The risk factors of postoperative infarction after surgical clipping of unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:501–515

An anterior communicating artery is a common location for both ruptured and unruptured intracranial aneurysms, and microsurgery is sometimes necessary for their successful treatment. However, postoperative infarction should be considered during clipping due to the complex surrounding structures of anterior communicating artery aneurysms. This study aimed to evaluate the risk factors of postoperative infarction after surgical clipping of unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysms and its clinical outcomes.

Methods The data of patients who underwent microsurgical clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm in our hospital between January 2008 and December 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. The patients’ demographic data, anatomical features of the anterior communicating artery complex and aneurysm, surgical technique, characteristics of postoperative infarction, and its clinical course were evaluated.

Results Notably, among 848 patients, 66 (7.8%) and 34 (4%) patients had radiologic and symptomatic infarctions, respectively. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses showed that hypertension (odds ratio (OR), 1.99; p = 0.022), previous stroke (OR, 3.89; p = 0.009), posterior projection (OR, 5.58; p < 0.001), aneurysm size (OR, 1.17; optimal cut-off value, 6.14 mm; p = 0.002), and skull base-to-aneurysm distance (OR, 1.15; optimal cut-off value, 11.09 mm; p < 0.001) were associated with postoperative infarction. In the pterional approach, a closed A2 plane was an additional risk factor (OR, 1.88; p = 0.041). Infarction of the subcallosal and hypothalamic branches was significantly associated with symptomatic infarction ( p = 0.001).

Conclusion Hypertension, previous stroke, posteriorly projecting aneurysms, aneurysm size, and highly positioned aneurysms are independent risk factors for postoperative infarction during surgical clipping of an unruptured anterior communicating artery aneurysm. Additionally, a closed A2 plane is an additional risk factor of postoperative infarction in patients undergoing clipping via the pterional approach.

Functional Reorganization of the Mesial Frontal Premotor Cortex in Patients With Supplementary Motor Area Seizures

Neurosurgery 92:186–194, 2023

Direct cortical stimulation of the mesial frontal premotor cortex, including the supplementary motor area (SMA), is challenging in humans. Limited access to these brain regions impedes understanding of human premotor cortex functional organization and somatotopy.

OBJECTIVE: To test whether seizure onset within the SMA was associated with functional remapping of mesial frontal premotor areas in a cohort of patients with epilepsy who underwent awake brain mapping after implantation of interhemispheric subdural electrodes.

METHODS: Stimulation trials from 646 interhemispheric subdural electrodes were analyzed and compared between patients who had seizure onset in the SMA (n = 13) vs patients who had seizure onset outside of the SMA (n = 12). 1:1 matching with replacement between SMA and non-SMA data sets was used to ensure similar spatial distribution of electrodes. Centroids and 95% confidence regions were computed for clustered head, trunk, upper extremity, lower extremity, and vision responses. A generalized linear mixedeffects model was used to test for significant differences in the resulting functional maps. Clinical, radiographic, and histopathologic data were reviewed.

RESULTS: After analyzing direct cortical stimulation trials from interhemispheric electrodes, we found significant displacement of the head and trunk responses in SMA compared with non-SMA patients (P < .01 for both). These differences remained significant after accounting for structural lesions, preexisting motor deficits, and seizure outcome.

CONCLUSION: The somatotopy of the mesial frontal premotor regions is significantly altered in patients who have SMA-onset seizures compared with patients who have seizure onset outside of the SMA, suggesting that functional remapping can occur in these brain regions.

Microsurgery versus Microsurgery With Preoperative Embolization for Brain Arteriovenous Malformation Treatment: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis

Neurosurgery 92:27–41, 2023

Preoperative embolization has traditionally been regarded as a safe and effective adjunct to microsurgical treatment of brain arteriovenous malformations (bAVM). However, there is currently no high-level evidence to ascertain this presumption.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of microsurgery (MS) vs microsurgery with preoperative embolization (E + MS) in patients with bAVM through systematic review.

METHODS: We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, and Embase. The primary outcome was bAVM obliteration. Secondary outcomes were intraoperative bleeding (mL), complications, worsened modified Rankin Scale (mRS), and mortality. The pooled proportions of outcomes were calculated through the logit transformation method. The odds ratio (OR) of categorical data and mean difference of continuous data were estimated through the Mantel-Haenszel and the inverse variance methods, respectively.

RESULTS: Thirty-two studies met the eligibility criteria. One thousand eight hundred twenty-eight patients were treated by microsurgery alone, and 1088 were treated by microsurgery with preoperative embolization, respectively. The meta-analysis revealed no significant difference in AVM obliteration (94.1% vs 95.6%, OR = 1.15 [0.63-2.11], P = .65), mortality (1.7% vs 2%, OR = 0.88 [0.30-2.58], P = .82), procedural complications (18.2% vs 27.2%, OR = 0.47 [0.19-1.17], P = .10), worsened mRS (21.2% vs 18.5%, OR = 1.08 [0.33-3.54], P = .9), and intraoperative blood loss (mean difference = 182.89 [À87.76, 453.55], P = .19).

CONCLUSION: The meta-analysis showed no significant difference in AVM obliteration, mortality, complications, worse mRS, and intraoperative blood loss between MS and E + MS groups. For AVMs where MS alone has acceptable results, it is reasonable to bypass unnecessary preoperative embolization given higher postoperative complication risk.

Expanded endoscopic endonasal approach for the resection of midline craniopharyngiomas with hypothalamic involvement

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:3291–3296

With relevant surrounding neurological structures and potential involvement of the hypothalamus, the surgical management of craniopharyngiomas is complex. Compared to the transcranial approach, the expanded endoscopic endonasal approach provides direct access to the supradiaphragmatic and retrochiasmatic areas without crossing nerves and arteries.

Method Based on our substantial experience of 68 patients operated on between 2008 and 2022 by endoscopic surgery, our strategy has evolved such that all of our midline infundibular craniopharyngiomas with hypothalamic involvement are currently treated with an expanded endonasal route, except for tumours isolated to the third ventricle. Vascularized mucosal nasoseptal flaps are required for closure. Fine details of the related anatomy and surgical technique are described.

Conclusion Expanded endoscopic endonasal approach is a safe and effective route for resection of midline suprasellar craniopharyngiomas with hypothalamic involvement in centres of expertise.

Favorable long‐term outcome in young adults undergoing surgery for lumbar disc herniation

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:3155–3164

The purpose of the study was to evaluate the long-term outcome after surgery for lumbar disc herniation in a young adult population.

Methods A total of 526 consecutive patients between 18 and 40 years of age who underwent surgery for lumbar disc between 1990 and 2005 were included in the study. The primary outcomes were the need for new lumbar spine surgery during the follow-up and secondary outcomes were short-term subjective outcome, the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score, and the ability to carry out employment at the end of the long-term follow-up.

Results A total of 96% of the patients had a reduction in their symptoms at the clinical follow-up (median of 50 days post- surgery). Twenty-one patients (4.0%) had a reoperation within 28 days. Excluding these early reoperations, 136 patients (26%) had additional lumbar spine surgery and 18 patients (3.4%) underwent lumbar fusion during the follow-up of median 18 years. The annual risk for new surgery was 1.4%. In total, 316 patients (60%) returned the ODI questionnaire, and their mean score was 8.1. Patients with a higher number of additional lumbar spine surgeries (p < 0.001) reported deteriorating ODI scores.

Conclusion Patients showed excellent short-term recovery from their symptoms. In the long term, the mean ODI score for the patients was comparable to the normative population. However, a notable proportion of the patients required additional lumbar surgery during the follow-up period, and a higher number of lumbar surgeries was associated with poor ODI scores.

Operative treatment outcomes for adult cervical deformity: a prospective multicenter assessment with mean 3-year follow-up

J Neurosurg Spine 37:855–864, 2022

Adult cervical deformity (ACD) has high complication rates due to surgical complexity and patient frailty. Very few studies have focused on longer-term outcomes of operative ACD treatment. The objective of this study was to assess minimum 2-year outcomes and complications of ACD surgery.

METHODS A multicenter, prospective observational study was performed at 13 centers across the United States to evaluate surgical outcomes for ACD. Demographics, complications, radiographic parameters, and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs; Neck Disability Index, modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association, EuroQol-5D [EQ-5D], and numeric rating scale [NRS] for neck and back pain) were evaluated, and analyses focused on patients with ≥ 2-year follow-up.

RESULTS Of 169 patients with ACD who were eligible for the study, 102 (60.4%) had a minimum 2-year follow-up (mean 3.4 years, range 2–8.1 years). The mean age at surgery was 62 years (SD 11 years). Surgical approaches included anterior-only (22.8%), posterior-only (39.6%), and combined (37.6%). PROMs significantly improved from baseline to last follow-up, including Neck Disability Index (from 47.3 to 33.0) and modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association score (from 12.0 to 12.8; for patients with baseline score ≤ 14), neck pain NRS (from 6.8 to 3.8), back pain NRS (from 5.5 to 4.8), EQ-5D score (from 0.74 to 0.78), and EQ-5D visual analog scale score (from 59.5 to 66.6) (all p ≤ 0.04). More than half of the patients (n = 58, 56.9%) had at least one complication, with the most common complications including dysphagia, distal junctional kyphosis, instrumentation failure, and cardiopulmonary events. The patients who did not achieve 2-year follow-up (n = 67) were similar to study patients based on baseline demographics, comorbidities, and PROMs. Over the course of follow-up, 23 of the total 169 enrolled patients were reported to have died. Notably, these represent all-cause mortalities during the course of follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS This multicenter, prospective analysis demonstrates that operative treatment for ACD provides significant improvement of health-related quality of life at a mean 3.4-year follow-up, despite high complication rates and a high rate of all-cause mortality that is reflective of the overall frailty of this patient population. To the authors’ knowledge, this study represents the largest and most comprehensive prospective effort to date designed to assess the intermediate-term outcomes and complications of operative treatment for ACD.

The need to consider return to work as a main outcome in patients undergoing surgery for diffuse low‐grade glioma: a systematic review

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2789–2809

For a long time, return to work (RTW) has been neglected in patients harboring a diffuse low-grade glioma (LGG). However, a majority of LGG patients worked at time of diagnosis. Moreover, these patients now live longer given current treatment paradigms, especially thanks to early maximal surgery.

Methods We systematically searched available medical databases for studies that reported data on RTW in patients who underwent resection for LGG.

Results A total of 30 studies were selected: 19 considered RTW (especially rate and timing) as an outcome and 11 used scales of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) which included work-related aspects. Series that considered RTW as a main endpoint were composed of 1014 patients, with postoperative RTW rates ranging from 31 to 97.1% (mean 73.1%). Timing to RTW ranged from 15 days to 22 months (mean 6.3 months). Factors related to an increased proportion of RTW were: younger age, better neurologic status, having a white-collar occupation, working pre-operatively, being the sole breadwinner, the use of awake surgery, and greater extent of resection. Female sex, older age, poor neurologic status, pre-operative history of work absences, slow lexical access speed, and postoperative seizures were negatively related to RTW. No studies that used HRQoL scales directly investigated RTW rate or timing.

Conclusions RTW was scarcely analyzed in LGG patients who underwent resection. However, because they are usually young, with no or only mild functional deficits and have a longer life expectancy, postoperative RTW should be assessed more systematically and accurately as a main outcome. As majority (61.5–100%) of LGG patients were working at time of surgery, the responsibility of neurosurgeons is to bring these patients back to their previous activities according to his/her wishes. RTW might also be included as a critical endpoint for future prospective studies and randomized control trials on LGGs.

Incidence of repeat procedures and healthcare utilization following surgery, radiosurgery, and percutaneous procedures in elderly patients with trigeminal neuralgia

J Neurosurg 137:828–839, 2022

Management of trigeminal neuralgia (TN) in elderly patients poses significant challenges. The impact of different treatment modalities (surgery, radiosurgery [RS], and percutaneous techniques [PTs]) on healthcare utilization is not well defined in the management of TN in elderly patients. The aim of this study was to compare the long-term healthcare utilization metrics of different interventions in the management of elderly patients with TN.

METHODS The MarketScan database was queried using the International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision and Current Procedural Terminology, from 2000 to 2016. TN patients ≥ 65 years of age managed using surgery, RS, and PTs with at least 5 years of follow-up after the index procedure were included. Outcomes analyzed were hospital admissions, outpatient services, and medication refills.

RESULTS Of 993 patients, 43% (n = 430) underwent RS, 44% (n = 432) had PTs, and only 13% (n = 131) underwent surgery for TN. Overall, the median age of patients was 74 years old, 64% were females, 90% had Medicare insurance, and 17% had an Elixhauser index ≥ 3. Patients in the surgery group were younger (median age 71 years) with a higher comorbidity index (≥ 3; 24%) compared with patients undergoing RS and PTs (13% and 17%, respectively). At 1, 2, and 5 years after the index procedure, 41%, 48%, and 57% of patients in the PT cohort underwent any repeat procedure compared with 11%, 18%, and 29% for the RS cohort, and 6%, 9%, and 11% for the surgical cohort, respectively. Also, patients in the PT cohort incurred 1.8, 1.9, and 2.0 times the combined payment at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively, compared with the surgery cohort. Similarly, patients who underwent RS for TN incurred 1.4, 1.5, and 1.5 times the combined payment at 1, 2, and 5 years, respectively, compared with the surgery cohort. At 5 years after the index procedure, combined payments for the PT cohort were $79,753 (IQR $46,013, $144,064) compared with $61,016 (IQR $27,114, $117,097) for the RS cohort and $41,074 (IQR $25,392, $87,952) for the surgery cohort (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS PTs followed by RS were the common procedures used in the majority of elderly patients with TN. However, surgery for TN resulted in durable control with the least need for reoperations up to 5 years after the index procedure, followed by RS and PTs. PTs for TN resulted in the highest utilization of healthcare resources and need for reoperations at all time points. These findings should be considered in clinical decision-making when selecting appropriate treatment modalities in elderly patients with TN.

Surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy in the elderly: a nationwide registry‐based observational study with patient‐reported outcomes

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2317–2326

The aim of this study was to investigate whether clinical outcomes in patients aged ≥ 70 undergoing decompressive surgery for degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) differ from those of younger patients (50–70 years) at 1 year.

Methods Data were obtained from the Norwegian Registry for Spine Surgery (NORspine). Among 651 patients included, 177 (27.2%) were ≥ 70 years old. The primary outcome was change in the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Secondary outcomes were changes in the European Myelopathy Score (EMS), quality of life (EuroQoL EQ-5D), numeric rating scales (NRS) for headache, neck pain, and arm pain, and complications.

Results Significant improvements in all patient-reported outcomes (PROMs) were detected for both age cohorts at 1 year. For the two age cohorts combined, there was a statistically significant improvement in the NDI score (mean 9.2, 95% CI 7.7 to 10.6, P < 0.001). There were no differences between age cohorts in mean change of NDI (− 8.9 vs. − 10.1, P = 0.48), EQ-5D (0.13 vs. 0.17, P = 0.37), or NRS pain scores, but elderly patients experienced a larger improvement in EMS (0.7 vs. 1.3, P = 0.02). A total of 74 patients (15.6%) in the younger cohort and 43 patients (24.3%) in the older cohort experienced complications or adverse effects within 3 months of surgery, mainly urinary and respiratory tract infections.

Conclusion Surgery for DCM was associated with significant improvement across a wide range of PROMs for both younger and elderly patients. Surgery for DCM should not be denied based on age alone.

Influence of Time of Discharge and Length of Stay on 30-Day Outcomes After Elective Anterior Cervical Spine Surgery

Neurosurgery 90:734–742, 2022

Encouraging early time of discharge (TOD) for medical inpatients is commonplace and may potentially improve patient throughput. It is unclear, however, whether early TOD after elective spine surgery achieves this goal without a consequent increase in re-presentations to the hospital.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether early TOD results in increased rates of hospital read- mission or return to the emergency department after elective anterior cervical spine surgery.

METHODS: We analyzed 686 patients who underwent elective uncomplicated anterior cervical spine surgery at a single institution. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the relationship between sociodemographic, procedural, and discharge characteristics, and the outcomes of readmission or return to the emergency department and TOD.

RESULTS: In multiple logistic regression, TOD was not associated with increased risk of readmission or return to the emergency department within 30 days of surgery. Weekend discharge (odds ratio [OR] 0.33, 95% CI 0.21-0.53), physical therapy evaluation (OR 0.44, 95% CI 0.28-0.71), and occupational therapy evaluation (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.17-0.63) were all significantly associated with decreased odds of discharge before noon. Disadvantaged status, as measured by area of deprivation index, was associated with increased odds of readmission or re-presentation (OR 1.86, 95% CI 0.95-3.66), although this result did not achieve statistical significance.

CONCLUSION: There does not appear to be an association between readmission or return to the emergency department and early TOD after elective spine surgery. Overuse of inpatient physical and occupational therapy consultations may contribute to decreased patient throughput in surgical admissions.

Long-term functional outcome of surgical treatment for degenerative cervical myelopathy

J Neurosurg Spine 36:830–840, 2022

Degenerative cervical myelopathy (DCM) is a major global cause of spinal cord dysfunction. Surgical treatment is considered a safe and effective way to improve functional outcome, although information about long-term functional outcome remains scarce despite increasing longevity. The objective of this study was to describe functional outcome 10 years after surgery for DCM.

METHODS A prospective observational cohort study was undertaken in a university-affiliated neurosurgery department. All patients who underwent surgery for DCM between 2008 and 2010 as part of the multicenter Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy International trial were included. Participants were approached for additional virtual assessment 10 years after surgery. Functional outcome was assessed according to the modified Japanese Orthopaedic Association (mJOA; scores 0–18) score at baseline and 1, 2, and 10 years after surgery. The minimal clinically important difference was defined as 1-, 2-, or 3-point improvement for mild, moderate, and severe myelopathy, respectively. Outcome was considered durable when stabilization or improvement after 2 years was maintained at 10 years. Self-evaluated effect of surgery was assessed using a 4-point Likert-like scale. Demographic, clinical, and surgical data were compared between groups that worsened and improved or remained stable using descriptive statistics. Functional outcome was compared between various time points during follow-up with linear mixed models.

RESULTS Of the 42 originally included patients, 37 participated at follow-up (11.9% loss to follow-up, 100% response rate). The mean patient age was 56.1 years, and 42.9% of patients were female. Surgical approaches were anterior (76.2%), posterior (21.4%), or posterior with fusion (2.4%). The mean follow-up was 10.8 years (range 10–12 years). The mean mJOA score increased significantly from 13.1 (SD 2.3) at baseline to 14.2 (SD 3.3) at 10 years (p = 0.01). A minimal clinically important difference was achieved in 54.1%, and stabilization of functional status was maintained in 75.0% in the long term. Patients who worsened were older (median 63 vs 52 years, p < 0.01) and had more comorbidities (70.0% vs 25.9%, p < 0.01). A beneficial effect of surgery was self-reported by 78.3% of patients.

CONCLUSIONS Surgical treatment for DCM results in satisfactory improvement of functional outcome that is maintained at 10-year follow-up.

Surgical treatment of brainstem cavernous malformations: an international Delphi consensus

J Neurosurg 136:1220–1230, 2022

Indication for surgery in brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs) is based on many case series, few comparative studies, and no randomized controlled trials. The objective of this study was to seek consensus about surgical management aspects of BSCM.

METHODS A total of 29 experts were invited to participate in a multistep Delphi consensus process on the surgical treatment of BSCM.

RESULTS Twenty-two (76%) of 29 experts participated in the consensus. Qualitative analysis (content analysis) of an initial open-ended question survey resulted in 99 statements regarding surgical treatment of BSCM. By using a multistep survey with 100% participation in each round, consensus was reached on 52 (53%) of 99 statements. These were grouped into 4 categories: 1) definitions and reporting standards (7/14, 50%); 2) general and patient-related aspects (11/16, 69%); 3) anatomical-, timing of surgery–, and BSCM-related aspects (22/37, 59%); and 4) clinical situation–based decision-making (12/32, 38%). Among other things, a consensus was reached for surgical timing, handling of associated developmental venous anomalies, handling of postoperative BSCM remnants, assessment of specific anatomical BSCM localizations, and treatment decisions in typical clinical BSCM scenarios.

CONCLUSIONS A summary of typical clinical scenarios and a catalog of various BSCM- and patient-related aspects that influence the surgical treatment decision have been defined, rated, and interpreted.


Surgical management and outcomes in spinal intradural arachnoid cysts

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:1217–1228

Evaluation of the presentation and outcomes of different surgical treatment approaches for spinal intradural arachnoid cysts (SIAC).

Methods Cases were identified from electronic records of two major neurosurgical centres in London over the last 10 years (October 2009–October 2019) that have been surgically treated in both institutions. Clinical findings, surgical technique, and recurrence by procedure were statistically analysed. Statistical analysis was performed with STATA 13.1 Software.

Results A total of 42 patients with SIAC were identified for this study with a mean age at the time of surgery of 53.6 years and a male:female ratio of 8:13. There were 31 patients with primary SIACs and 11 with secondary SIACs. The most common presenting symptom was paraesthesia (n = 27). The most common location of the cyst was in the thoracic region (n = 33). Syrinx was present in 26.2% of SIACs (n = 11). Resection was associated with significantly better postoperative pain compared to other surgical techniques (p = 0.01), significantly poorer postoperative urinary function (p = 0.029), and lower rates of sensory recovery in patients who presented preoperatively with sensory deficit (p = 0.041). No significant difference was seen in symptomatic outcomes between patients with primary and secondary SIACs.

Conclusion Resection and drainage are both effective methods of managing SIACs. In this observational study, resection was associated with significantly reduced pain postoperatively when compared with drainage, however also with significantly less improvement in postoperative urinary function. Therefore, resection should be the gold standard management option for SIACs, with drainage as an option where resection is unsafe, and drainage should also be considered in patients presenting with urinary dysfunction.

Intervention for unruptured high-grade intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: a multicenter study

J Neurosurg 136:962–970, 2022

The risk-to-benefit profile of treating an unruptured high-grade dural arteriovenous fistula (dAVF) is not clearly defined. The aim of this multicenter retrospective cohort study was to compare the outcomes of different interventions with observation for unruptured high-grade dAVFs.

METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed dAVF patients from 12 institutions participating in the Consortium for Dural Arteriovenous Fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR). Patients with unruptured high-grade (Borden type II or III) dAVFs were included and categorized into four groups (observation, embolization, surgery, and stereotactic radiosurgery [SRS]) based on the initial management. The primary outcome was defined as the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were good outcome (mRS scores 0–2) at final follow-up, symptomatic improvement, all-cause mortality, and dAVF obliteration. The outcomes of each intervention group were compared against those of the observation group as a reference, with adjustment for differences in baseline characteristics.

RESULTS The study included 415 dAVF patients, accounting for 29, 324, 43, and 19 in the observation, embolization, surgery, and SRS groups, respectively. The mean radiological and clinical follow-up durations were 21 and 25 months, respectively. Functional outcomes were similar for embolization, surgery, and SRS compared with observation. With observation as a reference, obliteration rates were higher after embolization (adjusted OR [aOR] 7.147, p = 0.010) and surgery (aOR 33.803, p < 0.001) and all-cause mortality was lower after embolization (imputed, aOR 0.171, p = 0.040). Hemorrhage rates per 1000 patient-years were 101 for observation versus 9, 22, and 0 for embolization (p = 0.022), surgery (p = 0.245), and SRS (p = 0.077), respectively. Nonhemorrhagic neurological deficit rates were similar between each intervention group versus observation.

CONCLUSIONS Embolization and surgery for unruptured high-grade dAVFs afforded a greater likelihood of obliteration than did observation. Embolization also reduced the risk of death and dAVF-associated hemorrhage compared with conservative management over a modest follow-up period. These findings support embolization as the first-line treatment of choice for appropriately selected unruptured Borden type II and III dAVFs.

Insular epilepsy surgery: lessons learned from institutional review and patient-level meta-analysis

J Neurosurg 136:523–535, 2022

Insular lobe epilepsy is a challenging condition to diagnose and treat. Due to anatomical intricacy and proximity to eloquent brain regions, resection of epileptic foci in that region can be associated with significant postoperative morbidity. The aim of this study was to review available evidence on postoperative outcomes following insular epilepsy surgery.

METHODS A comprehensive literature search (PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, Cochrane) was conducted for studies investigating the postoperative outcomes for seizures originating in the insula. Seizure freedom at last follow-up (at least 12 months) comprised the primary endpoint. The authors also present their institutional experience with 8 patients (4 pediatric, 4 adult).

RESULTS A total of 19 studies with 204 cases (90 pediatric, 114 adult) were identified. The median age at surgery was 23 years, and 48% were males. The median epilepsy duration was 8 years, and 17% of patients had undergone prior epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy was lesional in 67%. The most common approach was transsylvian (60%). The most commonly resected area was the anterior insular region (n = 42, 21%), whereas radical insulectomy was performed in 13% of cases (n = 27). The most common pathology was cortical dysplasia (n = 68, 51%), followed by low-grade neoplasm (n = 16, 12%). In the literature, seizure freedom was noted in 60% of pediatric and 69% of adult patients at a median follow-up of 29 months (75% and 50%, respectively, in the current series). A neurological deficit occurred in 43% of cases (10% permanent), with extremity paresis comprising the most common deficit (n = 35, 21%), followed by facial paresis (n = 32, 19%). Language deficits were more common in left-sided approaches (24% vs 2%, p < 0.001). Univariate analysis for seizure freedom revealed a significantly higher proportion of patients with lesional epilepsy among those with at least 12 months of follow-up (77% vs 59%, p = 0.032).

CONCLUSIONS These findings may serve as a benchmark when tailoring decision-making for insular epilepsy, and may assist surgeons in their preoperative discussions with patients. Although seizure freedom rates are quite high with insular epilepsy treatment, the associated morbidity needs to be weighed against the potential for seizure freedom.


Brain infarctions after glioma surgery

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:3097–3108

Prevalence, radiological characteristics, and risk factors for peritumoral infarctions after glioma surgery are not much studied. In this study, we assessed shape, volume, and prevalence of peritumoral infarctions and investigated pos- sible associated factors.

Methods In a prospective single-center cohort study, we included all adult patients operated for diffuse gliomas from January 2007 to December 2018. Postoperative infarctions were segmented using early postoperative MRI images, and volume, shape, and location of postoperative infarctions were assessed. Heatmaps of the distribution of tumors and infarctions were created.

Results MRIs from 238 (44%) of 539 operations showed restricted diffusion in relation to the operation cavity, interpreted as postoperative infarctions. Of these, 86 (36%) were rim-shaped, 103 (43%) were sector-shaped, 40 (17%) were a combination of rim- and sector-shaped, and six (3%) were remote infarctions. Median infarction volume was 1.7 cm3 (IQR 0.7–4.3, range 0.1–67.1). Infarctions were more common if the tumor was in the temporal lobe, and the map shows more infarctions in the periventricular watershed areas. Sector-shaped infarctions were more often seen in patients with known cerebrovascular dis- ease (47.6% vs. 25.5%, p = 0.024). There was a positive correlation between infarction volume and tumor volume (r = 0.267, p < 0.001) and infarction volume and perioperative bleeding (r = 0.176, p = 0.014). Moreover, there was a significant positive association between age and larger infarction volumes (r = 0.193, p = 0.003). Infarction rates and infarction volumes varied across individual surgeons, p = 0.037 (range 32–72%) and p = 0.026.

Conclusions In the present study, peritumoral infarctions occurred in 44% after diffuse glioma operations. Infarctions were more common in patients operated for tumors in the temporal lobe but were not more common following recurrent surgeries. Sector-shaped infarctions were more common in patients with known cerebrovascular disease. Increasing age, larger tumors, and more perioperative bleeding were factors associated with infarction volumes. The risk of infarctions and infarction volumes may also be surgeon-dependent.

Surgery versus radiosurgery for facial nerve schwannoma

J Neurosurg 135:542–553, 2021

Intracranial facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) requiring treatment are frequently recommended for surgery or stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). The objective of this study was to compare facial nerve function outcomes between these two interventions for FNS via a systematic review and meta-analysis.

METHODS A search of the Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, SCOPUS, and Cochrane databases from inception to July 2019 was conducted following PRISMA guidelines. Articles were screened against prespecified criteria. Facial nerve out- comes were classified as improved, stabilized, or worsened by last follow-up. Incidence was pooled by random-effects meta-analysis of proportions.

RESULTS Thirty-three articles with a pooled cohort of 519 patients with FNS satisfied all criteria. Twenty-five articles described operative outcomes in 407 (78%) patients; 10 articles reported SRS outcomes in 112 (22%). In the surgical cohort, facial nerve function improved in 23% (95% CI 15%–32%), stabilized in 41% (95% CI 32%–50%), and worsened in 30% (95% CI 21%–40%). In the SRS cohort, facial nerve function was improved in 20% (95% CI 9%–34%), stable in 66% (95% CI 54%–78%), and worsened in 9% (95% CI 3%–16%). Compared with SRS, microsurgery was associated with a significantly lower incidence of stable facial nerve function (p < 0.01) and a significantly higher incidence of wors- ened facial nerve function (p < 0.01). Tumor progression and complication rates were comparable. Outcome certainty assessments were very low to moderate for all parameters.

CONCLUSIONS Unfavorable facial nerve function outcomes are associated with surgical treatment of intracranial FNS, whereas stable facial nerve function outcomes are associated with SRS. Therefore, SRS should be recommended to patients with FNS who require treatment, and surgery should be reserved for patients with another indication, such as decompression of the brainstem. Further study is required to definitively optimize and validate management strategies for these rare skull base tumors.

Observation Versus Intervention for Low-Grade Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas

Neurosurgery 88:1111–1120, 2021

Low-grade intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas (dAVF) have a benign natural history in the majority of cases. The benefit from treatment of these lesions is controversial.

OBJECTIVE: To compare the outcomes of observation versus intervention for low-grade dAVFs.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed dAVF patients from institutions participating in the CONsortium for Dural arteriovenous fistula Outcomes Research (CONDOR). Patients with low-grade (Borden type I) dAVFs were included and categorized into intervention or observation cohorts. The intervention and observation cohorts were matched in a 1:1 ratio using propensity scores. Primary outcome was modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at final follow-up. Secondary outcomes were excellent (mRS 0-1) and good (mRS 0-2) outcomes, symptomatic improvement, mortality, and obliteration at final follow-up.

RESULTS: The intervention and observation cohorts comprised 230 and 125 patients, respectively. We found no differences in primary or secondary outcomes between the 2 unmatched cohorts at last follow-up (mean duration 36 mo), except obliteration rate was higher in the intervention cohort (78.5% vs 24.1%, P < .001). The matched intervention and observation cohorts each comprised 78 patients. We also found no differences in primary or secondary outcomes between the matched cohorts except obliteration was also more likely in the matched intervention cohort (P < .001). Procedural complication rates in the unmatched and matched intervention cohorts were 15.4% and 19.2%, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Intervention for low-grade intracranial dAVFs achieves superior obliteration rates compared to conservative management, but it fails to improve neurological or functional outcomes. Our findings do not support the routine treatment of low-grade dAVFs.

Tear-drop technique in iliac screw placement: a technical analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:1577–1581

Instrumentation of the lumbosacral region is one of the more challenging regions due to the complex anatomical structures and biomechanical forces. Screw insertion can be done both navigated and based on X-ray verification. In this study, we demonstrate a fast and reliable open, low exposure X-ray-guided technique of iliac screw placement.

Methods Between October 2016 and August 2019, 48 patients underwent sacropelvic fixation in tear-drop technique. Screw insertion was performed in open technique by using an X-ray converter angulated 25-30° in coronal and sagittal view. The anatomical insertion point was the posterior superior iliac spine. Verification of correct screw placement was done by intraoperative 3D scan.

Results In total, 95 iliac screws were placed in tear-drop technique with a correct placement in 98.1%.

Conclusions The tear-drop technique showed a proper screw position in the intraoperative 3D scan and therefore may be considered an alternative technique to the navigated screw placement.

Gravity-assisted endoscopic cingulate gyrus glioma resection

Acta Neurochirurgica (2021) 163:1323–1326

The cingulate gyrus is part of the limbic systemwith extensive connectivity to different anatomical and functional areas. The traditional transcortical approach for a cingulate gyrus glioma contains high risk of transient or even irreversible postoperative hemiplegia.

Method We present a case of gravity-assisted, fully endoscopic resection of a cingulate gyrus glioma with improvement of motor dysfunction while preserving the paracentral lobule, corticospinal tracts, and supplementary motor area.

Conclusion This case demonstrates the value of gravity-assisted endoscopic resection in the dominant cingulate gyrus tumor which is surrounded by eloquent parenchyma.

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