Prognostic data analysis of surgical treatments for intracerebral hemorrhage

Neurosurgical Review (2022) 45:2733–2744

Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is a commonly occurring disease in neurosurgery, yet its surgical treatment is controversial.

This paper pertains to the study of the effects of different treatment regimens on the outcome of ICH population. Based on a globally shared third-party MIMIC-III database, the researchers firstly described the dissimilarities in survival probability, mortality, and neurological recovery among mainstream treatments for ICH; secondly, patient classification was determined by important clinical features; and outcome variations among treatment groups were compared.

The 28-day, 90-day, and in-hospital mortality in the craniotomy group were significantly lower than minimally invasive surgery (MIS) and non-surgical group patients; and, the medium/long-term mortality in MIS group was significantly lower than the non-surgical group. The craniotomy group positively correlated with short-term GCS recovery compared with the MIS group; no difference existed between the non-surgical and MIS groups. The craniotomy group 90-day survival probability and short-term GCS recovery were superior to the other two treatments in the subgroups of first GCS 3–12; this tendency also presented in the MIS group over non-surgical group. For milder patients (first GCS > 12), the three treatment regimens had a minimal effect on patient survival, but the non-surgical group showed an advantage in short-term GCS recovery.

Craniotomy patients have a lower mortality and a better short-term neurological recovery in an ICH population, especially in short-to-medium term mortality and short-term neurological recovery over MIS patients. In addition, surgical treatment is recommendable for patients with a GCS ≤ 12.