Neuroendoscopic transventricular transchoroidal approach for access to the posterior zone of the third ventricle or pineal region

Neurosurgical Review (2023) 46:323

The endoscopic transventricular transchoroidal approach facilitates entry into the posterior part of the third ventricle, allowing a visualization field from the foramen of Monro to the pineal region through this anatomical corridor. Combined surgery to treat the target lesion and possible endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) can be performed through a single burr hole.

A detailed description of this surgical technique is given, and a series of cases from our center is presented. This retrospective study included patients with lesions in the pineal region or posterior zone of the third ventricle who underwent surgery between 2004 and 2022 in our center for tumor biopsy or endoscopic cyst fenestration. In nine cases, the transchoroidal approach was performed. Demographic and clinical variables were collected: sex, age at diagnosis, clinical presentation, characteristics of the lesion, pathological diagnosis, characteristics of the procedure, complications, subsequent treatments, evolution, follow-up time, and degree of success of the endoscopic procedure. The mean and range of the quantitative variables and frequency of the qualitative variables were analyzed, together with the statistical significance (p < 0.05). Surgical planning was carried out by performing a preoperative MRI, calculating the ideal entry point and trajectory for each case. The preoperative planning of the surgical technique is described in detail.

Of our sample, 55.6% were women, with a mean age of 35 years (7–78). The most common clinical presentation was intracranial hypertension (55.6%), with or without a focus. Eight patients presented hydrocephalus at diagnosis. The most frequent procedure was endoscopic biopsy with ETV (66.7%). The pathological diagnosis varied widely. Procedure-related complications included one case of self-limited bleeding of the choroidal fissure at its opening and one intraventricular hemorrhage due to tumor bleeding in the postoperative period. Non-procedure-related complications comprised two ETV failures and one case of systemic infection, while late complications included one case of disease progression and one case of radionecrosis. Four patients died, one due to poor neurological evolution after post-surgical tumor bleeding and three due to causes unrelated to the procedure. The rest of the patients had a favorable evolution and were asymptomatic or stable.

The transchoroidal approach through a single burr hole is a feasible and safe option for access to the posterior part of the third ventricle. Proper planning of each case is necessary to avoid complications.

A Novel Method for Angioscopic Imaging and Visualizing the Skull Base Using Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor Cameras

Neurosurgery 93:1432–1436, 2023

Complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) electrode arrays are a novel technology for miniaturized endoscopes; however, its use for neurointervention is yet to be investigated. In this proof-of-concept study, we aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of CMOS endoscopes in a canine model by providing direct visualization of the endothelial surface, deploying stents and coils, and accessing the spinal subdural space and skull base.

METHODS: Using 3 canine models, standard guide catheters were introduced into the internal carotid and vertebral arteries through the transfemoral route using fluoroscopy. A 1.2-mm CMOS camera was delivered through the guide catheter to inspect the endothelium. Next, the camera was introduced alongside standard neuroendovascular devices including coils and stents to provide direct visualization of their deployment within the endothelium during fluoroscopy. One canine was used for skull base and extravascular visualization. A lumbar laminectomy was performed, and the camera was navigated within the spinal subdural space until the posterior circulation intracranial vasculature was visualized.

RESULTS: We successfully visualized the endothelial surface and performed several endovascular procedures such as deployment of coils and stents under direct endovascular, angioscopic vision. We also demonstrated a proof of concept for accessing the skull base and posterior cerebral vasculature using CMOS cameras through the spinal subdural space.

CONCLUSION: This proof-of-concept study demonstrates the feasibility of CMOS camera technology to directly visualize endothelium, perform common neuroendovascular procedures, and access the base of the skull in a canine model.

The “candy wrapper” of the pituitary gland: a road map to the parasellar ligaments and the medial wall of the cavernous sinus

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:3431–3444

The anatomy of the medial wall of the cavernous sinus (MWCS) and parasellar ligaments (PLs) has acquired increasing importance in endoscopic endonasal (EE) surgery of the cavernous sinus (CS), including resection of the MWCS in functioning pituitary adenomas (FPAs). Although anatomical studies have been published, it represents a debated topic due to their complex morphology. The aim is to offer a description of the PLs that originate from the MWCS and reach the lateral wall of the cavernous sinus (LWCS), proposing the “candy wrapper” model. The relationships between the neurovascular structures and histomorphological aspects were investigated.

Methods Forty-two CSs from twenty-one human heads were studied. Eleven specimens were used for EE dissection; five underwent a microscopic dissection. Five specimens were used for histomorphological analysis.

Results Two groups of PLs with a fan-shaped appearance were encountered. The anterior group included the periosteal ligament (55% sides) and the carotico-clinoid complex (100% sides), formed by the anterior horizontal and the carotico-clinoid ligaments. The posterior group was formed by the posterior horizontal (78% sides), and the inferior hypophyseal ligament (34% sides). The periosteal ligament originated inferiorly from the MWCS, reaching the periosteal dura. The anterior horizontal ligament was divided in a superior and inferior branch. The superior one continued as the carotid-oculomotor membrane, and the inferior branch reached the CN VI. The carotico-clinoid ligament between the middle and anterior clinoid was ossified in 3 sides. The posterior horizontal ligament was related to the posterior genu and ended at the LWCS. The inferior hypophyseal ligament followed the homonym artery. The ligaments related to the ICA form part of the adventitia. Conclusion The “candy wrapper” model adds further details to the previous descriptions of the PLs. Understanding this complex anatomy is essential for safe CS surgery, including MWCS resection for FPAs.

Neuronavigated foraminoplasty, shunt removal, and endoscopic third ventriculostomy in a 54‑year‑old patient with third shunt malfunction episode

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:3289–3296

The application of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) for the treatment of obstructive hydrocephalus in shunt malfunction represents a paradigm shift, as it allows hydrocephalus to be transformed from a chronic condition treated with an artificial device to a curable disease.

Methods We present a 54-year-old male with a diagnosis of idiopathic Sylvian aqueduct stenosis treated with shunt. The patient presented to our institution with symptoms of shunt malfunction and an increase in ventricular size on imaging, which was his third episode throughout his life. Through a right precoronal approach, with prior informed consent from the patient, we performed foraminoplasty, endoscopic third ventriculostomy, and finally removal of the shunt system.

Conclusion ETV shows promise as a viable treatment option for shunt malfunction in noncommunicating obstructive hydrocephalic patients. Its potential to avoid VPS-related complications, preserve physiological CSF circulation, and provide an alternative drainage pathway warrants further investigation.

Predictors of extent of resection and recurrence following endoscopic endonasal resection of craniopharyngioma

J Neurosurg 139:1235–1246, 2023

Craniopharyngioma is a benign but surgically challenging brain tumor. Controversies exist regarding its ideal treatment strategy, goals of surgery, efficacy of radiation, and the long-term outcomes of these decisions. The authors of this study performed a detailed analysis of factors predictive of the extent of resection and recurrence in large series of craniopharyngiomas removed via an endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) with long-term follow-up.

METHODS From a prospective database of all EEAs done at Weill Cornell Medical College by the senior author from 2004 to 2022, a consecutive series of histologically proven craniopharyngiomas were identified. Gross-total resection (GTR) was generally the goal of surgery. Radiation was often given if GTR had not been achieved. The stalk was preserved if not infiltrated with tumor but was sacrificed to achieve GTR. Intentional subtotal resection (STR) was performed in select cases to avoid hypothalamic injury.

RESULTS Among the 111 identified cases were 88 adults and 23 children. Newly diagnosed cases comprised 58.6% of the series. GTR was attempted in 77.5% of the patients and among those cases was achieved in 89.5% of treatmentnaive tumors and 72.4% of recurrent tumors. An inability to achieve GTR was predicted by prior surgical treatment (OR 0.13, 95% CI 0.03–0.6, p = 0.009), tumor diameter ≥ 3.5 cm (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.02–0.53, p = 0.006), and encasement of the optic nerve or a major artery (OR 0.11, 95% CI 0.01–0.8, p = 0.03). GTR with stalk preservation maintained some anterior pituitary function in 64.5% of cases and prevented diabetes insipidus in 25.8%. After a median follow-up of 51 months (IQR 17–80 months), the recurrence rate after GTR was 12.5% compared with 38.5% after non-GTR. The median recurrence-free survival was 5.5 years after STR, 8.3 years after near-total resection (≥ 98%), and not reached after GTR (p = 0.004, log-rank test). GTR was the strongest predictor of recurrence-free survival (OR 0.09, 95% CI 0.02–0.42, p = 0.002), whereas radiation did not show a statistically significant impact (OR 1.17, 95% CI 0.45–3.08). In GTR cases, the recurrence rate was higher if the stalk had been preserved (22.6%) as opposed to a sacrificed stalk (4.9%; OR 5.69, 95% CI 1.09–29.67).

CONCLUSIONS The study data show that GTR should be the goal of surgery in craniopharyngiomas if it can be achieved safely. Although stalk preservation can maintain some endocrine function, the risk of recurrence is higher in such cases. Radiation may not be as effective as previously reported.

Combined subtarsal contralateral transmaxillary retroeustachian and endoscopic endonasal approaches to the infrapetrous region

J Neurosurg 139:992–1001, 2023

The eustachian tube (ET) limits endoscopic endonasal access to the infrapetrous region. Transecting or mobilizing the ET may result in morbidities. This study presents a novel approach in which a subtarsal contralateral transmaxillary (ST-CTM) corridor is coupled with the standard endonasal approach to facilitate access behind the intact ET.

METHODS Eight cadaveric head specimens were dissected. Endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) (i.e., transpterygoid and inferior transclival) were performed on one side, followed by ST-CTM and sublabial contralateral transmaxillary (SL-CTM) approaches on the opposite side, along with different ET mobilization techniques on the original side. Seven comparative groups were generated. The length of the cranial nerves, areas of exposure, and volume of surgical freedom (VSF) in the infrapetrous regions were measured and compared.

RESULTS Without ET mobilization, the combined ST-CTM/EEA approach provided greater exposure than EEA alone (mean ± SD 288.9 ± 40.66 mm 2 vs 91.7 ± 49.9 mm 2 ; p = 0.001). The VSFs at the ventral jugular foramen (JF), entrance to the petrous internal carotid artery (ICA), and lateral to the parapharyngeal ICA were also greater in ST-CTM/EEA than in EEA alone (p = 0.002, p = 0.002, and p < 0.001, respectively). EEA alone, however, provided greater VSF at the hypoglossal canal (HGC) than did ST-CTM/EEA (p = 0.01). The SL-CTM approach did not increase the EEA exposure (p = 0.48). The ST-CTM/EEA approach provided greater exposure than EEA with extended inferolateral (EIL) or anterolateral (AL) ET mobilization (p = 0.001 and p = 0.02, respectively). The ST-CTM/EEA also increased the VSF lateral to the parapharyngeal ICA in comparison with EEA/EIL ET mobilization (p < 0.001) but not with EEA/AL ET mobilization (p = 0.36). Finally, the VSFs at the HGC and JF were greater in EEA/AL ET mobilization than in ST-CTM/EEA without ET mobilization (p = 0.002 and p = 0.004, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS Combining the EEA with the more laterally and superiorly originating ST-CTM approach allows greater exposure of the infrapetrous and ventral JF regions while obviating the need for mobilizing the ET. The surgical freedom afforded by the combined approaches is greater than that obtained by EEA alone.

Endoscopic odontoidectomy for brainstem compression in association with posterior fossa decompression and occipitocervical fusion

J Neurosurg 139:1152–1159, 2023

Endonasal endoscopic odontoidectomy (EEO) is an alternative to transoral surgery for symptomatic ventral compression of the anterior cervicomedullary junction (CMJ), allowing for earlier extubation and feeding. Because the procedure destabilizes the C1–2 ligamentous complex, posterior cervical fusion is often performed concomitantly. The authors’ institutional experience was reviewed to describe the indications, outcomes, and complications in a large series of EEO surgical procedures in which EEO was combined with posterior decompression and fusion.

METHODS A consecutive, prospective series of patients who underwent EEO between 2011 and 2021 was studied. Demographic and outcome metrics, radiographic parameters, extent of ventral compression, extent of dens removal, and increase in CSF space ventral to the brainstem were measured on the preoperative and postoperative scans (first and most recent scans).

RESULTS Forty-two patients (26.2% pediatric) underwent EEO: 78.6% had basilar invagination, and 76.2% had Chiari type I malformation. The mean ± SD age was 33.6 ± 3.0 years, with a mean follow-up of 32.3 ± 4.0 months. The majority of patients (95.2%) underwent posterior decompression and fusion immediately before EEO. Two patients underwent prior fusion. There were 7 intraoperative CSF leaks but no postoperative CSF leaks. The inferior limit of decompression fell between the nasoaxial and rhinopalatine lines. The mean ± SD vertical height of dens resection was 11.98 ± 0.45 mm, equivalent to a mean ± SD resection of 74.18% ± 2.56%. The mean increase in ventral CSF space immediately postoperatively was 1.68 ± 0.17 mm (p < 0.0001), which increased to 2.75 ± 0.23 mm (p < 0.0001) at the most recent follow-up (p < 0.0001). The median (range) length of stay was 5 (2–33) days. The median time to extubation was 0 (0–3) days. The median time to oral feeding (defined as, at minimum, toleration of a clear liquid diet) was 1 (0–3) day. Symptoms improved in 97.6% of patients. Complications were rare and mostly associated with the cervical fusion portion of the combined surgical procedures.

CONCLUSIONS EEO is safe and effective for achieving anterior CMJ decompression and is often accompanied by posterior cervical stabilization. Ventral decompression improves over time. EEO should be considered for patients with appropriate indications.

Endoscopic endonasal transclival approach for clipping of the ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2825–2830

Vertebral artery aneurysms account for less than 5% of all cerebral aneurysms. They have a high risk of rupture and are associated with threatening clinical outcomes compared with anterior circulation aneurysms.

Method The endoscopic endonasal transclival approach (EETA) was used. During the temporary clipping, the neck of the aneurysm was dissected, and a permanent clip was applied. The repair of the skull base defect was carried out with the nasoseptal mucoperiosteal flap on the vascular pedicle.

Conclusion The EETA is a feasible alternative for the clipping of the medially located ruptured vertebral artery aneurysm. EETA can be recommended for centers with a large volume of cerebrovascular and endoscopic neurosurgical procedures.

Endoscopic far‑lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach for resection of dumbbell‑shaped trigeminal schwannoma

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2913–2921

Trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) are mostly benign tumors. However, dumbbell-shaped TSs are most challenging for surgeons and pose a high surgical risk.

Objective We describe the technique of the purely endoscopic far-lateral supracerebellar infratentorial approach (EFLSCITA) for removing dumbbell-shaped TSs and further discuss the feasibility of this approach and our experience. Methods EFL-SCITA was performed for resection of 5 TSs between January 2020 and March 2023. The entire procedure was performed endoscopically with the goal of total tumor resection. During the operation, the tumor was exposed in close proximity and multiple angles under the endoscope, and the peri-tumor nerves were carefully identified and protected, especially the normal trigeminal fiber bundles around the tumor.

Results All the tumors of 5 patients involved the middle and posterior cranial fossa, of which total removal was achieved in 2 patients and near-total removal in 3 patients. The most common preoperative symptoms were relieved after surgery. Two patients had postoperative mild facial paralysis (House-Brackmann grade II), and 1 patient had abducens palsy; both recovered during the follow-up period. Two patients experienced new postoperative facial hypesthesia, and 1 experienced mastication weakness, which did not recover. There was no tumor recurrence or residual tumor growth during the follow-up period in any of the patients.

Conclusion EFL-SCITA is a new and effective alternative for the surgical treatment of TSs. For dumbbell-shaped TSs, this approach provides sufficient surgical field exposure and freedom of operation.

Endoscopic Placement of Intracystic Catheters

Operative Neurosurgery 25:E1–E5, 2023

Intraventricular neuroendoscopic surgery for tumor resection, biopsy, or cyst fenestration frequently requires precise placement of an intraventricular or intracystic catheter. Placement under direct visualization is not feasible because of small bore of working channel of the standard small ventriculoscope. Various techniques have been reported using a separate transcortical trajectory, endoluminal endoscope, or endovascular guide wire.

OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique allowing precise placement of intraventricular/intracystic catheter using a small bore working ventriculoscope, without need for additional equipment.

METHODS: Description of the technique including intraoperative photographs, video, and illustrative cases are provided.

RESULTS: The peel-away sheath is peeled off approximately 1 to 2 cm to allow for the shaft of the endoscope to pass past its tip. Ventricular access is gained using the peel-away sheath. After the stylet is removed, the peel-away sheath is not peeled further or stapled to the skin. The endoscope is introduced into the ventricle through the peel-away sheath. After the required intraventricular work is performed, the endoscope is maneuvered into the location of the desired catheter position. The peel-away sheath is slowly advanced over the stationary endoscope past its tip. While the peelaway sheath is being held in place, the endoscope is removed. After the catheter has been introduced into the peel-away sheath to a premeasured depth, the peel-away sheath is peeled and removed. The catheter is then connected to collection system, reservoir or shunt system.

CONCLUSION: The current technique allows for the precise placement of intraventricular/intracystic catheters without the need for additional equipment or a separate transcortical trajectory.


From white to blue light: evolution of endoscope-assisted intracranial tumor neurosurgery and expansion to intraaxial tumors

J Neurosurg 139:59–64, 2023

Intraoperative use of the endoscope to assist in visualization of intracranial tumor pathology has expanded with increasing surgeon experience and improved instrumentation. The authors aimed to study how advancements in endoscopic technology have affected the evolution of endoscope use, with particular focus on blue light–filter modification allowing for discrimination of fluorescent tumor tissue following 5-ALA administration.

METHODS A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing craniotomy for tumor resection at a single institution between February 2012 and July 2021 was performed. Patients were included if the endoscope was used for diagnostic tumor cavity inspection or therapeutic assistance with tumor resection following standard craniotomy and microsurgical tumor resection, with emphasis on those cases in which blue light endoscopy was used. Medical records were queried for patient demographics, operative reports describing the use of the endoscope and extent of resection, associations with tumor pathology, and postoperative outcomes. Preoperative and postoperative MR images were reviewed for radiographic extent of resection.

RESULTS A total of 52 patients who underwent endoscope-assisted craniotomy for tumor were included. Thirty patients (57.7%) were men and the average age was 52.6 ± 16.1 years. Standard white light endoscopes were used for assistance with tumor resection in 28 cases (53.8%) for tumors primarily located in the ventricular system, parasellar region, and cerebellopontine angle. A blue light endoscope for detection of 5-ALA fluorescence was introduced into our practice in 2014 and subsequently used for assistance with tumor resection in 24 cases (46.2%) (intraaxial: n = 22, extraaxial: n = 2). Beyond the use of the surgical microscope as the primary visualization source, the blue light endoscope was used to directly perform additional tumor resection in 19/21 cases as a result of improved fluorescence detection as compared to the surgical microscope. No complications were associated with the use of the endoscope or with additional resection performed under white or blue light visualization.

CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic assistance to visualize intracranial tumors had previously been limited to white light, assisting mostly in the visualization of extraaxial tumors confined to intraventricular and cisternal compartments. Blue light– equipped endoscopes provide improved versatility and visualization of 5-ALA fluorescing tissue beyond the capability of the surgical microscope, thereby expanding its use into the realm of intraaxial tumor resections.

Biportal endoscopic extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion using a 3D‑printed porous titanium cage with large footprints: technical note and preliminary results

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1435–1443

The aim of this study was to introduce biportal endoscopic extraforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (BE-EFLIF), which involves insertion of a cage through a more lateral side as compared to the conventional corridor of transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion. We described the advantages and surgical steps of 3D-printed porous titanium cage with large footprints insertion through multi-portal approach, and preliminary results of this technique.

Methods This retrospective study included 12 consecutive patients who underwent BE-EFLIF for symptomatic singlelevel lumbar degenerative disease. Clinical outcomes, including a visual analog scale (VAS) for back and leg pain and the Oswestry disability index (ODI), were collected at preoperative months 1 and 3, and 6 months postoperatively. In addition, perioperative data and radiographic parameters were analyzed.

Results The mean patient age, follow-up period, operation time, and volume of surgical drainage were 68.3 ± 8.4 years, 7.6 ± 2.8 months, 188.3 ± 42.4 min, 92.5 ± 49.6 mL, respectively. There were no transfusion cases. All patients showed significant improvement in VAS and ODI postoperatively, and these were maintained for 6 months after surgery (P < 0.001). The anterior and posterior disc heights significantly increased after surgery (P < 0.001), and the cage was ideally positioned in all patients. There were no incidences of early cage subsidence or other complications.

Conclusions BE-EFLIF using a 3D-printed porous titanium cage with large footprints is a feasible option for minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. This technique is expected to reduce the risk of cage subsidence and improve the fusion rate.

Management strategies in clival and craniovertebral junction chordomas: a 29-year experience

J Neurosurg 138:1640–1652, 2023

Chordomas represent one of the most challenging subsets of skull base and craniovertebral junction (CVJ) tumors to treat. Despite extensive resection followed by proton-beam radiation therapy, the recurrence rate remains high, highlighting the importance of developing efficient treatment strategies. In this study, the authors present their experience in treating clival and CVJ chordomas over a 29-year period.

METHODS The authors conducted a retrospective study of clival and CVJ chordomas that were surgically treated at their institution from 1991 to 2020. This study focuses on three aspects of the management of these tumors: the factors influencing the extent of resection (EOR), the predictors of survival, and the outcomes of the endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs) compared with open approaches (OAs).

RESULTS A total of 265 surgical procedures were performed in 210 patients, including 123 OAs (46.4%) and 142 EEAs (53.6%). Tumors that had an intradural extension (p = 0.03), brainstem contact (p = 0.005), cavernous sinus extension (p = 0.004), major artery encasement (p = 0.01), petrous apex extension (p = 0.003), or high volume (p = 0.0003) were significantly associated with a lower EOR. The 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 52.1% and 75.1%, respectively. Gross-total resection and Ki-67 labeling index < 6% were considered to be independent prognostic factors of longer PFS (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.003, respectively) and OS (p = 0.02 and p = 0.03, respectively). Postoperative radiation therapy correlated independently with a longer PFS (p = 0.006). Previous surgical treatment was associated with a lower EOR (p = 0.01) and a higher rate of CSF leakage after EEAs (p = 0.02) but did not have significantly lower PFS and OS compared with primary surgery. Previously radiation therapy correlated with a worse outcome, with lower PFS and OS (p = 0.001 and p = 0.007, respectively). EEAs were more frequently used in patients with upper and middle clival tumors (p = 0.002 and p < 0.0001, respectively), had a better rate of EOR (p = 0.003), and had a lower risk of de novo neurological deficit (p < 0.0001) compared with OAs. The overall rate of postoperative CSF leakage after EEAs was 14.8%.

CONCLUSIONS This large study showed that gross-total resection should be attempted in a multidisciplinary skull base center before providing radiation therapy. EEAs should be considered as the gold-standard approach for upper/middle clival lesions based on the satisfactory surgical outcome, but OAs remain important tools for large complex chordomas.

Indications and outcomes of endoscopic transorbital surgery for trigeminal schwannoma based on tumor classification: a multicenter study with 50 cases

J Neurosurg 138:1653–1661, 2023

Trigeminal schwannoma is a rare CNS tumor and involves the multicompartmental skull base. Recently, the endoscopic transorbital approach (ETOA) has emerged as a technique for minimally invasive surgery. The objective of this study was to evaluate the optimal indications and clinical outcomes of the ETOA for trigeminal schwannomas based on their tumor classification.

METHODS Between September 2016 and February 2022, the ETOA was performed in 50 patients with trigeminal schwannoma at four tertiary hospitals. There were 15 men and 35 women in the study, with a mean age of 46.9 years. All tumors were classified as type A (predominantly involving the middle cranial fossa), type B (predominantly involving the posterior cranial fossa), type C (dumbbell-shaped tumors involving the middle and posterior fossa), or type D (involvement of the extracranial compartment). Type D tumors were also subclassified by ophthalmic division (D1), maxillary division (D2), and mandibular division (D3). Clinical outcome was analyzed, including extent of resection and surgical morbidities.

RESULTS In this study, overall gross-total resection (GTR) was performed in 35 (70.0%) of 50 patients and near-total resection (NTR) in 9 patients (18.0%). The mean follow-up period was 21.9 (range 1–61.7) months. There was no tumor regrowth or recurrence during the follow-up period. Based on the classification, there were 17 type A tumors, 20 type C, and 13 type D. There were no type B tumors. Of the 13 type D tumors, 7 were D1, 1 D2, and 5 D3. For type A tumors, GTR or NTR was achieved using an ETOA in 16 (94.1%) of 17 patients. Eighteen (90.0%) of 20 patients with type C tumors attained GTR or NTR. Ten (76.9%) of 13 patients with type D tumors underwent GTR. Statistical analysis showed that there was no significant difference in the extent of resection among the tumor subtypes. Surgical complications included transient partial ptosis (n = 4), permanent ptosis (n = 1), transient diplopia (n = 7), permanent diplopia (n = 1), corneal keratopathy (n = 7), difficulties in mastication (n = 5), and neuralgic pain or paresthesia (n = 14). There were no postoperative CSF leaks or enophthalmos during follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS This study showed that trigeminal schwannomas can be effectively treated with a minimally invasive ETOA in all tumor types, except those predominantly involving the posterior fossa (type B). For the extracranial compartments, D2 or D3 tumor types often require an ETOA combined with the endoscopic endonasal approach, while D1 tumor types can be treated using an ETOA alone.

Endoscopic clipping of an anterior communicating artery aneurysm

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1227–1231

Anterior communicating artery aneurysms are most prone to rupture. Surgically, they are conventionally being managed by a pterional approach. Some neurosurgeons prefer a supraorbital keyhole approach in select cases. Fully endoscopic clipping of such aneurysms is seldom described.

Method We clipped an antero-inferiorly directed anterior communicating artery aneurysm endoscopically via a supraorbital keyhole approach. The intraoperative aneurysmal rupture was also managed endoscopically. The patient made an excellent postoperative recovery without any neurological deficits.

Conclusion Select cases of anterior communicating artery aneurysms can be clipped endoscopically using standard instruments and adhering to the basic principles of aneurysm clipping.

Clival Chordomas in the Endoscopic Endonasal Era: Comparison With Management With Open Skull Base Approaches

Neurosurgery 92:756–761, 2023

The most significant paradigm shift in surgical management of skull base chordomas has been the adoption of the endoscopic endonasal approach, but the impact on patient outcomes compared with open skull base approaches remains unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To compare a large series of patients treated by a single surgeon using primarily endoscopic endonasal approaches with previously published outcomes by the same surgeon using open skull base approaches.

METHODS: Between 2006 and 2020, 68 patients with skull base chordoma underwent resection using primarily endoscopic endonasal approaches. Outcomes and complications were compared with previously published results of resection of chordomas from 1991 to 2005 using open skull base approaches.

RESULTS: Compared with the prior cohort, the current principally endoscopic cohort demonstrated similar rates of OS (P = .86) and progression-free survival (P = .56), but patients undergoing first-time resection had significantly higher rates of radical resection (82.9% compared with 64.3%, P = .05) and required fewer staged surgeries (9.8% compared with 33.3%, P = .01).

CONCLUSION: There was no difference in survival rates for patients treated in the current era, primarily using endoscopic endonasal techniques, compared with previously published results using open skull-base approaches by the same surgeon. Although use of endoscopic endonasal approach resulted in higher rates of radical resection, patients undergoing first-time resection and fewer staged surgeries were required.

Clival Chordomas in the Endoscopic Endonasal Era: Clinical Management, Outcomes, and Complications

Neurosurgery 92:876–883, 2023

Surgical management of skull base chordomas has changed significantly in the past 2 decades, most notably with use of the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA), although high quality outcome data using these modern approaches remain scarce.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate outcomes in a large series of patients treated by a single surgeon, using primarily the EEA.

METHODS: Between 2006 and 2020, 68 patients with skull base chordoma underwent resection using mostly the EEA. Complications, outcomes, and potential contributing factors were evaluated using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards models.

RESULTS: Overall 5-year survival was 76.3% (95%CI 61.5%-86.0%), and 5-year progressionfree survival was 55.9%(95% CI 40.0%-69.0%). Inmultivariable analysis, radical resection was associated with significant reduction in risk of death (hazard ratio [HR] 0.04, 95% CI 0.005- 0.33, P = .003) and disease progression (HR 0.05, 95% CI 0.01-0.18, P < .001). Better preoperative function status reduced risk of death (HR 0.42 per 10-point increase in Karnofsky Performance Scale, 95% CI 0.28-0.63, P < .001) and progression (HR 0.60 per 10-point increase in Karnofsky Performance Scale, 95% CI 0.45-0.78, P < .001). Localization at the clivus reduced risk of death (HR 0.02, 95% CI 0.002-0.15, P < .001) and progression (HR 0.24, 95% CI 0.09-0.68, P = .007) compared with tumors at the craniovertebral junction.

CONCLUSION: In multivariable analysis, overall survival and progression-free survival of chordoma resection was most positively affected by radical resection, better preoperative functional status, and tumor location at the clivus rather than craniovertebral junction.

Extended endoscopic transsphenoidal approach for suprasellar craniopharyngiomas

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:677–683

Craniopharyngiomas are benign sellar lesions. Surgical excision of craniopharyngiomas is difficult because of the surrounding important neurovascular structures. The choice of surgery depends on the histological type, location, hormonal status, and size of the craniopharyngioma, surrounding neurovascular structures, and invasion of the brain parenchyma.

Methods We describe the resection of an adamantinomatous craniopharyngioma using an extended endoscopic endonasal approach and discuss the relevant surgical anatomy, indications, limitations, and possible complications.

Conclusions The extended endoscopic endonasal approach allows successful removal of the craniopharyngioma and poses little risk to surrounding neurovascular structures.

Extra-axial endoscopic third ventriculostomy: preliminary experience with a technique to circumvent conventional endoscopic third ventriculostomy complications

J Neurosurg 138:503–513, 2023

Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is mostly safe but may have serious complications. Most of the complications are inherent to the procedure’s intra-axial nature. This study aimed to explore an alternative route to overcome inherent issues with conventional ETV. The authors performed supraorbital, subfrontal extra-axial ETV (EAETV) via the lamina terminalis.

METHODS This prospective study began in October 2021 and included patients with obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or more and a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Patients with multiloculated hydrocephalus and those younger than 1 year of age were excluded. The preoperative parameters etiology, symptoms, Evans’ Index, frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR), and third ventricle index were recorded. The surgical procedure is described. Postoperative evaluation included clinical (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and radiological assessment with CT and cine phase-contrast MRI. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were compared statistically.

RESULTS Ten patients were included in this study. Six patients had acute hydrocephalus, and 4 had chronic hydrocephalus. After EAETV, all patients showed clinical improvement. An mRS score of 0 or 1 was achieved in 9 patients, but the mRS score remained at 4 in a patient with tectal tuberculoma. There was a significant reduction in Evans’ Index, FOHR, and third ventricle index after EAETV (p < 0.05). The mean percent reduction in Evans’ Index was 20.80% ± 13.89%, the mean percent reduction in FOHR was 20.79% ± 12.98%, and the mean percent reduction in the third ventricle index was 37.45% ± 14.74%. CSF flow voids were seen in all cases. The results of CSF flow quantification parameters were as follows: mean peak velocity 3.82 ± 0.93 cm/sec, mean average velocity 0.10 ± 0.05 cm/sec, mean average flow rate 46.60 ± 28.58 μL/sec, mean forward volume 39.90 ± 23.29 μL, mean reverse volume 34.10 ± 15.98 μL, mean overall flow amplitude 74.00 ± 27.61 μL, and mean stroke volume 37.00 ± 13.80 μL. One patient developed a minor frontal lobe contusion. The frontal air sinus was breached in 5 patients, but none had CSF rhinorrhea. Transient supraorbital hypesthesia was seen in 3 patients. No patient had electrolyte disturbance or change in thirst or fluid intake habits.

CONCLUSIONS EAETV is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical alternative to conventional ETV.

Endoscopic endonasal approach for infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngiomas: a multicentric Italian study

J Neurosurg 138:522–532, 2023

Infradiaphragmatic craniopharyngiomas (ICs) represent a distinct subtype, harboring a sellar-suprasellar origin and generally growing in the extra-arachnoidal space contained by the diaphragma sellae. They have been considered ideal for surgical removal through the transsphenoidal approach since the 1960s. The authors present a multicentric national study, intending to selectively analyze IC behavior and the impact of the transsphenoidal endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) on surgical outcomes.

METHODS Craniopharyngiomas that were intraoperatively recognized as infradiaphragmatic and removed with standard EEA between 2000 and 2021 at 6 Italian neurosurgical departments were included in the study. Clinical, radiological, and surgical findings and outcomes were evaluated and reviewed.

RESULTS In total, 84 patients were included, with 45.23% identified as pediatric cases and 39.28% as having recurrent tumors. The most common presenting symptoms were endocrine (75%), visual (59.52%), and hypothalamic (26.19%) disorders. ICs were classified as extending below (6 intrasellar and 41 occupying the suprasellar cistern) or above (26 obliterating the anterior recesses of the third ventricle and 11 extending up to the foramina of Monro) the chiasmatic cistern. Gross-total resection (GTR) was achieved in 54 cases (64.28%). Tumor extension above the chiasmatic cistern and calcifications were associated with lower likelihood of GTR. The cumulative rate of postoperative complications was 34.53%, with CSF leak being the most common (14.28%). Endocrine, visual, and hypothalamic functions deteriorated postoperatively in 41/78 patients (52.56%), 5/84 (5.95%), and 14/84 (16.67%), respectively. Twenty-eight patients (33.33%) had recurrence during follow-up (mean 63.51 months), with a mean 5-year progression-free survival (PFS) rate of 58%. PFS was greater in patients who achieved GTR than patients with other extent of resection.

CONCLUSIONS This is the largest series in the literature to describe ICs removed with standard EEA, without the need for additional bone and dural opening over the planum sphenoidale. EEA provides a direct route to ICs, the opportunity to manage lesions extending up to the third ventricle without breaching the diaphragma, and high rates of GTR and satisfactory clinical outcomes. Increased surgical complexity and morbidity should be expected in patients with extensive suprasellar extension and involvement of the surrounding vital neurovascular structures.

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