantly shifted towards endovascular strategies, but complex cases still necessitate microsurgery. Preoperative stimulation can be beneficial for inexperienced young neurosurgeons in preparing for safe microsurgery.
Method A 72-year-old female with a left irregular fetal posterior cerebral artery (PCA) aneurysm underwent clipping repair. Microsoft HoloLens 2, utilizing mixed reality technology, was employed for preoperative stimulation and anatomical study. During the operation, we successfully identified the planned relationship between the aneurysm and the fetal PCA. The patient was cured without any complications.
Conclusion We hope that this report will highlight the significance of Microsoft HoloLens 2 in microsurgical planning and education.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1227–1231
Anterior communicating artery aneurysms are most prone to rupture. Surgically, they are conventionally being managed by a pterional approach. Some neurosurgeons prefer a supraorbital keyhole approach in select cases. Fully endoscopic clipping of such aneurysms is seldom described.
Method We clipped an antero-inferiorly directed anterior communicating artery aneurysm endoscopically via a supraorbital keyhole approach. The intraoperative aneurysmal rupture was also managed endoscopically. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery without any neurological deficits.
Conclusion Select cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysms can be clipped endoscopically using standard instruments and adhering to the basic principles of aneurysm clipping.
J Neurosurg 138:717–723, 2023
Current knowledge of recurrence rates after intracranial aneurysm (IA) surgery relies on 2D digital subtraction angiography (DSA), which fails to detect more than 75% of small aneurysm remnants. Accordingly, the discrimination between recurrence and growth of a remnant remains challenging, and actual assessment of recurrence risk of clipped IAs could be inaccurate. The authors report, for the first time, 3D-DSA–based long-term durability and risk factor data of IA recurrence and remnant growth after microsurgical clipping.
METHODS Prospectively collected data for 305 patients, with a total of 329 clipped IAs that underwent baseline 3DDSA, were evaluated. The incidence of recurrent IA was described by Kaplan-Meier curves. Risk factors for IA recurrence were analyzed by multivariable Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models.
RESULTS The overall observed proportion of IA recurrence after clipping was 2.7% (9 of 329 IAs) at a mean followup of 46 months (0.7% per year). While completely obliterated IAs did not recur during follow-up, incompletely clipped aneurysms (76 of 329) demonstrated remnant growth in 11.8% (3.4% per year). Young age and large initial IA size significantly increased the risk of IA recurrence.
CONCLUSIONS The findings support those in previous studies that hypothesized that completely clipped IAs have an extremely low risk of recurrence. Conversely, the results highlight the significant risk posed by incompletely clipped IAs. Young patients with initial large IAs and incomplete obliteration have an especially high risk for IA recurrence and therefore should be monitored more closely.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:489–493
Different versions of the mini-pterional (MPT) approach have been described often with the idea the smaller the better. Attempts to reduce incision and craniotomy size for better cosmetic results should not be performed at the expense of safety.
Method We present our take on the MPT as a balance between size and safety which can be adopted by vascular neurosurgeons in training. The craniotomy stays within the confines of the superior temporal line and is completely covered by temporal muscle after closure.
Conclusion This approach is cosmetically superior while still offering anatomical familiarity and sufficient instrument maneuverability.
Neurosurgery 88:779–784, 2021
Intrasaccular flow-disruption represents a new paradigmin endovascular treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms.
OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively compare Woven Endobridge (WEB) embolization with microsurgical clipping for unruptured anterior circulation aneurysms using propensity score adjustment.
METHODS: A total of 63 patients treated with WEB and 103 patients treated with clipping were compared based on the intention-to-treat principle. The primary outcome measures were immediate technical treatment success, major adverse events, and 6-mo complete aneurysm occlusion.
RESULTS: The technical success rates were 83% forWEB and 100% for clipping. Procedure related complications occurred more often in the clipping group (13%) than the WEB group (6%, adjusted P<.01). However, the rates of major adverse events were comparable in both groups (WEB: 3%, clip: 4%, adjusted P = .53). At the 6-mo follow-up, favorable functional outcomes were achieved in 98% of the WEB embolization group and 99% of the clipping group (adjusted P = .19). Six-month complete aneurysm occlusion was obtained in 75% of the WEB group and 94% of the clipping group (adjusted P < .01).
CONCLUSION: Microsurgical clipping was associated with higher technical success and complete occlusion rates, whereas WEB had a lower complication rate. Favorable functional outcomes were achieved in≥98% of both groups. The decision to use a specific treatment modality should be made on an individual basis and in accordance with the patient’s preferences.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:2767–2772
P2-P3 junction aneurysms are challenging to treat surgically because of their frequent complex morphology and their location deep in close proximity to the midbrain. The sub-temporal route requires significant retraction of the temporal lobe in addition to potential injury to the vein of Labbe.
We describe the technique for treating such aneurysms via a lateral supra-cerebellar infratentorial (LSCIT) approach, which eliminates manipulation of the temporal lobe.
Method Cadaveric dissection provided comprehensive understanding of relevant anatomy. Intraoperative video shows clipping of the aneurysm using a LSCIT approach.
Conclusion LSCIT approach allows safe clipping of P2-P3 aneurysms with minimal brain manipulation.
Neurosurgery. 2019 Dec 1;85(6):750-761
Long-term results from the International Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial (ISAT) and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) indicate considerably higher retreatment rates for aneurysms treated with coiling compared to clipping, but do not report the outcome of retreatment.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retreatment related outcomes.
METHODS: A meta-analysis in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was conducted using Medline search engines PubMed and EMBASE to identify articles describing outcomes after retreatment for intracranial aneurysms. Pooled prevalence rates for complete occlusion rate and mortality were calculated. Outcomes of different treatment and retreatment combinations were not compared because of indication bias.
RESULTS: Twenty-five articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the metaanalysis. Surgery after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 91.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.0-94.1) and a pooled mortality rate of 5.6% (95% CI: 3.7-8.3). Coiling after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 51.3% (95% CI: 22.1-78.0) and a pooled mortality rate of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.15-3.7). Surgery after surgery did not provide a pooled estimate for complete occlusion as only one study was identified but had a pooled mortality rate of 5.9% (95% CI: 3.1-11.2). Coiling after surgery had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 56.1% (95% CI: 11.4-92.7) and a pooled mortality rate of 9.3% (95% CI: 4.1- 19.9). All pooled incidence rates were produced using random-effect models.
CONCLUSION: Surgical retreatment was associated with a high complete occlusion rate but considerable mortality. Conversely, endovascular retreatment was associated with low mortality but also a low complete occlusion rate.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:2397–2401
Specific procedural complications in aneurysm surgery are broadly related to vascular territory compromise and brain/nerve retraction; vascular complications account for about half of this. Intraoperative indocyanine green video angiography (ICG-VA) provides real-time high spatial resolution imaging of the cerebrovascular architecture, allowing immediate quality assurance of aneurysm occlusion and vessel integrity. The aim of this study was to examine whether the routine use of ICG-VA reduced early procedural complications related to vascular compromise or injury during micro-neurosurgical clipping of ruptured cerebral aneurysms.
Methods Retrospective comparative observational study of 412 adult good-grade (WFNS 1 or 2) SAH patients who had undergone microsurgical clipping without (n = 200, 2001–2004) or with (n = 212, 2009–2015) ICG-VA in a high-volume neurosurgical centre.
Results The ICG-VA group had a significantly lower incidence of procedural vascular complications (7/212; 3.3%) compared with the non-ICG-VA group (19/200; 9.5%) (Fisher’s exact test p = 0.0137).
Conclusions ICG-VA is a straightforward, easy-to-use, intraoperative adjunct which significantly reduces avoidable ‘technical error’ related morbidity.
J Neurosurg 131:1455–1461, 2019
Recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization remain a challenging issue. The goal of the present study was to report the authors’ experience with recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization and to discuss the radiographic classification scheme and recommended management strategy.
METHODS Aneurysm treatments from a single institution over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Ninetyseven aneurysms that recurred after initial coiling were managed during the study period. Recurrent aneurysms were classified into the following 5 types based on their angiographic characteristics: I, pure recanalization inside the aneurysm sac; II, pure coil compaction without aneurysm growth; III, new aneurysm neck formed without coil compaction; IV, new aneurysm neck formed with coil compaction; and V, newly formed aneurysm neck and sac.
RESULTS Aneurysm recurrences resulted in rehemorrhages in 6 cases (6.2%) of type III–V aneurysms, but in none of type I–II aneurysms. There was a significantly higher proportion of ophthalmic artery aneurysms and complex internal carotid artery aneurysms presenting as types I and II than presented as the other 3 types (63.3% vs 16.4%, p < 0.001). In contrast, for posterior communicating artery aneurysms and anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a higher proportion of type III–V aneurysms was observed than for the other 2 types, but without a significant difference in the multivariate model (56.7% vs 23.3%). In addition, giant (> 25 mm) aneurysms were more common among type I and II lesions than among type III and IV aneurysms (36.7% vs 9.0%, p = 0.001), which exhibited a higher proportion of small (< 10 mm) lesions (65.7% vs 13.3%, p < 0.001). A single reembolization procedure was sufficient to occlude 80.0% of type I recurrences and 83.3% of type II recurrences from coil compaction but only 65.6% of type III–V recurrences from aneurysm regrowth.
CONCLUSIONS Aneurysm size and location represent the determining factors of the angiographic recurrence types. Type I and II recurrences were safely treated by reembolization, whereas type III–V recurrences may be best managed surgically when technically feasible.
Neurosurgery 84:1019–1027, 2019
Within randomized clinical trials (RCTs), coiling of the ruptured aneurysm to prevent rebleeding results in better outcomes than clipping in patients with aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH).
OBJECTIVE: To study the association of coiling and clipping with outcome after aSAH in daily clinical practice.
METHODS: In this controlled, nonrandomized study, we compared outcomes after endovascular coiling and neurosurgical clipping of ruptured intracranial aneurysms in an administrative dataset of 7658 aSAH patients (22 tertiary care hospitals from Europe, USA, Australia; 2007-2013). Because the results contradicted those of the randomized trials, findings were further explored in a large clinical dataset from 2 European centers (2006- 2016) of 1501 patients.
RESULTS: In the administrative dataset, the crude 14-d case-fatality rate was 6.4% (95% confidence interval [CI] 5.6%-7.2%) after clipping and 8.2% (95% CI 7.4%-9.1%) after coiling. After adjustment for age, sex, and comorbidity/severity, the odds ratio (OR) for 14-d casefatality after coiling compared to clipping was 1.32 (95% CI 1.10-1.58). In the clinical dataset crude 14-d case fatality ratewas 5.7% (95% CI 4.2%-7.8%) for clipping and 9.0% (95% CI 7.3%- 11.2%) for coiling. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, the OR for 14-d case-fatality after coiling compared to clipping was 1.7 (95% CI 1.1–2.7), for 90-d case-fatality 1.28 (95% CI 0.91–1.82) and for 90-d poor functional outcome 0.78 (95% CI 0.6–1.01).
CONCLUSION: In clinical practice, coiling after aSAH is associated with higher 14-d case-fatality than clipping and nonsuperior outcomes at 90 d. Both options need to be considered in aSAH patients. Further studies should address the reasons for the discrepancy between current data and those from the RCTs.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:607–610
Microsurgical clipping of large ophthalmic-carotid artery (OA) aneurysms is technically challenging. Among the reported approaches, pterional combined epidural and subdural approach is one of the efficient choices.
Method We have applied this approach to treat a 33-year old female patient with a left large OA aneurysm. The step-wise technical details of this approach are reported.
Conclusion We show that it is a safe way to clip large OA aneurysms through a step-wise pterional combined epidural and subdural approach, which could make a clear anatomy and a confident manipulation.
World Neurosurg. (2018) 120:e203-e211
Occasionally, previously coiled aneurysms will require secondary treatment with surgical clipping, representing a more complicated aneurysm to treat than the naïve aneurysm. Patients who initially presented with a ruptured aneurysm may pose an even riskier group to treat than those with unruptured previously coiled aneurysms, given their potentially higher risk for rerupture. The objective of this study was to assess the clinical outcomes of patients who undergo microsurgical clipping of ruptured previously coiled cerebral aneurysms. In addition, we present a thorough review of the literature.
METHODS: A total of 53 patients from a single institution who initially presented with a subarachnoid hemorrhage and underwent surgical clipping of a previously coiled aneurysm between December 1997 and December 2014 were studied. Clinical features, hospital course, and preoperative and most recent functional status (Glasgow Outcome Scale score) were reviewed retrospectively.
RESULTS: The mean time interval from coiling to clipping was 2.6 years, and mean follow-up was 5.5 years (range, 0.1e14.7 years). Five patients (9.8%) presented with rebleed prior to clipping. Most patients (79.3%, 42/53) experienced good neurologic outcomes. Most showed no change (81%, 43/53) or improvement (13%, 7/53) in functional status after microsurgical clipping. One patient (2%) deteriorated clinically, and there were 2 mortalities (4%).
CONCLUSIONS: Microsurgical clipping of previously ruptured, coiled aneurysms is a promising treatment method with favorable clinical outcomes
Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:2169–2176
Complex aneurysm shape is a predominant risk factor for aneurysm rupture but its impact on clinical outcome after clipping remains unclear. The objective of the present study was to compare complications and morbidity after clipping of unruptured single-sac aneurysms (SSAs) and aneurysms with multiple sacs (MSAs).
Methods A retrospective, single-center study was conducted for patients that were treated between 2010 and 2018. We analyzed
surgical parameters, treatment-related complications, and morbidity, defined as any increase in the modified Rankin scale at 3-
Results We identified 101 patients (mean age: 52.9 ± 10.5 years) that underwent clipping for 57 SSAs and 44 MSAs. The two
groups were comparable regarding aneurysm size and neck width. Clipping of MSAs was associated with a longer operation time
(p = 0.008) and increased use of intraoperative indocyanine green (p = 0.016) than SSAs. Complications occurred more often in
the MSA group (29.5%) than in the SSA group (14.0%; p = 0.057). Morbidity was significantly higher in the MSA group
(20.5%) than in the SSA group (3.5%, p = 0.009). In the univariate analysis, the odds of morbidity were 7.1 times greater for
MSAs than for SSAs (95% CI 1.4–34.7).
Conclusions Morbidity after microsurgical clipping is significantly increased in MSAs as compared to SSAs. This may be
attributed to a more difficult clip placement with stronger manipulation of the aneurysm dome and the surrounding brain tissue.
Neurosurgery 83:879–889, 2018
Open microsurgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms has long been the gold standard, yet advancements in endovascular coiling techniques have begun to challenge the status quo. OBJECTIVE: To compare endovascular coiling with microsurgical clipping among adults with unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCAA) by conducting a meta-analysis.
METHODS: A systematic search was conducted from January 2011 to October 2015 to update a previous meta-analysis. All studies that reported unruptured MCAA in adults treated by microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling were included and cumulatively analyzed.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies including 3352 patients were included. Using the randomeffects model, pooled analysis of 11 studies of microsurgical clipping (626 aneurysms) revealed complete aneurysmal obliteration in 94.2% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.6%-97.4%). The analysis of 18 studies of endovascular coiling (759 aneurysms) revealed complete obliteration in 53.2% of cases (95% CI: 45.0%-61.1%). Among clipping studies, 22 assessed neurological outcomes (2404 aneurysms), with favorable outcomes in 97.9% (95% CI: 96.8%-98.6%). Among coiling studies, 22 examined neurological outcomes (826 aneurysms), with favorable outcomes in 95.1% (95% CI: 93.1%-96.5%). Results using the fixed-effect models were not materially different.
CONCLUSION: This updated meta-analysis demonstrates that surgical clipping for unruptured MCAA remains highly safe and efficacious. Endovascular treatment for unruptured MCAAs continues to improve in efficacy and safety; yet, it results in lower rates of occlusion.
J Neurosurg 129:883–889, 2018
The head-up display (HUD) is a modern technology that projects images or numeric information directly into the observer’s sight line. Surgeons will no longer need to look away from the surgical view using the HUD system to confirm the preoperative or navigation image. The present study investigated the usefulness of the HUD system for performing cerebral aneurysm clipping surgeries.
METHODS Thirty-five patients underwent clipping surgery, including 20 keyhole surgeries for unruptured cerebral aneurysm, using the HUD system. Image information of structures such as the skull, cerebral vasculature, and aneurysm was integrated by the navigation software and linked with the positional coordinates of the microscope field of view. “Image injection” allowed visualization of the main structures that were concurrently tracked by the navigation image, and “closed shutter” switched the microscope field of view and the pointer image of the 3D brain image.
RESULTS The HUD system was effective for estimating the location and 3D anatomy of the aneurysm before craniotomy or dural opening in most patients. Scheduled keyhole minicraniotomy and opening of the sylvian fissure or partial rectal gyrus resection were performed on the optimized location with a minimum size in 20 patients.
CONCLUSIONS The HUD images superimposed on the microscope field of view were remarkably useful for less invasive and more safe aneurysm clipping and, in particular, keyhole clipping.
World Neurosurg. (2018) 112:73-76
The minimally invasive approach to distal anterior cerebral artery (DACA) aneurysms has not gained much acceptance due to difficulties associated with the conventional frontal paramedian approach. The more proximal basal interhemispheric approach, however, necessitates extensive dissection of soft tissues. We describe a novel minimally invasive median supraorbital keyhole craniotomy with a basal interhemispheric approach for clipping a ruptured DACA aneurysm.
METHODS: A 62-year-old patient presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Computed tomography angiography revealed a DACA aneurysm. The surgical technique involved a keyhole craniotomy made via an eyebrow incision extending between the supraorbital notches, and flush with the anterior cranial fossa. The dura was opened at the anterior part, the falx was cut, an interhemispheric dissection was carried out, adequate proximal control was obtained, and the aneurysm neck was dissected and clipped. A relevant review of the literature was carried out.
RESULTS: The patient recovered well, with no residual aneurysm or forehead numbness, with good cosmesis. Compared with the previously described “keyhole unilateral interhemispheric” approaches, our technique has less likelihood of encountering bridging veins; easier cisternal cerebrospinal fluid release, making it feasible even in swollen brain; better proximal vascular control; and trajectory toward the neck rather than dome.
CONCLUSION: The median supraorbital keyhole approach is a minimally invasive technique sufficient for clipping most DACA aneurysms, with easier access, better proximal control, and good cosmesis.
Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:295–299
The far-lateral is a standardised approach to clip aneurysms of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). Different variants can be adopted to manage aneurysms that differ in morphology, topography, ruptured status, cerebellar swelling and surgeon preference.
Method We distinguished five paradigmatic approaches aimed to manage aneurysms that are: proximal unruptured; proximal ruptured requiring posterior fossa decompression (PFD); proximal ruptured not requiring PFD; distal unruptured; distal ruptured.
Conclusions Preoperative planning in the setting of PICA aneurysm surgery is of paramount importance to perform an effective and safe procedure, to ensure an adequate PFD and optimal proximal control before aneurysm manipulation.
J Neurosurg 126:1070–1078, 2017
Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to assess periprocedural lesion load after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) by microsurgical clipping (MC) and endovascular coiling (EC).
METHODS Patients with UIA were assigned to undergo MC or EC according to interdisciplinary consensus and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 1 day before and 1 day after aneurysm treatment. Newly detected lesions by DWI after treatment were the primary end point of this prospective study. Lesions detected by DWI were categorized as follows: A) 1–3 DWI spots < 10 mm, B) > 3 DWI spots < 10 mm, C) single DWI lesion > 10 mm, or D) DWI lesion related to surgical access.
RESULTS Between 2010 and 2014, 99 cases were included. Sixty-two UIA were treated by MC and 37 by EC. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, aneurysm size, occurrence of multiple aneurysms in 1 patient, or presence of lesions detected by DWI before treatment. Aneurysms treated by EC were significantly more often located in the posterior circulation (p < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted MRI detected new lesions in 27 (43.5%) and 20 (54.1%) patients after MC and EC, respectively (not significant). The pattern of lesions detected by DWI varied significantly between groups (p < 0.001). Microembolic lesions (A and B) found on DWI were detected more frequently after EC (A, 14 cases; B, 5 cases) than after MC (A, 5 cases), whereas C and D were rare after EC (C, 1 case) and occurred more often after MC (C, 12 cases and D, 10 cases). No procedure-related unfavorable outcomes were detected.
CONCLUSIONS According to the specific techniques, lesion patterns differ between MC and EC, whereas the frequency of new lesions found on DWI is similar after occlusion of UIA. In general, the lesion load was low in both groups, and lesions were clinically silent. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01490463 (clinicaltrials.gov)
J Neurosurg 126:811–818, 2017
The comparative effectiveness of the 2 treatment options—surgical clipping and endovascular coiling—for unruptured cerebral aneurysms remains an issue of debate and has not been studied in clinical trials. The authors investigated the association between treatment method for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes in elderly patients.
METHODS The authors performed a cohort study of 100% of Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who had treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2007 and 2012. To control for measured confounding, the authors used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting with mixed effects to account for clus- tering at the level of the hospital referral region (HRR). An instrumental variable (regional rates of coiling) analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and to create pseudo-randomization on the treatment method.
RESULTS During the study period, 8705 patients underwent treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the study inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 2585 (29.7%) had surgical clipping and 6120 (70.3%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference between coiling and clipping in 1-year postoperative mortality (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.68–2.31) or 90-day readmission rate (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.66–1.62). However, clipping was associ- ated with a greater likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 6.39, 95% CI 3.85–10.59) and 3.6 days longer length of stay (LOS; 95% CI 2.90–4.71). The same associations were present in propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability–weighted models.
CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of Medicare patients, there was no difference in mortality and the readmission rate between clipping and coiling of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with a higher rate of discharge to a rehabilitation facility and a longer LOS.