Intraoperative in vivo confocal laser endomicroscopy imaging at glioma margins: can we detect tumor infiltration?

J Neurosurg 140:357–366, 2024

Confocal laser endomicroscopy (CLE) is a US Food and Drug Administration–cleared intraoperative real-time fluorescence-based cellular resolution imaging technology that has been shown to image brain tumor histoarchitecture rapidly in vivo during neuro-oncological surgical procedures. An important goal for successful intraoperative implementation is in vivo use at the margins of infiltrating gliomas. However, CLE use at glioma margins has not been well studied.

METHODS Matching in vivo CLE images and tissue biopsies acquired at glioma margin regions of interest (ROIs) were collected from 2 institutions. All images were reviewed by 4 neuropathologists experienced in CLE. A scoring system based on the pathological features was implemented to score CLE and H&E images from each ROI on a scale from 0 to 5. Based on the H&E scores, all ROIs were divided into a low tumor probability (LTP) group (scores 0–2) and a high tumor probability (HTP) group (scores 3–5). The concordance between CLE and H&E scores regarding tumor probability was determined. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and diagnostic performance were calculated.

RESULTS Fifty-six glioma margin ROIs were included for analysis. Interrater reliability of the scoring system was excellent when used for H&E images (ICC [95% CI] 0.91 [0.86–0.94]) and moderate when used for CLE images (ICC [95% CI] 0.69 [0.40–0.83]). The ICCs (95% CIs) of the LTP group (0.68 [0.40–0.83]) and HTP group (0.68 [0.39–0.83]) did not differ significantly. The concordance between CLE and H&E scores was 61.6%. The sensitivity and specificity values of the scoring system were 79% and 37%. The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value were 65% and 53%, respectively. Concordance, sensitivity, and PPV were greater in the HTP group than in the LTP group. Specificity was higher in the newly diagnosed group than in the recurrent group.

CONCLUSIONS CLE may detect tumor infiltration at glioma margins. However, it is not currently dependable, especially in scenarios where low probability of tumor infiltration is expected. The proposed scoring system has excellent intrinsic interrater reliability, but its interrater reliability is only moderate when used with CLE images. These results suggest that this technology requires further exploration as a method for consistent actionable intraoperative guidance with high dependability across the range of tumor margin scenarios. Specific-binding and/or tumor-specific fluorophores, a CLE image atlas, and a consensus guideline for image interpretation may help with the translational utility of CLE.

The Endoscopic Lateral Transorbital Approach for the Removal of Select Sphenoid Wing and Middle Fossa Meningiomas. Surgical Technique and Short-Term Outcomes

Operative Neurosurgery 26:165–172, 2024

The endoscopic lateral transorbital approach (eLTOA) is a relatively new approach to the skull base that has only recently been applied in vivo in the management of complex skull base pathology. Most meningiomas removed with this approach have been in the spheno-orbital location. We present a series of select purely sphenoid wing and middle fossa meningiomas removed through eLTOA. The objective here was to describe the selection criteria and results of eLTOA for a subset of sphenoid wing and middle fossa meningiomas.

METHODS: This is a retrospective study based on a prospectively maintained database of consecutive cases of eLTOA operated on at our institution by the lead author. The cohort’s clinical and radiographic characteristics and outcome are presented.

RESULTS: Five patients underwent eLTOA to remove 3 sphenoid wing and 2 middle fossa meningiomas. The mean tumor volume was 11.9 cm3 . Gross total resection was achieved in all cases. There were no intraoperative complications. Postoperatively, there was one case of subretinal hemorrhage, which was corrected by open vitrectomy repair, and one case of cerebrospinal fluid leak, which resolved with lumbar drainage. Three patients presented with visual impairment, 1 improved, 1 remained stable, and 1 worsened, but returned to stable after vitrectomy repair. All patients have been free of disease at a median follow-up of 8.9 months.

CONCLUSION: eLTOA provides a direct minimal access corridor to certain well-selected sphenoid wing and middle fossa meningiomas. eLTOA minimizes brain retraction and provides a high rate of gross total resection. Meningiomas appropriately selected based on size, type, and location of dural attachment, and the eLTOA is a safe, rapid, and highly effective procedure with acceptable morbidity.

Variability in the Arterial Supply of Intracranial Meningiomas: An Anatomic Study

Neurosurgery 93:1346–1352, 2023

Intracranial meningiomas are a diverse group of tumors, which vary by grade, genetic composition, location, and vasculature. Expanding the understanding of the supply of skull base (SBMs) and non–skull base meningiomas (NSBMs) will serve to further inform resection strategies. We sought to delineate the vascular supply of a series of intracranial meningiomas by tumor location.

METHODS: A retrospective study of intracranial meningiomas that were studied using preoperative digital subtraction angiograms before surgical resection at a tertiary referral center was performed. Patient, tumor, radiologic, and treatment data were collected, and regression models were developed.

RESULTS: One hundred sixty-five patients met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 57.1 years (SD: 12.6). The mean tumor diameter was 4.9 cm (SD: 1.5). One hundred twenty-six were World Health Organization Grade I, 37 Grade II, and 2 Grade III. Arterial feeders were tabulated by Al-Mefty’s anatomic designations. SBMs were more likely to derive arterial supply from the anterior circulation, whereas NSBMs were supplied by external carotid branches. NSBMs were larger (5.61 cm vs 4.45 cm, P = <.001), were more often presented with seizure (20% vs 8%, P = .03), were higher grade (P = <.001) had more frequent peritumoral brain edema (84.6% vs 66%, P = .04), and had more bilateral feeders (47.7% vs 28%, P = .01) compared with SBMs. More arterial feeders were significantly associated with lower tumor grade (P = .023, OR = 0.59). Higher tumor grade (Grade II/III) was associated with fewer arterial feeders (P = .017, RR = 0.74).

CONCLUSION: Meningioma location is associated with specific vascular supply patterns, grade, and patient outcomes. This information suggests that grade I tumors, especially larger tumors, are more likely to have diverse vascular supply patterns, including internal carotid branches. This study may inform preoperative embolization and surgical considerations, particularly for large skull base tumors.

International Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma Study: Surgical Outcomes and Management Trends

Neurosurgery 93:1259–1270, 2023

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas (TSMs) can be resected through transcranial (TCA) or expanded endonasal approach (EEA). The objective of this study was to report TSM management trends and outcomes in a large multicenter cohort.

METHODS: This is a 40-site retrospective study using standard statistical methods.

RESULTS: In 947 cases, TCA was used 66.4% and EEA 33.6%. The median maximum diameter was 2.5 cm for TCA and 2.1 cm for EEA (P < .0001). The median follow-up was 26 months. Gross total resection (GTR) was achieved in 70.2% and did not differ between EEA and TCA (P = .5395). Vision was the same or better in 87.5%. Vision improved in 73.0% of EEA patients with preoperative visual deficits compared with 57.1% of TCA patients (P < .0001). On multivariate analysis, a TCA (odds ratio [OR] 1.78, P = .0258) was associated with vision worsening, while GTR was protective (OR 0.37, P < .0001). GTR decreased with increased diameter (OR: 0.80 per cm, P = .0036) and preoperative visual deficits (OR 0.56, P = .0075). Mortality was 0.5%. Complications occurred in 23.9%. New unilateral or bilateral blindness occurred in 3.3% and 0.4%, respectively. The cerebrospinal fluid leak rate was 17.3% for EEA and 2.2% for TCA (OR 9.1, P < .0001). The recurrence rate was 10.9% (n= 103). Longer follow-up (OR 1.01 per month, P < .0001), World Health Organization II/III (OR 2.20, P = .0262), and GTR (OR: 0.33, P < .0001) were associated with recurrence. The recurrence rate after GTR was lower after EEA compared with TCA (OR 0.33, P = .0027).

CONCLUSION: EEA for appropriately selected TSM may lead to better visual outcomes and decreased recurrence rates after GTR, but cerebrospinal fluid leak rates are high, and longer follow-up is needed. Tumors were smaller in the EEA group, and follow-up was shorter, reflecting selection, and observation bias. Nevertheless, EEA may be superior to TCA for appropriately selected TSM.

International Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma Study: Preoperative Grading Scale to Predict Outcomes and Propensity-Matched Outcomes by Endonasal Versus Transcranial Approach

Neurosurgery 93:1271–1284, 2023

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas are resected via an expanded endonasal (EEA) or transcranial approach (TCA). Which approach provides superior outcomes is debated. The Magill–McDermott (M-M) grading scale evaluating tumor size, optic canal invasion, and arterial involvement remains to be validated for outcome prediction. The objective of this study was to validate the M-M scale for predicting visual outcome, extent of resection (EOR), and recurrence, and to use propensity matching by M-M scale to determine whether visual outcome, EOR, or recurrence differ between EEA and TCA.

METHODS: Forty-site retrospective study of 947 patients undergoing tuberculum sellae meningiomas resection. Standard statistical methods and propensity matching were used.

RESULTS: The M-M scale predicted visual worsening (odds ratio [OR]/point: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.46, P = .0271) and gross total resection (GTR) (OR/point: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62-0.81, P < .0001), but not recurrence (P = .4695). The scale was simplified and validated in an independent cohort for predicting visual worsening (OR/point: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.33-4.14, P = .0032) and GTR (OR/point: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93, P = .0127), but not recurrence (P = .2572). In propensity-matched samples, there was no difference in visual worsening (P = .8757) or recurrence (P = .5678) between TCA and EEA, but GTR was more likely with TCA (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.18, P = .0409). Matched patients with preoperative visual deficits who had an EEA were more likely to have visual improvement than those undergoing TCA (72.9% vs 58.4%, P = .0010) with equal rates of visual worsening (EEA 8.0% vs TCA 8.6%, P = .8018).

CONCLUSION: The refined M-M scale predicts visual worsening and EOR preoperatively. Preoperative visual deficits are more likely to improve after EEA; however, individual tumor features must be considered during nuanced approach selection by experienced neurosurgeons.

Extradural disconnection of the cavernous sinus with preservation of the internal carotid artery: indication and technique

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2951–2956

Extradural disconnection of the cavernous sinus (CS) with preservation of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is indicated for aggressive and recurrent tumors, in patients presenting loss of oculomotor function and non-functional circle of Willis.

Method Extradural resection of the anterior clinoid process disconnects the CS anteriorly. The ICA is dissected in the foramen lacerum via extradural subtemporal approach. The intracavernous tumor is split and removed following the ICA. Bleeding control of the inferior and superior petrosal and intercavernous sinuses completes posterior CS disconnection.

Conclusion This technique can be proposed for recurrent CS tumors and need of ICA preservation.

Microsurgical anatomy and pathoanatomy of the outer arachnoid membranes in the cerebellopontine angle

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1791–1805

The cerebellopontine angle (CPA) is a frequent region of skull base pathologies and therefore a target for neurosurgical operations. The outer arachnoid is the key structure to approach the here located lesions. The goal of our study was to describe the microsurgical anatomy of the outer arachnoid of the CPA and its pathoanatomy in case of space-occupying lesions.

Methods Our examinations were performed on 35 fresh human cadaveric specimens. Macroscopic dissections and microsurgical and endoscopic examinations were performed. Retrospective analysis of the video documentations of 35 CPA operations was performed to describe the pathoanatomical behavior of the outer arachnoid.

Results The outer arachnoid cover is loosely attached to the inner surface of the dura of the CPA. At the petrosal surface of the cerebellum the pia mater is strongly adhered to the outer arachnoid. At the level of the dural penetration of the cranial nerves, the outer arachnoid forms sheath-like structures around the nerves. In the midline, the outer arachnoid became detached from the pial surface and forms the base of the posterior fossa cisterns. In pathological cases, the outer arachnoid became displaced. The way of displacement depends on the origin of the lesion. The most characteristic patterns of changes of the outer arachnoid were described in case of meningiomas, vestibular schwannomas, and epidermoid cysts of the CPA.

Conclusion The knowledge of the anatomy of the outer arachnoid of the cerebellopontine region is essential to safely perform microsurgical approaches as well as of dissections during resection of pathological lesions.

Utility of MRI in surgical planning for parasagittal meningiomas

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1717–1725

Surgical resection is the standard treatment for parasagittal meningioma (PSM), but complete resection may be challenging due to superior sagittal sinus (SSS) involvement. The SSS may be partially or completely obstructed, and collateral veins are commonly present. Thus, knowing the status of the SSS in PSM cases prior to treatment is essential to a successful outcome. MRI is utilized prior to surgery in order to determine SSS status and to check for presence of collateral veins.

The objective of this study is to evaluate the reliability of MRI in predicting both SSS involvement and presence of collateral veins in subsequent comparison to actual intra-operative findings, and to report on complications and outcomes.

Methods 27 patients were retrospectively analyzed for this study. A blinded radiologist reviewed all pre-operative images, noting SSS status and collateral vein presence. Intraoperative findings were obtained from hospital records to similarly categorize SSS status and collateral vein presence.

Results Sensitivity of the MRI to SSS status was found to be 100% and specificity was 93%. However, sensitivity and specificity of MRI to collateral vein presence was only 40% and 78.6%, respectively. Complications were experienced by 22% of patients, the majority neurologic in nature.

Conclusion MRI accurately predicted SSS occlusion status, but was less consistent in identification of collateral veins. These findings suggest MRI should be used with caution prior to PSM resection surgery particularly with regards to the presence of collateral veins which may complicate resection.

Meningiomas of the rolandic region: risk factors for motor deficit and role of intra‑operative monitoring

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1707–1716

Meningiomas of the rolandic region are associated to high risk of postoperative motor deficits. This study discusses the factors affecting motor outcome and recurrences from the analysis of a monoinstitutional case series and eight studies from a literature review.

Methods Data of 75 patients who underwent surgery for meningioma of the rolandic region were retrospectively reviewed. The analyzed factors included tumor location and size, clinical presentation, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and surgical findings, brain-tumor interface, extent of resection, postoperative outcome and recurrence. Eight studies from literature on rolandic meningiomas treated with or without intraoperative monitoring (IOM) were reviewed with the aim to define the impact of IOM on the extent of resection and motor outcome.

Results Among the 75 patients of the personal series, the meningioma was on the brain convexity in 34 (46%), at the parasagittal region in 28 (37%) and at the falx in 13 (17%). The brain-tumor interface was preserved in 53 cases (71%) at MRI and in 56 (75%) at surgical exploration. Simpson grade I resection was obtained in 43% of patients, grade II in 33%, grade III in 15% and grade IV in 9%. The motor function worsened postoperatively in 9 among 32 cases with preoperative deficit (28%) and in 5 among 43 with no preoperative deficit (11.5%); definitive motor deficit was evidenced in overall series at follow-up in 7 (9.3%). Patients with meningioma with lost arachnoid interface had significant higher rates of worsened postoperative motor deficit (p = 0.01) and seizures (p = 0.033). Recurrence occurred in 8 patients (11%). The analysis of the 8 reviewed studies (4 with and 4 without IOM) shows in the group without IOM higher rates of Simpson grades I and II resection (p = 0.02) and lower rates of grades IV resection (p = 0.002); no significant differences in postoperative immediate and long-term motor deficits were evidenced between the two groups.

Conclusions Data from literature review show that the use of IOM does not affect the postoperative motor deficit Therefore, its role in rolandic meningiomas resection remains to be determined and will be defined in further studies.

Predictive factors for post operative seizures following meningioma resection in patients without preoperative seizures: a multicenter retrospective analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1333–1343

Meningiomas are the most common primary brain tumor and represent 35% of all intracranial neoplasms. However, in the early post-operative period approximate 3–5% of patients experience an acute symptomatic seizure. Establishing risk factors for postoperative seizures will identify those patients without preoperative seizures at greatest risk of postoperative seizures and may guide antiseizure medications (ASMs) management.

Methods Adult seizure naïve patients who underwent primary resection of a World Health Organization (WHO) Grade 1–3 meningioma at the three Mayo Clinic Campuses between 2012–2022 were retrospectively reviewed. Multivariate regression analyses were used to identify radiological, surgical, and management features with the development of new-onset seizures in patients undergoing meningioma resection.

Results Of 113 seizure naïve patients undergoing meningioma resection 11 (9.7%) experienced a new-onset post-operative seizure. Tumor volume ≥ 25 cm 3 (Odds Ratio (OR) 5.223, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.546 – 17.650, p = 0.008) and cerebral convexity meningiomas (OR 4.742, 95% CI 1.255 – 14.336, p = 0.016) were most associated with new onset postoperative seizures in multivariate analysis. ASMs and corticosteroid therapies did not display a significant difference among those with and without a new onset postoperative seizure.

Conclusion In the current study, a larger tumor volume (≥ 25 cm3 ) and/or convexity meningiomas predicted the development of new onset post-operative seizures. Those who present with these factors should be counseled for their increased risk of new onset post-operative seizures and may benefit from prophylactic ASMs therapy.

Volumetric Growth and Growth Curve Analysis of Residual Intracranial Meningioma

Neurosurgery 92:734–744, 2023

After meningioma surgery, approximately 1 in 3 patients will have residual tumor that requires ongoing imaging surveillance. The precise volumetric growth rates of these tumors are unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To identify the volumetric growth rates of residual meningioma, growth trajectory, and factors associated with progression.

METHODS: Patients with residual meningioma identified at a tertiary neurosurgery center between 2004 and 2020 were retrospectively reviewed. Tumor volumewas measured using manual segmentation, after surgery and at every follow-up MRI scan. Growth rates were ascertained using a linear mixed-effects model and nonlinear regression analysis of growth trajectories. Progression was defined according to the Response Assessment in Neuro- Oncology (RANO) criteria (40% volume increase).

RESULTS: There were 236 patients with residual meningioma. One hundred and thirtytwo patients (56.0%) progressed according to the RANO criteria, with 86 patients being conservatively managed (65.2%) after progression. Thirteen patients (5.5%) developed clinical progression. Over a median follow-up of 5.3 years (interquartile range, 3.5–8.6 years), the absolute growth rate was 0.11 cm3 per year and the relative growth rate 4.3% per year. Factors associated with residual meningioma progression in multivariable Cox regression analysis were skull base location (hazard ratio [HR] 1.60, 95% CI 1.02–2.50) and increasing Ki-67 index (HR 3.43, 95% CI 1.19–9.90). Most meningioma exhibited exponential and logistic growth patterns (median R2 value 0.84, 95% CI 0.60–0.90).

CONCLUSION: Absolute and relative growth rates of residual meningioma are low, but most meet the RANO criteria for progression. Location and Ki-67 index can be used to stratify adjuvant treatment and surveillance paradigms.

Radiological Differentiation Between Intracranial Meningioma and Solitary Fibrous Tumor/Hemangiopericytoma

World Neurosurg. (2023) 170:68-83

Intracranial solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is characterized by aggressive local behavior and high post-resection recurrence rates. It is difficult to distinguish between SFT and meningiomas, which are typically benign. The goal of this study was to systematically review radiological features that differentiate meningioma and SFT.

METHODS: We performed a systematic review in accordance with PRISMA guidelines to identify studies that used imaging techniques to identify radiological differentiators of SFT and meningioma.

RESULTS: Eighteen studies with 1565 patients (SFT: 662; meningiomas: 903) were included. The most commonly used imaging modality was diffusion weighted imaging, which was reported in 11 studies. Eight studies used a combination of diffusion weighted imaging and T1- and T2-weighted sequences to distinguish between SFT and meningioma. Compared to all grades/subtypes of meningioma, SFT is associated with higher apparent diffusion coefficient, presence of narrow-based dural attachments, lack of dural tail, less peritumoral brain edema, extensive serpentine flow voids, and younger age at initial diagnosis. Tumor volume was a poor differentiator of SFT and meningioma, and overall, there were less consensus findings in studies exclusively comparing angiomatous meningiomas and SFT.

CONCLUSIONS: Clinicians can differentiate SFT from meningiomas on preoperative imaging by looking for higher apparent diffusion coefficient, lack of dural tail/narrow-based dural attachment, less peritumoral brain edema, and vascular flow voids on neuroimaging, in addition to younger age at diagnosis. Distinguishing between angiomatous meningioma and SFT is much more challenging, as both are highly vascular pathologies. Tumor volume has limited utility in differentiating between SFT and various grades/subtypes of meningioma.


Natural history of meningiomas: a serial volumetric analysis of 240 tumors

J Neurosurg 137:1639–1649, 2022

The management of asymptomatic intracranial meningiomas is controversial. Through the assessment of growth predictors, the authors aimed to create the basis for practicable clinical pathways for the management of these tumors.

METHODS The authors volumetrically analyzed meningiomas radiologically diagnosed at their institution between 2003 and 2015. The primary endpoint was growth of tumor volume. The authors used significant variables from the multivariable regression model to construct a decision tree based on the exhaustive Chi-Square Automatic Interaction Detection (CHAID) algorithm.

RESULTS Of 240 meningiomas, 159 (66.3%) demonstrated growth during a mean observation period of 46.9 months. On multivariable logistic regression analysis, older age (OR 0.979 [95% CI 0.958–1.000], p = 0.048) and presence of calcification (OR 0.442 [95% CI 0.224–0.872], p = 0.019) had a negative predictive value for tumor growth, while T2-signal iso-/hyperintensity (OR 4.415 [95% CI 2.056–9.479], p < 0.001) had a positive predictive value. A decision tree model yielded three growth risk groups based on T2 signal intensity and presence of calcifications. The median tumor volume doubling time (Td) was 185.7 months in the low-risk, 100.1 months in the intermediate-risk, and 51.7 months in the highrisk group (p < 0.001). Whereas 0% of meningiomas in the low- and intermediate-risk groups had a Td of ≤ 12 months, the percentage was 8.9% in the high-risk group (p = 0.021).

CONCLUSIONS Most meningiomas demonstrated growth during follow-up. The absence of calcifications and iso-/ hyperintensity on T2-weighted imaging offer a practical way of stratifying meningiomas as low, intermediate, or high risk. Small tumors in the low- or intermediate-risk categories can be monitored with longer follow-up intervals.

Older meningioma patients: a retrospective population‐based study of risk factors for morbidity and mortality after neurosurgery

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2987–2997

Meningioma is the most common primary CNS tumour. Most meningiomas are benign, and most patients are 65 years or older. Surgery is usually the primary treatment option. Most prior studies on early surgical outcomes in older patients with meningioma are small, and there is a lack of larger population-based studies to guide clinical decision-making. We aimed to explore the risks for perioperative mortality and morbidity in older patients with meningioma and to investigate changes in surgical incidence over time.

Methods In this retrospective population-based study on patients in Sweden, 65 years or older with surgery 1999–2017 for meningioma, we used data from the Swedish Brain Tumour Registry. We analysed factors contributing to perioperative mor- tality and morbidity and used official demographic data to calculate yearly incidence of surgical procedures for meningioma.

Results Thefinal study cohort included 1676 patients with a 3.1% perioperative mortality and a 37.6% perioperative morbidity. In multivariate analysis, higher age showed a statistically significant association with higher perioperative mortality, whereas larger tumour size and having preoperative symptoms were associated with higher perioperative morbidity. A numerical increased rate of surgical interventions after 2012 was observed, without evidence of worsening short-term surgical outcomes.

Conclusions Higher mortality with increased age and higher morbidity risk in larger and/or symptomatic tumours imply a possible benefit from considering surgery in selected older patients with a growing meningioma before the development of tumour-related symptoms. This study further underlines the need for a standardized method of reporting and classifying complications from neurosurgery.

Surgery for clinoidal meningiomas with cavernous sinus extension: Near‑total excision and chiasmopexy

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2511–2515

The main factors limiting the extent of resection for clinoidal meningiomas are cavernous sinus extension and vessel adventitia involvement. The proximity to the optic apparatus and the risk of radiation-induced optic neuropathy often prevents many surgeons from proposing adjuvant radiosurgery.

Method We describe a simple technical solution that is to place a fat graft between the optic apparatus and the residual tumor to maintain the distance gained at surgery and facilitates the identification of anatomic structures.

Conclusion This technique allows to deliver optimal therapeutic doses to the residue reduces the dose received by the optic nerve below 8 Gy.

Predictors of postoperative seizure outcome in supratentorial meningioma

J Neurosurg 137:515–524, 2022

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor. Seizures are common sequelae of meningioma development. Meningioma patients with seizures can be effectively treated with resection, with reports of seizure freedom of 60%–90%. Still, many patients manifest persistent epilepsy. Determining factors associated with worsened seizure outcomes remains critical in improving the quality of life for these patients. The authors sought to identify clinical, radiological, and histological factors associated with worse seizure outcomes in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures.

METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 384 patients who underwent meningioma resection from 2008 to 2020. The charts of patients with a documented history of preoperative seizures were further reviewed for clinical, radiological, operative, perioperative, histological, and postoperative factors associated with seizures. Engel class at last follow-up was retrospectively assigned by the authors and further grouped into favorable (class I) and worse (class II–IV) outcomes. Factors were subsequently compared by group using comparative statistics. Univariable and multivariable regression models were utilized to identify independent predictors of worse seizure outcome.

RESULTS Fifty-nine patients (15.4%) were found to have preoperative seizures, of whom 57 had sufficient postoperative data to determine Engel class outcome. Forty-two patients (74%) had Engel class I outcomes. The median follow-up was 17 months. Distinct margins on preoperative imaging (p = 0.012), Simpson grade I resection (p = 0.004), postresection ischemia (p = 0.019), WHO grade (p = 0.019), and recurrent disease (p = 0.015) were found to be the strongest predictors of Engel class outcome in univariable logistic regression. MIB-1 index (p = 0.001) and residual volume (p = 0.014) at last follow-up were found to be the strongest predictors of Engel class outcome in univariable generalized linear regression. Postresection ischemia (p = 0.012), WHO grade (p = 0.022), recurrent disease (p = 0.038), and MIB-1 index (p = 0.002) were found to be the strongest independent predictors of Engel class outcomes in multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS Postresection ischemia, higher WHO grade, elevated MIB-1 index, and disease recurrence independently predict postresection seizure persistence in patients with supratentorial meningioma. Further understanding of the etiology of these markers may aid in elucidation of this complex disease process and guide management to prevent worse outcomes.

The endonasal midline inferior intercavernous approach to the cavernous sinus

Acta Neurochirurgica

Traditional endoscopic endonasal approaches to the cavernous sinus (CS) open the anterior CS wall just medial to the internal carotid artery (ICA), posing risk of vascular injury. This work describes a potentially safer midline sellar entry point for accessing the CS utilizing its connection with the inferior intercavernous sinus (IICS) when anatomically present.

Methods The technique for the midline intercavernous dural access is described and depicted with cadaveric dissections and a clinical case.

Results An endoscopic endonasal approach exposed the periosteal dural layer of anterior sella and CS. The IICS was opened sharply in midline through its periosteal layer. The feather knife was inserted and advanced laterally within the IICS toward the anterior CS wall, thereby gradually incising the periosteal layer of the IICS. The knife was turned superiorly then inferiorly in a vertical direction to open the anterior CS wall. This provided excellent access to the CS compartments, maintained the meningeal layer of the IICS and the medial CS wall, and avoided an initial dural incision immediately adjacent to the ICA.

Conclusion The midline intercavernous dural access to the CS assisted by a 90° dissector-blade is an effective modification to previously described techniques, with potentially lower risk to the ICA.

The meningioma surface factor: a novel approach to quantify shape irregularity on preoperative imaging and its correlation with WHO grade

J Neurosurg 136:1535–1541, 2022

Atypical and anaplastic meningiomas account for 20% of all meningiomas. An irregular tumor shape on preoperative MRI has been associated with WHO grade II–III histology. However, this subjective allocation does not allow quantification or comparison. An objective parameter of irregularity could substantially influence resection strategy toward a more aggressive approach. Therefore, the aim of this study was to objectively quantify the level of irregularity on preoperative MRI and predict histology based on WHO grade using this novel approach.

METHODS A retrospective study on meningiomas resected between January 2010 and December 2018 was conducted at two neurosurgical centers. This novel approach relies on the theory that a regularly shaped tumor has a smaller surface area than an irregularly shaped tumor with the same volume. A factor was generated using the surface area of a corresponding sphere as a reference, because for a given volume a sphere represents the shape with the smallest surface area possible. Consequently, the surface factor (SF) was calculated by dividing the surface area of a sphere with the same volume as the tumor with the surface area of the tumor. The resulting value of the SF ranges from > 0 to 1. Finally, the SF of each meningioma was then correlated with the corresponding histopathological grading.

RESULTS A total of 126 patients were included in this study; 60.3% had a WHO grade I, 34.9% a WHO grade II, and 4.8% a WHO grade III meningioma. Calculation of the SF demonstrated a significant difference in SFs between WHO grade I (SF 0.851) and WHO grade II–III meningiomas (SF 0.788) (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis identified SF as an independent prognostic factor for WHO grade (OR 0.000009, 95% CI 0.000–0.159; p = 0.020).

CONCLUSIONS The SF is a proposed mathematical model for a quantitative and objective measurement of meningioma shape, instead of the present subjective assessment. This study revealed significant differences between the SFs of WHO grade I and WHO grade II–III meningiomas and demonstrated that SF is an independent prognostic factor for WHO grade.

Management of cavernous sinus meningiomas: Consensus statement on behalf of the EANS skull base section

Brain and Spine 2 (2022) 100864

The evolution of cavernous sinus meningiomas (CSMs) might be unpredictable and the efficacy of their treatments is challenging due to their indolent evolution, variations and fluctuations of symptoms, heterogeneity of classifications and lack of randomized controlled trials. Here, a dedicated task force provides a consensus statement on the overall management of CSMs. Research question: To determine the best overall management of CSMs, depending on their clinical presentation, size, and evolution as well as patient characteristics.

Material and methods: Using the PRISMA 2020 guidelines, we included literature from January 2000 to December 2020. A total of 400 abstracts and 77 titles were kept for full-paper screening.

Results: The task force formulated 8 recommendations (Level C evidence). CSMs should be managed by a highly specialized multidisciplinary team. The initial evaluation of patients includes clinical, ophthalmological, endocrinological and radiological assessment. Treatment of CSM should involve experienced skull-base neurosurgeons or neuro-radiosurgeons, radiation oncologists, radiologists, ophthalmologists, and endocrinologists.

Discussion and conclusion: Radiosurgery is preferred as first-line treatment in small, enclosed, pauci-symptomatic lesions/in elderly patients, while large CSMs not amenable to resection or WHO grade II-III are candidates for radiotherapy. Microsurgery is an option in aggressive/rapidly progressing lesions in young patients presenting with oculomotor/visual/endocrinological impairment. Whenever surgery is offered, open cranial approaches are the current standard. There is limited experience reported about endoscopic endonasal approach for CSMs and the main indication is decompression of the cavernous sinus to improve symptoms. Whenever surgery is indicated, the current trend is to offer decompression followed by radiosurgery.

Supraorbital and mini-pterional keyhole craniotomies for brain tumors

J Neurosurg 136:1314–1324, 2022

The authors’ objective was to compare the indications, outcomes, and anatomical limits of supraorbital (SO) and mini-pterional (MP) craniotomies in patients with intra- and extraaxial brain tumors, and to assess approach selection, utility of endoscopy, and surgical field overlap.

METHODS A retrospective analysis was conducted of all brain tumor patients who underwent an SO or MP approach. The analyzed characteristics included pathology, endoscopy use, extent of resection, length of stay (LOS), and complications. On the basis of preoperative MRI data, tumor heatmaps were constructed to compare surgical access provided by both routes, including coronal projection heatmaps for parasellar tumors.

RESULTS From 2007 to 2020, 158 patients underwent 173 (84.8%) SO craniotomies and 30 patients underwent 31 (15.2%) MP craniotomies; 71 (34.8%) procedures were reoperations. Of these 204 operations, 110 (63.6%) SO and 21 (67.7%) MP approaches were for extraaxial tumors (meningiomas in 65% and 76.2%, respectively). Gliomas and metastases together represented 84.1% and 70% of intraaxial tumors accessed with SO and MP approaches, respectively. Overall, 56.1% of tumors accessed with the SO approach and 41.9% of those accessed with the MP approach were in the parasellar region. Axial projection heatmaps showed that SO access extended along the entire ipsilateral and medial contralateral anterior cranial fossa, parasellar region, ipsilateral sylvian fissure, medial middle cranial fossa, and anterior midbrain, whereas MP access was limited to the ipsilateral middle cranial fossa, sylvian fissure, lateral parasellar region, and posterior aspect of anterior cranial fossa. Coronal projection heatmaps showed that parasellar access extended further superiorly with the SO approach compared with that of the MP approach. Endoscopy was utilized in 98 (56.6%) SO craniotomies and 7 (22.6%) MP craniotomies, with further tumor resection in 48 (49%) and 5 (71.4%) cases, respectively. Endoscope-assisted tumor removal was clustered in areas that were generally at farther distances from the craniotomy or in angled locations such as the cribriform plate region where microscopic visualization is limited. Gross-total or neartotal resection was achieved in 120/173 (69%) SO approaches and 21/31 (68%) MP approaches. Major complications occurred in 11 (6.4%) SO approaches and 1 (3.2%) MP approach (p = 0.49). The median LOS decreased to 2 days in the last 2 years of the study.

CONCLUSIONS This clinical experience suggests the SO and MP craniotomies are versatile, safe, and complementary approaches for tumors located in the anterior and middle cranial fossae and perisylvian and parasellar regions. The SO route, used in 85% of cases, achieved greater overall reach than the MP route. Both approaches may benefit from expanded visualization with endoscopy.