A modern approach to olfactory groove meningiomas

J Neurosurg 140:1215–1222, 2024

Management of olfactory groove meningiomas (OGMs) has changed significantly with the advances in extended endoscopic endonasal approaches (EEAs), which is an excellent approach for patients with anosmia since it allows early devascularization and minimizes retraction on the frontal lobes. Craniotomy is best suited for preservation of olfaction. However, not infrequently, a tumor presents after extending outside the reach of an EEA and a solely transcranial approach would require manipulation and retraction of the frontal lobes. These OGMs may best be treated by a staged EEA-craniotomy approach. In this study the authors’ goal was to present their case series of patients with OGMs treated with their surgical approach algorithm.

METHODS The authors conducted an IRB-approved, nonrandomized historic cohort including all consecutive cases of OGMs treated surgically between 2010 and 2020. Patient demographic information, presenting symptoms, operative details, and complications data were collected. Preoperative and postoperative tumor and T2/FLAIR intensity volumes were calculated using Visage Imaging software.

RESULTS Thirty-one patients with OGMs were treated (14 craniotomy only, 11 EEA only, and 6 staged). There was a significant difference in the distribution of patients presenting with anosmia and visual disturbance by approach. Tumor size was significantly correlated with preoperative vasogenic edema. Gross-total resection was achieved in 90% of cases, with near-total resection occurring twice with EEA and once with a staged approach. T2/FLAIR hyperintensity completely resolved in 90% of cases and rates did not differ by approach. Complication rates were not significantly different by approach and included 4 CSF leaks (p = 0.68).

CONCLUSIONS A staged approach for the management of large OGMs with associated anosmia and significant lateral extension is a safe and effective option for surgical management. Through utilization of the described algorithm, the authors achieved a high rate of GTR, and this strategy may be considered for large OGMs.

Automated Preoperative and Postoperative Volume Estimates Risk of Retreatment in Chronic Subdural Hematoma

Neurosurgery 94:317–324, 2024

Several neurosurgical pathologies, ranging from glioblastoma to hemorrhagic stroke, use volume thresholds to guide treatment decisions. For chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH), with a risk of retreatment of 10%–30%, the relationship between preoperative and postoperative cSDH volume and retreatment is not well understood. We investigated the potential link between preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes and retreatment.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients operated for unilateral cSDH from 4 level 1 trauma centers, February 2009–August 2021. We used a 3-dimensional deep learning, automated segmentation pipeline to calculate preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes. To identify volume thresholds, we constructed a receiver operating curve with preoperative and postoperative volumes to predict cSDH retreatment rates and selected the threshold with the highest Youden index. Then, we developed a light gradient boosting machine to predict the risk of cSDH recurrence.

RESULTS: We identified 538 patients with unilateral cSDH, of whom 62 (12%) underwent surgical retreatment within 6 months of the index surgery. cSDH retreatment was associated with higher preoperative (122 vs 103 mL; P < .001) and postoperative (62 vs 35 mL; P < .001) volumes. Patients with >140 mL preoperative volume had nearly triple the risk of cSDH recurrence compared with those below 140 mL, while a postoperative volume >46 mL led to an increased risk for retreatment (22% vs 6%; P < .001). On multivariate modeling, our model had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.60-0.93) for predicting retreatment. The most important features were preoperative and postoperative volume, platelet count, and age.

CONCLUSION: Larger preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes increase the risk of retreatment. Volume thresholds may allow identification of patients at high risk of cSDH retreatment who would benefit from adjunct treatments. Machine learning algorithm can quickly provide accurate estimates of preoperative and postoperative volumes.

Awake Versus Asleep Craniotomy for Patients With Eloquent Glioma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery 94:38–52, 2024

Awake vs asleep craniotomy for patients with eloquent glioma is debatable. This systematic review and meta-analysis sought to compare awake vs asleep craniotomy for the resection of gliomas in the eloquent regions. METHODS: MEDLINE and PubMed were searched from inception to December 13, 2022. Primary outcomes were the extent of resection (EOR), overall survival (month), progression-free survival (month), and rates of neurological deficit, Karnofsky performance score, and seizure freedom at the 3-month follow-up. Secondary outcomes were duration of operation (minute) and length of hospital stay (LOS) (day).

RESULTS: Fifteen studies yielded 2032 patients, from which 800 (39.4%) and 1232 (60.6%) underwent awake and asleep craniotomy, respectively. The meta-analysis concluded that the awake group had greater EOR (mean difference [MD]= MD= 8.52 [4.28, 12.76], P < .00001), overall survival (MD = 2.86 months [1.35, 4.37], P = .0002), progression-free survival (MD = 5.69 months [0.75, 10.64], P = .02), 3-month postoperative Karnofsky performance score (MD = 13.59 [11.08, 16.09], P < .00001), and 3-month postoperative seizure freedom (odds ratio = 8.72 [3.39, 22.39], P < .00001). Furthermore, the awake group had lower 3-month postoperative neurological deficit (odds ratio = 0.47 [0.28, 0.78], P = .004) and shorter LOS (MD = -2.99 days [-5.09, -0.88], P = .005). In addition, the duration of operation was similar between the groups (MD = 37.88 minutes [-34.09, 109.86], P = .30).

CONCLUSION: Awake craniotomy for gliomas in the eloquent regions benefits EOR, survival, postoperative neurofunctional outcomes, and LOS. When feasible, the authors recommend awake craniotomy for surgical resection of gliomas in the eloquent regions.

International Tuberculum Sellae Meningioma Study: Preoperative Grading Scale to Predict Outcomes and Propensity-Matched Outcomes by Endonasal Versus Transcranial Approach

Neurosurgery 93:1271–1284, 2023

Tuberculum sellae meningiomas are resected via an expanded endonasal (EEA) or transcranial approach (TCA). Which approach provides superior outcomes is debated. The Magill–McDermott (M-M) grading scale evaluating tumor size, optic canal invasion, and arterial involvement remains to be validated for outcome prediction. The objective of this study was to validate the M-M scale for predicting visual outcome, extent of resection (EOR), and recurrence, and to use propensity matching by M-M scale to determine whether visual outcome, EOR, or recurrence differ between EEA and TCA.

METHODS: Forty-site retrospective study of 947 patients undergoing tuberculum sellae meningiomas resection. Standard statistical methods and propensity matching were used.

RESULTS: The M-M scale predicted visual worsening (odds ratio [OR]/point: 1.22, 95% CI: 1.02-1.46, P = .0271) and gross total resection (GTR) (OR/point: 0.71, 95% CI: 0.62-0.81, P < .0001), but not recurrence (P = .4695). The scale was simplified and validated in an independent cohort for predicting visual worsening (OR/point: 2.34, 95% CI: 1.33-4.14, P = .0032) and GTR (OR/point: 0.73, 95% CI: 0.57-0.93, P = .0127), but not recurrence (P = .2572). In propensity-matched samples, there was no difference in visual worsening (P = .8757) or recurrence (P = .5678) between TCA and EEA, but GTR was more likely with TCA (OR: 1.49, 95% CI: 1.02-2.18, P = .0409). Matched patients with preoperative visual deficits who had an EEA were more likely to have visual improvement than those undergoing TCA (72.9% vs 58.4%, P = .0010) with equal rates of visual worsening (EEA 8.0% vs TCA 8.6%, P = .8018).

CONCLUSION: The refined M-M scale predicts visual worsening and EOR preoperatively. Preoperative visual deficits are more likely to improve after EEA; however, individual tumor features must be considered during nuanced approach selection by experienced neurosurgeons.

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization Versus Conventional Management for Patients With Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery 92:1142–1154, 2023

The results from studies that compare middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization vs conventional management for patients with chronic subdural hematoma are varied.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that compared MMA embolization vs conventional management.

METHODS: Medline, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched. Primary outcomes were treatment failure and surgical rescue; secondary outcomes were complications, follow-up modified Rankin scale > 2, mortality, complete hematoma resolution, and length of hospital stay (day). The certainty of the evidence was determined using the GRADE approach.

RESULTS: Nine studies yielding 1523 patients were enrolled, of which 337 (22.2%) and 1186 (77.8%) patients received MMA embolization and conventionalmanagement, respectively.MMA embolization was superior to conventional management for treatment failure (relative risk [RR] = 0.34 [0.14-0.82], P = .02), surgical rescue (RR = 0.33 [0.14-0.77], P = .01), and complete hematoma resolution (RR = 2.01 [1.10-3.68], P = .02). There was no difference between the 2 groups for complications (RR= 0.93 [0.63-1.37], P = .72), follow-up modified Rankin scale >2 (RR= 0.78 [0.449-1.25], P= .31), mortality (RR= 1.05 [0.51-2.14], P = .89), and length of hospital stay (mean difference = 0.57 [ 2.55, 1.41], P = .57). ForMMAembolization, the number needed to treat for treatment failure, surgical rescue, and complete hematoma resolution was 7, 9, and 3, respectively. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to high for primary outcomes and low to moderate for secondary outcomes.

CONCLUSION: MMA embolization decreases treatment failure and the need for surgical rescue without furthering the risk of morbidity and mortality. The authors recommend considering MMA embolization in the chronic subdural hematoma management.

Seven bypasses simulation set: description and validity assessment of novel models for microneurosurgical training

J Neurosurg 138:732–739, 2023

Microsurgical training remains indispensable to master cerebrovascular bypass procedures, but simulation models for training that accurately replicate microanastomosis in narrow, deep-operating corridors are lacking. Seven simulation bypass scenarios were developed that included head models in various surgical positions with premade approaches, simulating the restrictions of the surgical corridors and hand positions for microvascular bypass training. This study describes these models and assesses their validity.

METHODS Simulation models were created using 3D printing of the skull with a designed craniotomy. Brain and external soft tissues were cast using a silicone molding technique from the clay-sculptured prototypes. The 7 simulation scenarios included: 1) temporal craniotomy for a superficial temporal artery (STA)–middle cerebral artery (MCA) bypass using the M4 branch of the MCA; 2) pterional craniotomy and transsylvian approach for STA-M2 bypass; 3) bifrontal craniotomy and interhemispheric approach for side-to-side bypass using the A3 branches of the anterior cerebral artery; 4) far lateral craniotomy and transcerebellomedullary approach for a posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA)–PICA bypass or 5) PICA reanastomosis; 6) orbitozygomatic craniotomy and transsylvian-subtemporal approach for a posterior cerebral artery bypass; and 7) extended retrosigmoid craniotomy and transcerebellopontine approach for an occipital artery–anterior inferior cerebellar artery bypass. Experienced neurosurgeons evaluated each model by practicing the aforementioned bypasses on the models. Face and content validities were assessed using the bypass participant survey.

RESULTS A workflow for model production was developed, and these models were used during microsurgical courses at 2 neurosurgical institutions. Each model is accompanied by a corresponding prototypical case and surgical video, creating a simulation scenario. Seven experienced cerebrovascular neurosurgeons practiced microvascular anastomoses on each of the models and completed surveys. They reported that actual anastomosis within a specific approach was well replicated by the models, and difficulty was comparable to that for real surgery, which confirms the face validity of the models. All experts stated that practice using these models may improve bypass technique, instrument handling, and surgical technique when applied to patients, confirming the content validity of the models.

CONCLUSIONS The 7 bypasses simulation set includes novel models that effectively simulate surgical scenarios of a bypass within distinct deep anatomical corridors, as well as hand and operator positions. These models use artificial materials, are reusable, and can be implemented for personal training and during microsurgical courses.

Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy for First-Line Treatment of Surgically Accessible Recurrent Glioblastoma: Outcomes Compared With a Surgical Cohort

Neurosurgery 91:701–709, 2022

Laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for glioblastoma (GBM) has been reserved for poor surgical candidates and deep “inoperable” lesions. We present the first reported series of LITT for surgically accessible recurrent GBM (rGBM) that would otherwise be treated with surgical resection.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of LITT for unifocal, lobar, first-time rGBM compared with a similar surgical cohort.

METHODS: A retrospective institutional database was used to identify patients with unifocal, lobar, first-time rGBM who underwent LITT or resection between 2013 and 2020. Clinical and volumetric lesional characteristics were compared between cohorts. Subgroup analysis of patients with lesions ≤20 cm 3 was also completed. Primary outcomes were overall survival and progression-free survival.

RESULTS: Of the 744 patients with rGBM treated from 2013 to 2020, a LITT cohort of 17 patients were compared with 23 similar surgical patients. There were no differences in baseline characteristics, although lesions were larger in the surgical cohort (7.54 vs 4.37 cm3 , P = .017). Despite differences in lesion size, both cohorts had similar extents of ablation/resection (90.7% vs 95.1%, P = .739). Overall survival (14.1 vs 13.8 months, P = .578) and progression-free survival (3.7 vs 3.3 months, P = 0. 495) were similar. LITT patients had significantly shorter hospital stays (2.2 vs 3.0 days, P = .004). Subgroup analysis of patients with lesions ≤20 cm 3 showed similar outcomes, with LITT allowing for significantly shorter hospital stays.

CONCLUSION: We found no difference in survival outcomes or morbidity between LITT and repeat surgery for surgically accessible rGBM while LITT resulted in shorter hospital stays and more efficient postoperative care.



Prognostic data analysis of surgical treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage

Neurosurgical Review (2022) 45:2733–2744

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a commonly occurring disease in neurosurgery, yet its surgical treatment is controversial.

This paper pertains to the study of the effects of different treatment regimens on the outcome of ICH population. Based on a globally shared third-party MIMIC-III database, the researchers firstly described the dissimilarities in survival probability, mortality, and neurological recovery among mainstream treatments for ICH; secondly, patient classification was determined by important clinical features; and outcome variations among treatment groups were compared.

The 28-day, 90-day, and in-hospital mortality in the craniotomy group were significantly lower than minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and non-surgical group patients; and, the medium/long-term mortality in MIS group was significantly lower than the non-surgical group. The craniotomy group positively correlated with short-term GCS recovery compared with the MIS group; no difference existed between the non-surgical and MIS groups. The craniotomy group 90-day survival probability and short-term GCS recovery were superior to the other two treatments in the subgroups of first GCS 3–12; this tendency also presented in the MIS group over non-surgical group. For milder patients (first GCS > 12), the three treatment regimens had a minimal effect on patient survival, but the non-surgical group showed an advantage in short-term GCS recovery.

Craniotomy patients have a lower mortality and a better short-term neurological recovery in an ICH population, especially in short-to-medium term mortality and short-term neurological recovery over MIS patients. In addition, surgical treatment is recommendable for patients with a GCS ≤ 12.

Mastication after craniotomy: pilot assessment of postoperative oral health‐related quality of life

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:1347–1355

Neurosurgical approaches to the brain often require the mobilization of the temporal muscle. Many patients complain of postoperative pain, atrophy, reduced mouth opening, and masticatory problems. Although the pterional, frontolateral- extended-pterional, and temporal craniotomies are the most frequently used approaches in neurosurgery, a systematic assessment of the postoperative oral health-related quality of life has never been performed so far. This study evaluates the oral health-related quality of life of patients after pterional, frontolateral-extended-pterional, or temporal craniotomy using a validated and standardized dental questionnaire, compares the results with the normal values of the general population, and investigates whether this questionnaire is sensitive to changes caused by surgical manipulation of the temporal muscle.

Methods The “Oral Health Impact Profile” (OHIP14) is a validated questionnaire to assess the oral health-related quality of life. It asks the patients to assess their oral health situation within the past 7 days in 14 questions. Possible answers range from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). Sixty patients with benign intracranial processes operated through a lateral cranial approach were included. The questionnaire was answered before surgery (baseline) and 3 months and 15 months after surgery.

Results Overall, postoperative OHIP scores increase significantly after 3 months and decrease after 15 months, but not to preoperative values. No factors can be identified which show a considerable relationship with the postoperative OHIP score.

Conclusions Postoperative impairment of mouth opening and pain during mastication can be observed 3 to 15 months after surgery and sometimes cause feedback from patients and their dentists. However, in line with existing literature, these complaints decrease with time. The study shows that the OHIP questionnaire is sensitive to changes caused by surgical manipulation of the temporal muscle and can therefore be used to investigate the influence of surgical techniques on postoperative complaints. Postoperatively, patients show worse OHIP scores than the general population, demonstrating that neurosurgical cranial approaches negatively influence the patient’s oral health-related wellbeing. Larger studies using the OHIP questionnaire should evaluate if postoperative physical therapy, speech therapy, or specialized rehabilitation devices can improve the masticatory impairment after craniotomy.

Endoscopic endonasal versus transcranial surgery for primary resection of craniopharyngiomas based on a new QST classification system

J Neurosurg 135:1298–1309, 2021

An assessment of the transcranial approach (TCA) and the endoscopic endonasal approach (EEA) for craniopharyngiomas (CPs) according to tumor types has not been reported. The aim of this study was to evaluate both surgical approaches for different types of CPs.

METHODS A retrospective review of primary resected CPs was performed. A QST classification system based on tumor origin was used to classify tumors into 3 types as follows: infrasellar/subdiaphragmatic CPs (Q-CPs), subarachnoidal CPs (S-CPs), and pars tuberalis CPs (T-CPs). Within each tumor type, patients were further arranged into two groups: those treated via the TCA and those treated via the EEA. Patient and tumor characteristics, surgical outcomes, and postoperative complications were obtained. All variables were statistically analyzed between surgical groups for each tumor type.

RESULTS A total of 315 patients were included in this series, of whom 87 were identified with Q-CPs (49 treated via TCA and 38 via EEA); 56 with S-CPs (36 treated via TCA and 20 via EEA); and 172 with T-CPs (105 treated via TCA and 67 via EEA). Patient and tumor characteristics were equivalent between both surgical groups in each tumor type. The overall gross-total resection rate (90.5% TCA vs 91.2% EEA, p = 0.85) and recurrence rate (8.9% TCA vs 6.4% EEA, p = 0.35) were similar between surgical groups. The EEA group had a greater chance of visual improvement (61.6% vs 35.8%, p = 0.01) and a decreased risk of visual deterioration (1.6% vs 11.0%, p < 0.001). Of the patients with T-CPs, postoperative hypothalamic status was better in the TCA group than in the EEA group (p = 0.016). Postoperative CSF leaks and nasal complication rates occurred more frequently in the EEA group (12.0% vs 0.5%, and 9.6% vs 0.5%; both p < 0.001). For Q-CPs, EEA was associated with an increased gross-total resection rate (97.4% vs 85.7%, p = 0.017), decreased recurrence rate (2.6% vs 12.2%, p = 0.001), and lower new hypopituitarism rate (28.9% vs 57.1%, p = 0.008). The recurrence-free survival in patients with Q-CPs was also significantly different between surgical groups (log-rank test, p = 0.037). The EEA required longer surgical time for T-CPs (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS CPs could be effectively treated by radical surgery with favorable results. Both TCA and EEA have their advantages and limitations when used to manage different types of tumors. Individualized surgical strategies based on tumor growth patterns are mandatory to achieve optimal outcomes.

Embolization of the middle meningeal artery in patients with chronic subdural hematoma—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:777–784

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) remains a neurosurgical condition with high recurrence rate after surgical treatment. The primary pathological mechanism is considered to be repeated microbleedings from fragile neo-vessels within the outer hematoma membrane. The neo-vessels are supplied from peripheral branches of the middle meningeal artery, and embolization of MMA (eMMA) has been performed to prevent re-bleeding episodes and thereby CSDH recurrence.

Objective To evaluate the published evidence for the effect of eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH. Secondarily, to investigate the effect of eMMA as an alternative to surgery for primary treatment of CSDH. Method A systematic review of the literature on eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were reviewed using the search terms: Embolization, Medial Meningeal Artery, Chronic Subdural Haematoma, and Recurrence. Furthermore, the following mesh terms were used: Chronic Subdural Haematoma AND embolization AND medial meningeal artery AND recurrence. Eighteen papers were found and included. No papers were excluded. The number of patients with primary CSDH and the number of patients with recurrent CSDH treated with eMMA were listed. Furthermore, the number of recurrences in both categories was registered.

Results Eighteen papers with a total of 191 included patients diagnosed with CSDH treated with eMMA for primary and recurrent CSDH were identified. Recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMA for recurrent CSDH was found to be 2.4%, 95%CI (0.5%; 11.0%), whereas the recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMAfor primary CSDH was 4.1%, 95%CI (1.4%; 11.4%).

Conclusion eMMA is a minimally invasive procedure for treatment of CSDH. Although this study is limited by publication bias, it seems that this procedure may reduce recurrence rates compared with burr hole craniostomy for both primary and recurrent hematomas. A controlled study is warranted.

Staged Laser Interstitial Thermal Therapy (LITT) Treatments to Left Insular Low-Grade Glioma

Neurosurgery 2019 DOI:10.1093/neuros/nyz120

Low-grade insular gliomas remain challenging tumors for aggressive resection because of the numerous functional and vascular structures surrounding them. Because of the potential morbidities associated with open surgical resection, less invasive techniques may confer a more optimal balance between cytoreduction and surgical complications. For this reason, we evaluated the use of laser interstitial thermal therapy (LITT) for resection of a dominant hemisphere oligodendroglioma World Health Organization (WHO) grade II in a 68-yr-old patient by use of multiple staged surgeries for its resection.

CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Patient KK was a 68-yr-old female who was found to have a large, left-sided insular mass that was shown to be an oligodendroglioma WHO grade II, positive for codeletion 1p/19q and IDH1 mutant on biopsy. Over the course of 3 mo, KK underwent 2 stages of LITT, targeting different areas of the 5-cmtumor. The 60-d magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated a reduction in size of the tumor from5.2×3.3×2.4 cm to 3.6 × 1.9 × 1.4 cm. She returned for a second stage targeting the anterior portion of the tumor. KK did well postoperatively and went on to postsurgical chemoradiation. At the
2-yr follow-up, the lesion showed near resolution on MRI.

CONCLUSION: This case report demonstrates successful use of LITT for staged surgeries to treat a left hemisphere-dominant insular lesion. This establishes the use of LITT as a viable, minimally invasive option to treat tumors that are difficult to access or pose concerns for increased morbidity through an open surgery.

Surgical management of Tuberculum sellae Meningiomas: Myths, facts, and controversies

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:631–640

The optimal management of tuberculum sellae (TS) meningiomas, especially the surgical strategy, continues to be debated along with several controversies that persist.

Methods A task force was created by the EANS skull base section committee along with its members and other renowned experts in the field to generate recommendations for the surgical management of these tumors on a European perspective. To achieve this, the task force also reviewed in detail the literature in this field and had formal discussions within the group.

Results The constituted task force dealt with the practice patterns that exist with respect to pre-operative radiological investigations, ophthalmological and endocrinological assessments, optimal surgical strategies, and follow-up management.

Conclusion This article represents the consensually derived opinion of the task force with respect to the surgical treatment of tuberculum sellae meningiomas. Areas of uncertainty where further clinical research is required were identified.

Thirty-Day Outcomes After Craniotomy for Primary Malignant Brain Tumors

Neurosurgery 83:1249–1259, 2018

Despite improved perioperative management, the rate of postoperative morbidity and mortality after brain tumor resection remains considerably high.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the rates, causes, timing, and predictors of major complication, extended length of stay (>10 d), reoperation, readmission, and death within 30 d after craniotomy for primary malignant brain tumors.

METHODS: Patients were extracted from the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program registry (2005-2015) and analyzed using multivariable logistic regression.

RESULTS: A total of 7376 patientswere identified, ofwhich 948 (12.9%) experienced a major complication. The most common major complications were reoperation (5.1%), venous thromboembolism (3.5%), and death (2.6%). Furthermore, 15.6% stayed longer than 10 d, and 11.5% were readmitted within 30 d after surgery. The most common reasons for reoperation and readmission were intracranial hemorrhage (18.5%) and wound-related complications (11.9%), respectively. Multivariable analysis identified older age, higher body mass index, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) classification, dependent functional status, elevated preoperative white blood cell count (white blood cell count [WBC], >12 000 cells/mm3), and longer operative time as predictors of major complication (all P < .001). Higher ASA classification, dependent functional status, elevated WBC, and ventilator dependence were predictors of extended length of stay (all P < .001). Higher ASA classification and elevatedWBCwere predictors of reoperation (both P<.001). Higher ASA classification and dependent functional status were predictors of readmission (both P < .001). Older age, higher ASA classification, and dependent functional status were predictors of death (all P< .001).

CONCLUSION: This study provides a descriptive analysis and identifies predictors for short term complications, including death, after craniotomy for primary malignant brain tumors.


Topical Vancomycin Reduces Surgical-Site Infections After Craniotomy: A Prospective, Controlled Study

Neurosurgery 83:761–767, 2018

Surgical-site infections (SSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neurosurgical patients. Topical antibiotics are one potential method to reduce the incidence of these infections.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the efficacy of topical vancomycin applied within the wound during craniotomy in a large prospective cohort study at a major academic center.

METHODS: Three hundred fifty-five patients were studied prospectively in this cohort study; 205 patients received 1 g of topical vancomycin powder in the subgaleal space while 150 matched control patients did not. Patients otherwise received identical care. The primary outcome variable was SSI rate factored by cohort. Secondary analysis examined cost savings from vancomycin usage estimated from hospital costs associated with SSI in craniotomy patients.

RESULTS: The addition of topical vancomycinwas associated with a significantly lower rate of SSI than standard of care alone (0.49% [1/205] vs 6% [9/150], P=.002). Based on the costs of revision surgery for infections, topical vancomycin usage was estimated to save $1367 446 per 1000 craniotomy patients. No adverse reactions occurred.

CONCLUSION: Topical vancomycin is a safe, effective, and cost-saving measure to prevent SSIs following craniotomy. These results have broad implications for standard of care in craniotomy.

Favorable clinical outcome following surgical evacuation of deep-seated and lobar supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1737–1747

In spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), the role of surgical treatment remains controversial, particularly in deep-seated ICHs. We hypothesized that early mortality and long-term functional outcome differ between patients with surgically treated lobar and deep-seated ICH.

Method Patients who underwent craniotomy for ICH evacuation from 2009 to 2015 were retrospectively evaluated and categorized into two subgroups: lobar and deep-seated ICH. The modified Rankin Scale (mRS) was used to evaluate long-term functional outcome.

Result Of the 123 patients operated for ICH, 49.6%(n = 61) had lobar and 50.4%(n = 62) deep-seated ICH. At long-term followup (mean 4.2 years), 25 patients (20.3%) were dead, while 51.0% of survivors had a favorable outcome (mRS score ≤ 3). Overall mortality was 13.0% at 30 days and 17.9% at 6 months post-ictus, not influenced by ICH location. Mortality was higher in patients ≥ 65 years old (p = 0.020). The deep-seated group had higher incidence and extent of intraventricular extension, younger age (52.6 ± 9.0 years vs. 58.5 ± 9.8 years; p < 0.05), more frequently pupillary abnormalities, and longer neurocritical care stay (p < 0.05). The proportion of patients with good outcome was 48.0% in deep-seated vs. 54.1% in lobar ICH (p = 0.552). In lobar ICH, independent predictors of long-term outcome were age, hemorrhage volume, preoperative level of consciousness, and pupillary reaction. In deep-seated ICHs, only high age correlated significantly with poor outcome.

Conclusions At long-term follow-up, most ICH survivors had a favorable clinical outcome. Neither mortality nor long-term functional outcome differed between patients operated for lobar or deep-seated ICH. A combination of surgery and neurocritical care can result in favorable clinical outcome, regardless of ICH location.


Simple Preoperative Patient-Reported Factors Predict Adverse Outcome After Elective Cranial Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery, 83, 2: 197–202

Patient-reported preoperative factors hold promise in improving the prediction of postoperative adverse events, but they have been poorly studied.
To study the role of patient-reported factors in the preoperative risk stratification of elective craniotomy patients.
A prospective, unselected cohort of 322 adult patients underwent elective craniotomy in Helsinki, Finland. We preoperatively recorded the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score, Helsinki ASA score, and 3 questionnaire-based patient-reported factors including overall health status, ability to climb 2 flights of stairs, and cognitive function (Test Your Memory test). Outcome measures comprised in-hospital major and overall morbidity. Receiver-operating characteristic curves served to calculate area under the curve (AUC) values for a composite score of patient-reported factors and both ASA scores with regard to outcomes.
In-hospital major and overall morbidity rate was 15.2%. Only preoperatively diminished cognitive function remained a significant predictor of major morbidity after multivariable logistic regression analysis (P < .001, odds ratio 1.1, confidence interval 1.0-1.1). A composite score of our 3 patient-reported factors had a higher AUC (0.675) for major morbidity than original ASA score (0.543) or Helsinki ASA score (0.572). In elderly patients, the composite score had an AUC of 0.726 for major morbidity.
Preoperative patient-reported factors had higher sensitivity for detecting major morbidity compared to the ASA scores in this study. Particularly, the simple composite score seems to predict adverse outcomes in elective cranial surgery surprisingly well, especially in the elderly. These results are interesting and worth confirming in other centers.

State of Robotic Mastoidectomy: Literature Review

Over the past 30 years, the application of robotics in the field of neurotology has grown. Robots are able to perform increasingly complex tasks with ever improving accuracy, allowing them to be used in a broad array of applications. A mastoidectomy, in which a drill is used to remove a portion of the mastoid part of the temporal bone at the base of the skull, is one such application. To determine the current state of neurotologic robotics in the specific context of mastoidectomy, a review of the literature was carried out. This qualitative review explores what has been done in this field to date, as well as what has yet to be done. Although the research suggests that robotics can be and has been successfully used to assist with mastoidectomy, it also suggests the incompleteness of robotic development in the field.

At present, only 2 robotic systems have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for neurosurgical use and the literature lacks evidence of meaningful clinical testing of new systems to change that. The cost of robotics also remains prohibitive. However, strides have been made, with at least 1 robot for mastoidectomy having reached the point of cadaveric trials. In addition, the research suggests some of the characteristics that should be considered when designing robots for mastoidectomy, such as burr size and the type of forces that should be applied.

Overall, the outlook for robots in neurotology, particularly mastoidectomy, is bright but some hurdles still remain to be overcome.

Meningiomas in pregnancy: timing of surgery and clinical outcomes as observed in 104 cases and establishment of a best management strategy

Acta Neurochir (2018) 160:1521–1529

There is a strong correlation between the level of circulating female sex hormones and the parturient growth of meningiomas. As a result, rapid changes in meningioma size occur during pregnancy, putting both the mother and fetus at risk. Large, symptomatic meningiomas require surgical resection, regardless of the status of pregnancy. However, the preferred timing of such complex intervention is a matter of debate. The rarity of this clinical scenario and the absence of prospective trials make it difficult to reach evidence-based conclusions. The aim of this study was to create evidencebased management guidelines for timing of surgery for pregnancy-related intracranial meningiomas.

Method The English literature from 1990 to 2016 was systematically reviewed according to PRISMA guidelines for all surgical cases of pregnancy–related intracranial meningiomas. Cases were divided into two groups: patients who have had surgery during pregnancy and delivered thereafter (group A) and patients who delivered first (group B). Groups were compared for demographic, clinical and radiological features, as well as for neurosurgical, obstetrical and neonatological outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed to assess differences.

Results A total of 104 surgical cases were identified and reviewed, of which 86 were suitable for comparison and statistical analysis. Thirty-five patients (40%) underwent craniotomy for resection during pregnancy or at delivery (group A) and 51 patients (60%) underwent surgery after delivery (group B). Groups showed no significant differences in characteristics such as age at diagnosis, number of gestations, presenting symptoms, tumor site and tumor size. Despite a comparable distribution over the gestational trimesters, group A had significantly more patients diagnosed prior to the 27th gestational week (46 vs 17.5%, p = 0.0075). Group Awas also associated with a significantly higher rate of both emergent craniotomies (40 vs 19.6%, p = 0.0048) and emergent Caesarian deliveries (47 vs 17.8%, p = 0.00481). The time from diagnosis to surgery was significantly longer in group B (11 weeks vs 1 week in group A, p = 0.0013). The rate of premature delivery was high but similar in both groups (∼70%). Risks of maternal mortality or fetal mortality were associated with group A (odds ratio = 14.7), but did not reach statistical significance.

Conclusions While surgical resection of meningioma during pregnancy may be associated with increased maternal and fetal mortalities, the overall neurosurgical, obstetrical and neonatological outcomes, as well as many clinical characteristics, are similar to patients undergoing resection postpartum. We believe that fetal survival chances have a significant impact on decision-making, as patients diagnosed at a later stage in pregnancy (≥27th week of gestation) were more likely to undergo delivery first. This complicated clinical scenario requires the close cooperation of multiple disciplines. While the mother’s health and well-being should always be paramount in guiding management, we hope that the overall good outcomes observed by this systematic review will encourage colleagues to aim for term pregnancies whenever possible in order to reduce prematurity-related problems.

Method for temporal keyhole lobectomies in resection of low- and high-grade gliomas

J Neurosurg 128:1388–1395, 2018

The purpose of this study was to describe a method of resecting temporal gliomas through a keyhole lobectomy and to share the results of using this technique.

METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of data obtained in all patients in whom the senior author performed resection of temporal gliomas between 2012 and 2015. The authors describe their technique for resecting dominant and nondominant gliomas, using both awake and asleep keyhole craniotomy techniques.

RESULTS Fifty-two patients were included in the study. Twenty-six patients (50%) had not received prior surgery. Seventeen patients (33%) were diagnosed with WHO Grade II/III tumors, and 35 patients (67%) were diagnosed with a glioblastoma. Thirty tumors were left sided (58%). Thirty procedures (58%) were performed while the patient was awake. The median extent of resection was 95%, and at least 90% of the tumor was resected in 35 cases (67%). Five of 49 patients (10%) with clinical follow-up experienced permanent deficits, including 3 patients (6%) with hydrocephalus requiring placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 2 patients (4%) with weakness. Three patients experienced early postoperative anomia, but no patients had a new speech deficit at clinical follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS The authors provide their experience using a keyhole lobectomy for resecting temporal gliomas. Their data demonstrate the feasibility of using less invasive techniques to safely and aggressively treat these tumors.