Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2257–2265
Only two aneurysm formations in the internal carotid artery after gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for pituitary adenomas are reported so far.
Here, out of the 482 patients who underwent GKRS for pituitary adenomas at our institute, at least five developed aneurysms within the area of high single-dose irradiation. Three patients presented with epistaxis due to aneurysmal rupture and one presented with abducens paralysis due to nerve compression, while one was asymptomatic.
The interval between irradiation and aneurysmal detection ranged from 14 to 21 years. Aneurysm formation in those conditions may be higher than previously thought.
Neurosurgery 93:453–461, 2023
The efﬁcacy of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for the relief of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) is well established. Much less is known, however, about the beneﬁt of SRS for multiple sclerosis (MS)–related TN (MS-TN). OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes in patients who underwent SRS for MS-TN vs classical/idiopathic TN and identify relative risk factors for failure.
METHODS: We conducted a retrospective, case-control study of patients who underwent Gamma Knife radiosurgery at our center for MS-TN between October 2004 and November 2017. Cases were matched 1:1 to controls using a propensity score predicting MS probability using pretreatment variables. The ﬁnal cohort consisted of 154 patients (77 cases and 77 controls). Baseline demographics, pain characteristics, and MRI features were collected before treatment. Pain evolution and complications were obtained at follow-up. Outcomes were analyzed using the Kaplan-Meir estimator and Cox regressions.
RESULTS: There was no statistically signiﬁcant difference between both groups with regards to initial pain relief (modiﬁed Barrow National Institute IIIa or less), which was achieved in 77% of patients with MS and 69% of controls. In responders, 78% of patients with MS and 52% of controls eventually had recurrence. Pain recurred earlier in patients with MS (29 months) than in controls (75 months). Complications were similarly distributed in each group and consisted, in the MS group, of 3% of new bothersome facial hypoesthesia and 1% of new dysesthesia.
CONCLUSION: SRS is a safe and effective modality to achieve pain freedom in MS-TN. However, pain relief is signiﬁcantly less durable than in matched controls without MS.
Neurosurgery 93:198–205, 2023
The management of intracranial oncological disease remains a signiﬁcant challenge despite advances in systemic cancer therapy. Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) represents a novel treatment for local control of brain tumors through photocoagulation with a stereotactically implanted laser ﬁber. Because the use of laser interstitial thermal therapy continues to increase within neurosurgery, characterization of LITT is necessary to improve outcomes.
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the risk of tumor seeding along the laser ﬁber tract in patients receiving LITT for primary or metastatic brain tumors at a high-volume treatment center.
METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients receiving LITT from 2015 to 2021 at our medical center. Patients with biopsy-conﬁrmed tumors were included in this study. Tract seeding was identiﬁed as discontinuous, newly enhancing tumor along the LITT tract.
RESULTS: Fifty-six patients received LITT for biopsy-conﬁrmed tumors from 2015 to 2021, with tract seeding identiﬁed in 3 (5.4%). Twenty-nine (51.8%) patients had gliomas, while the remainder had metastases, of which lung was the most common histology (20 patients, 74%). Tract seeding was associated with ablation proceeding inward from superﬁcial tumor margin closest to the cranial entry point (P = .03). Patients with tract seeding had a shorter median time to progression of 1.1 (0.1-1.3) months vs 4.2 (2.2-8.6) months (P = .03).
CONCLUSION: Although the risk of tract seeding after LITT is reassuringly low, it is associated with decreased progression-free survival. This risk may be related to surgical technique or experience. Follow-up radiosurgery to the LITT tract has the potential to prevent this complication.
J Neurosurg 138:1630–1639, 2023
Cerebellopontine angle (CPA) meningiomas present many surgical challenges depending on their volume, site of dural attachment, and connection to surrounding neurovascular structures. Assuming that systematic radical resection of large CPA meningiomas carries a high risk of permanent morbidity, the authors adopted an alternative strategy of optimal resection followed by radiosurgery or careful observation of the residual tumor and assessed the efficiency and safety of this approach to meningioma treatment management.
METHODS This single-center retrospective cohort study included 50 consecutive patients who underwent surgery for meningioma between January 2003 and February 2020.
RESULTS The most common main dural attachments of the meningiomas were posterior (42%) and superior (26%) to the internal auditory meatus. The suboccipital retrosigmoid route was the most routinely used (92%). At the last follow-up examination, 93% of the patients with normal preoperative facial nerve (FN) function retained good House-Brackmann (HB) grades of I and II, whereas 3 patients (7%) displayed intermediate HB grade III FN function. Hearing preservation was achieved in 86% of the patients who presented with preoperative serviceable hearing, and recovery after surgery was achieved in 19% of the patients experiencing preoperative hearing loss. In order to preserve all cranial nerve function, gross-total resection was obtained in 26% of patients. Of the 35 patients who had undergone subtotal resection, 20 (57%) had been allocated into a wait-and-rescan treatment approach and 15 (43%) underwent upfront Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). The mean postoperative tumor volume was 1.20 cm 3 in the upfront GKS group and 0.73 cm 3 in the waitand-rescan group (p = 0.08). Tumor control was achieved in 87% and 55% of cases (p < 0.001), with a mean follow-up of 85 and 69 months in the GKS and wait-and-rescan groups, respectively. The 1-, 5-, and 7-year tumor progression-free survival rates were 100%, 100%, and 89% in the GKS group and 95%, 59%, and 47% in the wait-and-rescan group, respectively (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Optimal nonradical resection of large CPA meningiomas provides favorable long-term tumor control and functional preservation. Adjuvant GKS does not carry additional morbidity and appears to be an efficient adjuvant treatment.
J Neurosurg 138:1273–1280, 2023
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an effective treatment for vestibular schwannomas (VSs) and has been used in > 100,000 cases worldwide. In the present study the authors sought to define the serial volumetric tumor response of Koos grade I–IV VS after radiosurgery.
METHODS A total of 201 consecutive VS patients underwent GKRS at a single institution between 2015 and 2019. All patients had a minimum follow-up of 18 months and at least 2 interval postprocedure MRI scans. The contrast-enhanced tumor volumes were contoured manually and compared between pre- and post-GKRS imaging. The percentages of tumor volume change at 18 months (short-term follow-up) and up to 5 years after GKRS (long-term follow-up) were compared with the baseline tumor volume. An increase of 20% was considered a significant increase of tumor volume. Trends of tumor volume over time were assessed with linear models using time as a continuous variable. A test for linear trend was evaluated according to the initial Koos tumor classification.
RESULTS Koos grade II VS was the most frequently occurring tumor (n = 74, 36.8%), followed by grade III (n = 57, 28.4%), grade I (n = 41, 20.4%), and grade IV (n = 29, 14.4%). The mean tumor volume at the time of GKRS was 2.12 ±2.82 cm 3 (range 0.12–18.77 cm 3 ) and the median margin dose was 12 Gy. Short-term follow-up revealed that tumor volumes transiently increased in 34.2% and 28.4% of patients at 6 and 18 months, respectively, regardless of Koos grade. Linear regression analysis of Koos grade II, III, and IV tumors showed a significant longitudinal volume decrease on long-term follow-up. At last follow-up (median 30 months, range 18–54 months), 19 patients (9.4%) showed a persistent increase of tumor volume. Five patients received additional management after GKRS.
CONCLUSIONS Although selected VS patients demonstrate an early and measurable transient volumetric increase after GKRS, > 90% have stable or reduced tumor volumes over an observed period of up to 5 years. Volumetric regression is most pronounced in Koos grade II, III, and IV tumors and may not be fully detectable until 3 years after GKRS.
Neurosurgery 92:195–204, 2023
Stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) offers a minimally invasive treatment modality for appropriately selected intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Recent reports have described the development of rare, delayed chronic encapsulated expanding hematomas (CEEHs) at the site of an angiographically confirmed obliterated AVM.
OBJECTIVE: To elucidate the incidence, characteristics, and management of CEEH in patients with AVM after SRS.
METHODS: The records of all patients who underwent SRS for an intracranial AVM at 4 institutions participating in the International Radiosurgery Research Foundation between 1987 and 2021 were retrospectively reviewed. Data regarding characteristics of the AVM, SRS treatment parameters, CEEH presentation, management, and outcomes were collected and analyzed.
RESULTS: Among 5430 patients, 15 developed a CEEH at a crude incidence of 0.28%. Nine patients were female, and the mean age was 43 ± 14.6 years. Nine patients underwent surgical evacuation, while 6 were managed conservatively. The median CEEH development latency was 106 months after SRS. The patients were followed for a median of 32 months, and 9 patients improved clinically, while 6 patients remained stable. No intraoperative complications were reported after CEEH resection, although 1 patient recovered from postoperative meningitis requiring intravenous antibiotics.
CONCLUSION: CEEH is a rare, late complication of AVM SRS with an incidence of 0.28% and a median latency of 106 months. In the presence of a delayed and symptomatic expanding hematoma in the bed of an angiographically obliterated AVM, surgical resection resulted in clinical improvement in most patients. Conservative management is possible in asymptomatic patients with stable, small-sized hematomas in deeply seated locations.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:211–220
Surgery is the preferred treatment for large vestibular schwannomas (VS). Good tumor control and cranial nerve outcomes were described in selected Koos IV VS after single-session stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS), but outcomes in elderly patients have never been specifically studied. The aim of this study is to report clinical and radiological outcomes after single-session SRS for Koos IV VS in patients ≥ 65 years old.
Method This multicenter, retrospective study included patients ≥ 65 years old, treated with primary, single-session SRS for a Koos IV VS, and at least 12 months of follow-up. Patients with life-threatening or incapacitating symptoms were excluded. Tumor control rate, hearing, trigeminal, and facial nerve function were studied at last follow-up.
Results One-hundred and fifty patients (median age of 71.0 (IQR 9.0) years old with a median tumor volume of 8.3 cc (IQR 4.4)) were included. The median prescription dose was 12.0 Gy (IQR 1.4). The local tumor control rate was 96.0% and 86.2% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Early tumor expansion occurred in 6.7% and was symptomatic in 40% of cases. A serviceable hearing was present in 16.1% prior to SRS and in 7.4% at a last follow-up of 46.5 months (IQR 55.8). The actuarial serviceable hearing preservation rate was 69.3% and 50.9% at 5 and 10 years, respectively. Facial nerve function preservation or improvement rates at 5 and 10 years were 98.7% and 91.0%, respectively. At last follow-up, the trigeminal nerve function was improved in 14.0%, stable in 80.7%, and worsened in 5.3% of the patients. ARE were noted in 12.7%. New hydrocephalus was seen in 8.0% of patients.
Conclusion SRS can be a safe alternative to surgery for selected Koos IV VS in patients ≥ 65 years old. Further follow-up is warranted.
J Neurosurg 137:977–984, 2022
The object of this study was to evaluate the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the management of intracranial chordomas.
METHODS This retrospective multicenter study involved consecutive patients managed with single-session SRS for an intracranial chordoma at 10 participating centers. Radiological and neurological outcomes were assessed after SRS, and predictive factors were evaluated via statistical methodology.
RESULTS A total of 93 patients (56 males [60.2%], mean age 44.8 years [SD 16.6]) underwent single-session SRS for intracranial chordoma. SRS was utilized as adjuvant treatment in 77 (82.8%) cases, at recurrence in 13 (14.0%) cases, and as primary treatment in 3 (3.2%) cases. The mean tumor volume was 8 cm 3 (SD 7.3), and the mean prescription volume was 9.1 cm 3 (SD 8.7). The mean margin and maximum radiosurgical doses utilized were 17 Gy (SD 3.6) and 34.2 Gy (SD 6.4), respectively. On multivariate analysis, treatment failure due to tumor progression (p = 0.001) was associated with an increased risk for post-SRS neurological deterioration, and a maximum dose > 29 Gy (p = 0.006) was associated with a decreased risk. A maximum dose > 29 Gy was also associated with improved local tumor control (p = 0.02), whereas the presence of neurological deficits prior to SRS (p = 0.04) and an age > 65 years at SRS (p = 0.03) were associated with worse local tumor control. The 5- and 10-year tumor progression-free survival rates were 54.7% and 34.7%, respectively. An age > 65 years at SRS (p = 0.01) was associated with decreased overall survival. The 5and 10-year overall survival rates were 83% and 70%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS SRS appears to be a safe and relatively effective adjuvant management option for intracranial chordomas. The best outcomes were obtained in younger patients without significant neurological deficits. Further well-designed studies are necessary to define the best timing for the use of SRS in the multidisciplinary management of intracranial chordomas.
Neurosurgery 90:784–792, 2022
The information about long-term risks of hemorrhage and late adverse radiation effects (AREs) after stereotactic radiosurgery for brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) is lacking.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the long-term risks of hemorrhage and late ARE rates in patients with AVM treated with Gamma Knife surgery (GKS). METHODS: We examined 1249 patients with AVM treated with GKS. The Spetzler–Martin grade was I in 313 patients (25%), II in 394 (32%), III in 458 (37%), and IV/V in 84 (7%). The median treatment volume was 2.5 cm3, and the median marginal dose was 20 Gy.
RESULTS: The median follow-up period was 61 months. The 5- and 10-year nidus obliteration rates were 63% and 82%, respectively. The 5- and 10-year cumulative hemorrhage rates were 7% and 10%, respectively. The annual hemorrhage rate was 1.5% for the first 5 years post-GKS, which decreased to 0.5% thereafter. During the follow-up period, 42 symptomatic cyst formations/ chronic encapsulated hematomas ([CFs/CEHs], 3%) and 3 radiation-induced tumors (0.2%) were observed. The 10- and 15-year cumulative CF/CEH rates were 3.7% and 9.4%, respectively.
CONCLUSION: GKS is associated with reduced hemorrhage risk and high nidus obliteration rates in patients with AVM. The incidence of late AREs tended to increase over time. The most common ARE was CF/CEH, which can be safely removed; however, careful attention should be paid to the long-term development of fatal radiation-induced tumors.
J Neurosurg 135:1789–1798, 2021
Gamma Knife radiosurgery (GKRS) is an established surgical option for the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia (TN), particularly for high-risk surgical candidates and those with recurrent pain. However, outcomes after three or more GKRS treatments have rarely been reported. Herein, the authors reviewed outcomes among patients who had undergone three or more GKRS procedures for recurrent TN.
METHODS The authors conducted a multicenter retrospective analysis of patients who had undergone at least three GKRS treatments for TN between July 1997 and April 2019 at two different institutions. Clinical characteristics, radiosurgical dosimetry and technique, pain outcomes, and complications were reviewed. Pain outcomes were scored on the Barrow Neurological Institute (BNI) scale, including time to pain relief (BNI score ≤ III) and recurrence (BNI score > III).
RESULTS A total of 30 patients were identified, including 16 women and 14 men. Median pain duration prior to the first GKRS treatment was 10 years. Three patients (10%) had multiple sclerosis. Time to pain relief was longer after the third treatment (p = 0.0003), whereas time to pain recurrence was similar across each of the successive treatments (p = 0.842). Complete or partial pain relief was achieved in 93.1% of patients after the third treatment. The maximum pain relief achieved after the third treatment was significantly better among patients with no prior percutaneous procedures (p = 0.0111) and patients with shorter durations of pain before initiation of GKRS therapy (p = 0.0449). New or progressive facial sensory dysfunction occurred in 29% of patients after the third GKRS treatment and was reported as bothersome in 14%. One patient developed facial twitching, while another experienced persistent lacrimation. No statistically significant predictors of adverse effects following the third treatment were found. Over a median of 39 months of follow-up, 77% of patients maintained complete or partial pain relief. Three patients underwent a fourth GKRS treatment, including one who ultimately received five treatments; all of them reported sustained pain relief at the extended follow-up.
CONCLUSIONS The authors describe the largest series to date of patients undergoing three or more GKRS treatments for refractory TN. A third treatment may produce outcomes similar to those of the first two treatments in terms of longterm pain relief, recurrence, and adverse effects.
J Neurosurg 135:1058–1066, 2021
While extensive long-term outcome studies support the role of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for smaller volume vestibular schwannomas (VSs), its role in the management for larger-volume tumors remains controversial.
METHODS Between 1987 and 2017, the authors performed single-session SRS on 170 patients with previously untreated Koos grade IV VSs (volumes ranged from 5 to 20 cm3). The median tumor volume was 7.4 cm3. The median maximum extracanalicular tumor diameter was 27.5 mm. All tumors compressed the middle cerebellar peduncle and distorted the fourth ventricle. Ninety-three patients were male, 77 were female, and the median age was 61 years. Sixtytwo patients had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson [GR] grades I and II). The median margin dose was 12.5 Gy.
RESULTS At a median follow-up of 5.1 years, the progression-free survival rates of VSs treated with a margin dose ≥ 12.0 Gy were 98.4% at 3 years, 95.3% at 5 years, and 90.7% at 10 years. In contrast, the tumor control rate after delivery of a margin dose < 12.0 Gy was 76.9% at 3, 5, and 10 years. The hearing preservation rates in patients with serviceable hearing at the time of SRS were 58.1% at 3 years, 50.3% at 5 years, and 35.9% at 7 years. Younger age (< 60 years, p = 0.036) and initial GR grade I (p = 0.006) were associated with improved serviceable hearing preservation rate. Seven patients (4%) developed facial neuropathy during the follow-up interval. A smaller tumor volume (< 10 cm3, p = 0.002) and a lower margin dose (≤ 13.0 Gy, p < 0.001) were associated with preservation of facial nerve function. The probability of delayed facial neuropathy when the margin dose was ≤ 13.0 Gy was 1.1% at 10 years. Nine patients (5%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of delayed symptomatic hydrocephalus. Fifteen patients (9%) developed detectable trigeminal neuropathy. Delayed resection was performed in 4% of patients.
CONCLUSIONS Even for larger-volume VSs, single-session SRS prevented the need for delayed resection in almost 90% at 10 years. For patients with minimal symptoms of tumor mass effect, SRS should be considered an effective alternative to surgery in most patients, especially those with advanced age or medical comorbidities.
J Neurosurg 135:1051–1057, 2021
This report evaluates the outcomes of stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as the first-line treatment of intracanalicular vestibular schwannomas (VSs).
METHODS Between 1987 and 2017, the authors identified 209 patients who underwent SRS as the primary intervention for a unilateral intracanalicular VS. The median patient age was 54 years (range 22–85 years); 94 patients were male and 115 were female. Three patients had facial neuropathy at the time of SRS. One hundred fifty-five patients (74%) had serviceable hearing (Gardner-Robertson [GR] grades I and II) at the time of SRS. The median tumor volume was 0.17 cm3 (range 0.015–0.63 cm3). The median margin dose was 12.5 Gy (range 11.0–25.0 Gy). The median maximum dose was 24.0 Gy (range 15.7–50.0 Gy).
RESULTS The progression-free survival rates of all patients with intracanalicular VS were 97.5% at 3 years, 95.6% at 5 years, and 92.1% at 10 years. The rates of freedom from the need for any additional intervention were 99.4% at 3 years, 98.3% at 5 years, and 98.3% at 10 years. The serviceable hearing preservation rates in GR grade I and II patients at the time of SRS were 76.6% at 3 years, 63.5% at 5 years, and 27.3% at 10 years. In univariate analysis, younger age (< 55 years, p = 0.011), better initial hearing (GR grade I, p < 0.001), and smaller tumor volumes (< 0.14 cm3, p = 0.016) were significantly associated with improved hearing preservation. In multivariate analysis, better hearing (GR grade I, p = 0.001, HR 2.869, 95% CI 1.569–5.248) and smaller tumor volumes (< 0.14 cm3, p = 0.033, HR 2.071, 95% CI 1.059–4.047) at the time of SRS were significantly associated with improved hearing preservation. The hearing preservation rates of patients with GR grade I VS were 88.1% at 3 years, 77.9% at 5 years, and 38.1% at 10 years. The hearing preservation rates of patients with VSs smaller than 0.14 cm3 were 85.5% at 3 years, 77.7% at 5 years, and 42.6% at 10 years. Facial neuropathy developed in 1.4% from 6 to 156 months after SRS.
CONCLUSIONS SRS provided sustained tumor control in more than 90% of patients with intracanalicular VS at 10 years and freedom from the need for additional intervention in more than 98% at 10 years. Patients with initially better hearing and smaller VSs had enhanced serviceable hearing preservation during an observation interval up to 10 years after SRS.
J Neurosurg 135:881–889, 2021
Multiple short series have evaluated the efficacy of salvage microsurgery (MS) after stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) for treatment of vestibular schwannomas (VSs); however, there is a lack of a large volume of patient data available for interpretation and clinical adaptation. The goal of this study was to provide a comprehensive review of tumor characteristics, management, and surgical outcomes of salvage of MS after SRS for VS.
METHODS The Medline/PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar databases were queried according to PRISMA guidelines. All English-language and translated publications were included. Studies lacking adequate study characteristics and outcomes were excluded. Cases involving neurofibromatosis type 2, previous MS, or malignant transformation were excluded when possible.
RESULTS Twenty studies containing 297 cases met inclusion criteria. Three additional cases from Rush University Medical Center were added for 300 total cases. Tumor growth with or without symptoms was the primary indication for salvage surgery (92.3% of cases), followed by worsening of symptoms without growth (4.6%) and cystic enlargement (3.1%). The average time to MS after SRS was 39.4 months. The average size and volume of tumor at surgery were 2.44 cm and 5.92 cm3, respectively. The surgical approach was retrosigmoid (42.8%) and translabyrinthine (57.2%); 59.5% of patients had a House-Brackmann (HB) grade of I or II. The facial nerve was preserved in 91.5% of cases. Facial nerve preservation and HB grades were lower for the translabyrinthine versus retrosigmoid approach (p = 0.31 and p = 0.18, respectively); however, fewer complications were noted in the translabyrinthine approach (p = 0.29). Gross-total resection (GTR) was completed in 55.7% of surgeries. Studies that predominantly used subtotal resection (STR) were associated with a lower rate of facial nerve injury (5.3% vs 11.3%, p = 0.07) and higher rate of HB grade I or II (72.9% vs 48.0%, p = 0.00003) versus those using predominantly GTR. However, majority STR was associated with a recurrence rate of 3.6% as compared to 1.4% for majority GTR (p = 0.29).
CONCLUSIONS This study showed that the leading cause of MS after SRS was tumor growth at an average of 39.4 months after radiation. There were no significant differences in outcomes of facial nerve preservation, postoperative HB grade, or complication rate based on surgical approach. Patients who underwent STR showed statistically significant better HB outcomes compared with GTR. MS after SRS was considered by most authors to be more difficult than primary MS. These data support the notion that the surgical goals of salvage surgery are debulking of tumor mass, decreasing compression of the brainstem, and not necessarily pursuing GTR.
J Neurosurg 135:742–750, 2021
Investigations of the combined effects of neoadjuvant Onyx embolization and stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) on brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) have not accounted for initial angioarchitectural features prior to neuroendovascular intervention. The aim of this retrospective, multicenter matched cohort study is to compare the outcomes of SRS with versus without upfront Onyx embolization for AVMs using de novo characteristics of the preembolized nidus.
METHODS The International Radiosurgery Research Foundation AVM databases from 1987 to 2018 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were categorized based on AVM treatment approach into Onyx embolization (OE) and SRS (OE+SRS) or SRS alone (SRS-only) cohorts and then propensity score matched in a 1:1 ratio. The primary outcome was AVM obliteration. Secondary outcomes were post-SRS hemorrhage, all-cause mortality, radiological and symptomatic radiation-induced changes (RICs), and cyst formation. Comparisons were analyzed using crude rates and cumulative probabilities adjusted for competing risk of death.
RESULTS The matched OE+SRS and SRS-only cohorts each comprised 53 patients. Crude rates (37.7% vs 47.2% for the OE+SRS vs SRS-only cohorts, respectively; OR 0.679, p = 0.327) and cumulative probabilities at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years (33.7%, 44.1%, 57.5%, and 65.7% for the OE+SRS cohort vs 34.8%, 45.5%, 59.0%, and 67.1% for the SRS-only cohort, respectively; subhazard ratio 0.961, p = 0.896) of AVM obliteration were similar between the matched cohorts. The secondary outcomes of the matched cohorts were also similar. Asymptomatic and symptomatic embolization-related complication rates in the matched OE+SRS cohort were 18.9% and 9.4%, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS Pre-SRS AVM embolization with Onyx does not appear to negatively influence outcomes after SRS. These analyses, based on de novo nidal characteristics, thereby refute previous studies that found detrimental effects of Onyx embolization on SRS-induced AVM obliteration. However, given the risks incurred by nidal embolization using Onyx, this neoadjuvant intervention should be used judiciously in multimodal treatment strategies involving SRS for appropriately selected large-volume or angioarchitecturally high-risk AVMs.
J Neurosurg 135:733–741, 2021
The major concern about ruptured arteriovenous malformations (rAVMs) is recurrent hemorrhage, which tends to preclude stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) as a therapeutic modality for these brain malformations. In this study, the authors aimed to clarify the role of SRS for rAVM as a stand-alone modality and an adjunct for a remnant nidus after surgery or embolization.
METHODS Data on 410 consecutive patients with rAVMs treated with SRS were analyzed. The patients were classified into groups, according to prior interventions: SRS-alone, surgery and SRS (Surg-SRS), and embolization and SRS (Embol- SRS) groups. The outcomes of the SRS-alone group were analyzed in comparison with those of the other two groups.
RESULTS The obliteration rate was higher in the Surg-SRS group than in the SRS-alone group (5-year cumulative rate 97% vs 79%, p < 0.001), whereas no significant difference was observed between the Embol-SRS and SRS-alone groups. Prior resection (HR 1.78, 95% CI 1.30–2.43, p < 0.001), a maximum AVM diameter ≤ 20 mm (HR 1.81, 95% CI 1.43–2.30, p < 0.001), and a prescription dose ≥ 20 Gy (HR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28–3.27, p = 0.003) were associated with a better obliteration rate, as demonstrated by multivariate Cox proportional hazards analyses. In the SRS-alone group, the annual post-SRS hemorrhage rates were 1.5% within 5 years and 0.2% thereafter and the 10-year significant neurological event–free rate was 95%; no intergroup difference was observed in either outcome. The exclusive performance of SRS (SRS alone) was not a risk for post-SRS hemorrhage or for significant neurological events based on multivariate analyses. These results were also confirmed with propensity score–matched analyses.
CONCLUSIONS The treatment strategy for rAVMs should be tailored with due consideration of multiple factors associated with the patients. Stand-alone SRS is effective for hemorrhagic AVMs, and the risk of post-SRS hemorrhage was low. SRS can also be favorably used for residual AVMs after initial interventions, especially after failed resection.
J Neurosurg 135:228–236, 2021
The goal of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of stereotactic central lateral thalamotomy with Gamma Knife radiosurgery in patients with neuropathic pain.
METHODS Clinical and radiosurgical data were prospectively collected and analyzed in patients with neuropathic pain who underwent Gamma Knife central lateral thalamotomy. The safety and efficacy of the lesioning procedure were evaluated by neurological examination and standardized scales for pain intensity and health-related quality of life. Visual analog scale (VAS) for pain, McGill Pain Questionnaire (MPQ), EuroQol–5 dimensions (EQ-5D), and the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, version 2 (SF-36v2) were measured during baseline and postoperative follow-up evaluations at 3, 6, 12, 24, and 36 months.
RESULTS Eight patients with neuropathic pain underwent Gamma Knife central lateral thalamotomy. Four patients suffered from trigeminal deafferentation pain, 2 from brachial plexus injury, 1 from central poststroke facial neuropathic pain, and 1 from postherpetic neuralgia. No lesioning-related adverse effect was recorded during the follow-up periods. All patients had pain reduction following thalamotomy. The mean follow-up time was 24 months. At the last follow-up visits, 5 patients reported ≥ 50% VAS pain reduction. The overall mean VAS pain score was 9.4 (range 8–10) before radiosurgery. After 1 year, the mean VAS pain score decreased significantly, from 9.4 (range 8–10) to 5.5 (mean -41.33%, p = 0.01). MPQ scores significantly decreased (mean -22.18%, p = 0.014). Statistically significant improvements of the SF-36v2 quality of life survey (mean +48.16%, p = 0.012) and EQ-5D (+45.16%, p = 0.012) were observed. At 2 years after radiosurgery, the VAS pain score remained significantly reduced to a mean value of 5.5 (p = 0.027). Statistically significant improvements were also observed for the MPQ (mean -16.05%, p = 0.034); the EQ-5D (mean +35.48%, p = 0.028); and the SF-36v2 (mean +35.84%, p = 0.043). At the last follow-up visits, pain had recurred in 2 patients, who were suffering from central poststroke neuropathic pain and brachial plexus injury, respectively.
CONCLUSIONS Safe, nonpharmacological therapies are imperative for the management of refectory chronic pain conditions. The present series demonstrates that Gamma Knife central lateral thalamotomy is safe and potentially effective in the long term for relieving chronic neuropathic pain refractory to pharmacotherapy and for restoring quality of life.
Neurosurgery 88:E351–E355, 2021
The Zap-X system (Zap Surgical Systems Inc, San Carlos, California) is a radically new surgical robot designed for brain and head and neck radiosurgery. It represents the first new dedicated brain stereotactic radiosurgery platform in almost half a century optimizing the goals of safety, speed, and accuracy. The Zap-X system was used in a required Chinese National Medical Products Administration clinical study. In early January 2020, 2 patientswere treatedwith the Zap-X robot prior to a national COVID-19 lockdown. Both were closely followed via clinical exam andmagnetic resonance imaging (MRI) imaging. Prospectively collected data were used to generate this report.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Two female patients, each harboring either a trigeminal schwannoma or petroclival meningioma, were treated with the Zap-X robot. Respective tumor volumes were 2.60 and 4.02 cm3. A radiation dose of 13 Gy was prescribed to the 50% isodose line. At 8 mo of follow-up, preoperative symptoms were either resolved or stable and MRI imaging demonstrated a 31% and 56% reduction in lesion volume, respectively. In both patients, symptoms improved, and tumor volumes decreased, whereas no major complication was observed.
CONCLUSION: Given only 2 patients and short-term follow-up, any conclusions about the safety and efficacy of the Zap-X radiosurgery robot are preliminary. However, in the absence of any other published outcomes to date, this small case seriesmay be of interest to many radiosurgical specialists.