Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2541–2549
The most frequent therapy of hydrocephalus is implantation of ventriculoperitoneal shunts for diverting cerebrospinal into the peritoneal cavity. We compared two adjustable valves, proGAV and proGAV 2.0, for complications resulting in revision surgery.
Methods Four hundred patients undergoing primary shunt implantation between 2014 and 2020 were analyzed for overall revision rate, 1-year revision rate, and revision-free survival observing patient age, sex, etiology of hydrocephalus, implantation site, prior diversion of cerebrospinal fluid, and cause of revision.
Results All data were available of all 400 patients (female/male 208/192). Overall, 99 patients underwent revision surgery after primary implantation. proGAV valve was implanted in 283 patients, and proGAV 2.0 valves were implanted in 117 patients. There was no significant difference between the two shunt valves concerning revision rate (p = 0.8069), 1-year revision rate (p = 0.9077), revision-free survival (p = 0.6921), and overall survival (p = 0.3232). Regarding 1-year revision rate, we observed no significant difference between the two shunt valves in pediatric patients (40.7% vs 27.6%; p = 0.2247). Revision operation had to be performed more frequently in pediatric patients (46.6% vs 24.8%; p = 0.0093) with a significant higher number of total revisions with proGAV than proGAV 2.0 (33 of 59 implanted shunts [55.9%] vs. 8 of 29 implanted shunts [27.6%]; p = 0.0110) most likely due to longer follow-up in the proGAV-group. For this reason, we clearly put emphasis on analyzing results regarding 1-year revision rate.
Conclusion According to the target variables we analyzed, aside from lifetime revision rate in pediatric patients, there is no significant difference between the two shunt valves.
Neurosurgery 93:576–585, 2023
Hydrocephalus frequently occurs with midline posterior fossa cystic collections. The classiﬁcation of this heterogeneous group of developmental anomalies, including Dandy–Walker malformation, persisting Blake’s pouch, retrocerebellar arachnoid cysts, and mega cisterna magna, is subject of debate. The absence of diagnostic criteria is confusing regarding the ideal management of PFCC-related hydrocephalus.
OBJECTIVE: To decipher the surgical strategy for the treatment of children with PFCC-related hydrocephalus through a retrospective analysis of the surgical outcome driven by their clinical and radiological presentation.
METHODS: This study enrolled patients operated of symptomatic PFCC-related hydrocephalus. Clinical and MRI features were examined, as well as the surgical outcome. Unbiased subgroup classiﬁcation of the patients was performed with multiple component analysis as a function of imaging characteristics and hierarchical clustering on principal component. Outcome was assessed with binomial logistic regression and Kaplan–Meier analysis.
RESULTS: Fifty-four patients were included between 2007 and 2021. Multiple component analysis suggested that cerebellar and vermian hypoplasia, vermian rotation, basal–tentorial angle, and fastigial angle were strongly correlated. Hierarchical clustering and the distribution of the patients in the bidimensional plot showed the clear segregation of 3 major clusters, which correlated with the radiological diagnosis (P < .01). Binomial logistic regression and survival analysis showed that endoscopic third ventriculostomy was an effective treatment for patients with persisting Blake’s pouch, while failing to control hydrocephalus in most of patients with Dandy–Walker malformation.
CONCLUSION: Preoperative MRI in patients with PFCC-related hydrocephalus is essential to better deﬁne the diagnosis. The choice of treatment strategy notably relies on correct radiological diagnosis.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2525–2531
The robot-assisted neurosurgical procedures have recently benefited of the evolution of intraoperative imaging, including mobile CT unit available in the operating room. This facilitated use paved the way to perform more neurosurgical procedures under robotic assistance. Endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy requires both a safe transcortical trajectory and a smooth manipulation.
Method We describe our technique of robot-assisted endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy combining robotic assistance and intraoperative CT imaging.
Conclusion Robot-assisted endoscopic third ventriculocisternostomy using modern intraoperative neuroimaging can be easily implemented and prevented erroneous trajectory and abrupt endoscopic movements, reducing surgically induced brain damages.
Neurosurgery 93:555–562, 2023
Overdrainage is a widely reported complication representing common indication for shunt revision. Despite recent advances in valve design, repeated shunt revisions represent burden on healthcare systems.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efﬁciency of a novel gravity unit–assisted programmable valve “M.blue” in pediatric hydrocephalus using clinical and biomechanical analyses.
METHODS: This retrospective single-center study included pediatric patients who received M.blue valve between April 2019 and 2021. Several clinical and biomechanical parameters were documented including complications and revision rates. Flow rate, functional assessment in vertical and horizontal positions, and extent of depositions inside valve were analyzed in explanted valves.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven M.blue valves in 34 pediatric patients with hydrocephalus (mean age 2.82 ± 3.91 years) were included. Twelve valves (32.4%) were explanted during a follow-up period of 27.3 ± 7.9 months. One-year survival rate of 89% and overall survival rate of 67.6% with a valve survival average of 23.8 ± 9.7 months were observed. Patients with explanted valves (n = 12) were signiﬁcantly younger, with 0.91 ± 0.54 years of age in average (P= .004), and showed signiﬁcantly more adjustments difﬁculties (P= .009). 58.3% of explanted valves showed deposits in more than 75% of the valve surface despite normal cerebrospinal ﬂuid ﬁndings and were associated with dysfunctional ﬂow rate in vertical, horizontal, or both positions.
CONCLUSION: The novel M.blue valve with integrated gravity unit is efﬁcient in pediatric hydrocephalus with comparable survival rate. Deposits inside valves could affect its ﬂow rate in different body positions and might lead to dysfunction or difﬁculties in valve adjustments.
Neurosurgery 93:300–308, 2023
Cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) are common in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH) and have been suggested as radiological markers of a brain prone to bleeding. The presence of CMBs might be relevant when selecting patients for shunt surgery.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether CMBs increases long-term risk of hemorrhagic complications and mortality or affects outcomes after cerebrospinal ﬂuid shunt surgery in a cohort of patients with INPH.
METHODS: One hundred and forty nine shunted patients with INPH (mean age, 73 years) were investigated with MRI (T2* or susceptibility-weighted imaging sequences) preoperatively. CMBs were scored with the Microbleed Anatomic Rating Scale. Patients were observed for a mean of 6.5 years (range 2 weeks to 13 years) after surgery. Hemorrhagic events and death were noted. Improvement in gait was evaluated 3 to 6 months after surgery.
RESULTS: At baseline, 74 patients (50%) had CMBs. During follow-up, 7 patients (5%) suffered a hemorrhagic stroke and 43 (29%) suffered a subdural hematoma/hygroma with a median time from surgery of 30.2 months (IQR 50). Overall, having CMBs was not associated with suffering a subdural hematoma/hygroma or hemorrhagic stroke during follow-up with 1 exception that an extensive degree of CMBs (≥50 CMB) was more common in patients suffering a hemorrhagic stroke (P = .03). CMBs were associated with increased mortality (P = .02, Kaplan-Meier, log-rank test). The presence of CMBs did not affect gait outcome (P = .28).
CONCLUSION: CMBs were associated with hemorrhagic stroke and mortality. CMBs do not seem to reduce the possibility of gait improvement after shunt surgery or contribute to the risk of hemorrhagic complications regarding subdural hematoma or hygroma.
Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:2333–2338
Isolated fourth ventricle (IFV) is a challenging entity to manage. In recent years, endoscopic treatment for aqueductoplasty has been on the rise. However, in patients with complex hydrocephalus and distorted ventricular system, its implementation can be complex.
Methods We present a 3-year-old patient with myelomeningocele and postnatal hydrocephalus treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunt. In follow-up, a progressive IFV and isolated lateral ventricle with symptoms of the posterior fossa developed. An endoscopic aqueductoplasty (EA) with panventricular stent plus septostomy guided with neuronavigation was decided due to the complexity of the ventricular system.
Conclusion In IFV associated with complex hydrocephalus with distortion of the ventricular system, navigation can be of great help for planning and as a guide for performing EA
Operative Neurosurgery 25:E1–E5, 2023
Intraventricular neuroendoscopic surgery for tumor resection, biopsy, or cyst fenestration frequently requires precise placement of an intraventricular or intracystic catheter. Placement under direct visualization is not feasible because of small bore of working channel of the standard small ventriculoscope. Various techniques have been reported using a separate transcortical trajectory, endoluminal endoscope, or endovascular guide wire.
OBJECTIVE: To describe a technique allowing precise placement of intraventricular/intracystic catheter using a small bore working ventriculoscope, without need for additional equipment.
METHODS: Description of the technique including intraoperative photographs, video, and illustrative cases are provided.
RESULTS: The peel-away sheath is peeled off approximately 1 to 2 cm to allow for the shaft of the endoscope to pass past its tip. Ventricular access is gained using the peel-away sheath. After the stylet is removed, the peel-away sheath is not peeled further or stapled to the skin. The endoscope is introduced into the ventricle through the peel-away sheath. After the required intraventricular work is performed, the endoscope is maneuvered into the location of the desired catheter position. The peel-away sheath is slowly advanced over the stationary endoscope past its tip. While the peelaway sheath is being held in place, the endoscope is removed. After the catheter has been introduced into the peel-away sheath to a premeasured depth, the peel-away sheath is peeled and removed. The catheter is then connected to collection system, reservoir or shunt system.
CONCLUSION: The current technique allows for the precise placement of intraventricular/intracystic catheters without the need for additional equipment or a separate transcortical trajectory.
Neurosurgery 93:75–83, 2023
Persistent hydrocephalus requiring a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) can complicate the management of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH). Identiﬁcation of high-risk patients may guide external ventricular drain management.
OBJECTIVE: To identify early radiographic predictors for persistent hydrocephalus requiring VPS placement. METHODS: In a 2-center retrospective study, we compared radiographic features on admission noncontrast head computed tomography scans of patients with aSAH requiring a VPS to those who did not, at 2 referral academic centers from 2016 through 2021. We quantiﬁed blood clot thickness in the basal cisterns including interpeduncular, ambient, crural, prepontine, interhemispheric cisterns, and bilateral Sylvian ﬁssures. We then created the cisternal score (CISCO) using features that were signiﬁcantly different between groups.
RESULTS: We included 229 survivors (mean age 55.6 years [SD 13.1]; 63% female) of whom 50 (22%) required VPS. CISCO was greater in patients who required a VPS than those who did not (median 4, IQR 3-6 vs 2, IQR 1-4; P < .001). Higher CISCO was associated with higher odds of developing persistent hydrocephalus with VPS requirement (odds ratio 1.6 per point increase, 95% CI 1.34-1.9; P < .001), independent of age, Hunt and Hess grades, and modiﬁed GRAEB scores. CISCO had higher accuracy in predicting VPS requirement (area under the curve 0.75, 95% CI 0.68-0.82) compared with other predictors present on admission.
CONCLUSION: Cisternal blood clot quantiﬁcation on admission noncontrast head computed tomography scan is feasible and can be used in predicting persistent hydrocephalus with VPS requirement in patients with aSAH. Future prospective studies are recommended to further validate this tool.
Hydrocephalus is a common neurological condition that usually requires internal ventricular cerebrospinal ﬂuid shunt (IVCSFS). The reported infection rate (IR) varies greatly from below 1% up to over 50%, but no meta-analysis to assess the overall IR has ever been performed.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the IVCSFS overall IR in the adult population and search for associated factors.
METHODS: Six databases were searched from January 1990 to July 2022. Only original articles reporting on adult IVCSFS IR were included. Random-effects meta-analysis with generalized linear mixed model method and logit transformation was used to assess the overall IR. RESULTS: Of 1703 identiﬁed articles, 44 were selected, reporting on 57259 patients who had IVCSFS implantation and 2546 infections. The pooled IR value and its 95% CI were 4.75%, 95% CI (3.8 to 5.92). Ninety-ﬁve percent prediction interval ranged from 1.19% to 17.1%. The patients who had IVCSFS after intracranial hemorrhage showed a higher IR (7.65%, 95% CI [5.82 to 10], P-value = .002). A meta-regression by year of publication found a decreasing IR (À0.031, 95% CI [À0.06 to 0.003], P-value = .032) over the past 32 years.
CONCLUSION: IVCSF is a procedure that every neurosurgeon should be well trained to perform. However, the complication rate remains high, with an estimated overall IR of 4.75%. The IR is especially elevated for hydrocephalic patients who require IVCSFS after intracranial hemorrhage. However, decades of surgical advances may have succeeded in reducing IR over the past 32 years.
Neurosurgery 92:894–904, 2023
Neurosurgery 92:481–489, 2023
Multiple prospective nonrandomized studies have shown 60% to 70% of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) improve with shunt surgery, but multicenter placebo-controlled trial data are necessary to determine its effectiveness.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of cerebrospinal fluid shunting in iNPH through comparison of open vs placebo shunting groups at 4 months using a pilot study.
METHODS: Patients were randomized to a Codman Certas Plus valve (Integra LifeSciences) set at 4 (open shunt group) or 8 (“virtual off”; placebo group). Patients and assessors were blinded to treatment group. The primary outcome measure was 10-m gait velocity. Secondary outcome measures included functional scales for bladder control, activities of daily living, depression, and quality of life. Immediately after 4-month evaluation, all shunts were adjusted in a blinded fashion to an active setting and followed to 12months after shunting.
RESULTS: A total of 18 patients were randomized. At the 4-month evaluation, gait velocity increased by 0.28 ± 0.28m/s in the open shunt group vs 0.04 ± 0.17m/s in the placebo group. The estimated treatment difference was 0.22 m/s ([P = .071], 95% CI 0.02 to 0.46). Overactive Bladder Short Form symptom bother questionnaire significantly improved in open shunt vs placebo (P = .007). The 4-month treatment delay did not reduce the subsequent response to active shunting, nor did it increase the adverse advents rate at 12 months.
CONCLUSION: This multicenter, randomized pilot study demonstrates the effectiveness, safety, and feasibility of a placebo-controlled trial in iNPH, and found a trend suggesting gait velocity improves more in the open shunt group than in the placebo group.
Neurosurgery 92:382–390, 2023
Managing patients with hydrocephalus and cerebrospinal ﬂuid (CSF) disorders requires repeated head imaging. In adults, it is typically computed tomography (CT) or less commonly magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, CT poses cumulative radiation risks and MRI is costly. Ultrasound is a radiation-free, relatively inexpensive, and optionally point-of-care alternative, but is prohibited by very limited windows through an intact skull.
OBJECTIVE: To describe our initial experience with transcutaneous transcranial ultrasound through sonolucent burr hole covers in postoperative hydrocephalus and CSF disorder patients.
METHODS: Using cohort study design, infection and revision rates were compared between patients who underwent sonolucent burr hole cover placement during new ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement and endoscopic third ventriculostomy over the 1-year study time period and controls from the period 1 year before. Postoperatively, trans-burr hole ultrasound was performed in the clinic, at bedside inpatient, and in the radiology suite to assess ventricular anatomy.
RESULTS: Thirty-seven patients with sonolucent burr hole cover were compared with 57 historical control patients. There was no statistically signiﬁcant difference in infection rates between the sonolucent burr hole cover group (1/37, 2.7%) and the control group (0/57, P = .394). Revision rates were 13.5% vs 15.8% (P = 1.000), but no revisions were related to the burr hole or cranial hardware.
CONCLUSION: Trans-burr hole ultrasound is feasible for gross evaluation of ventricular caliber postoperatively in patients with sonolucent burr hole covers. There was no increase in infection rate or revision rate. This imaging technique may serve as an alternative to CT and MRI in the management of select patients with hydrocephalus and CSF disorders.
J Neurosurg 138:503–513, 2023
Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is mostly safe but may have serious complications. Most of the complications are inherent to the procedure’s intra-axial nature. This study aimed to explore an alternative route to overcome inherent issues with conventional ETV. The authors performed supraorbital, subfrontal extra-axial ETV (EAETV) via the lamina terminalis.
METHODS This prospective study began in October 2021 and included patients with obstructive triventricular hydrocephalus with a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 8 or more and a minimum follow-up of 3 months. Patients with multiloculated hydrocephalus and those younger than 1 year of age were excluded. The preoperative parameters etiology, symptoms, Evans’ Index, frontal occipital horn ratio (FOHR), and third ventricle index were recorded. The surgical procedure is described. Postoperative evaluation included clinical (modified Rankin Scale [mRS]) and radiological assessment with CT and cine phase-contrast MRI. Preoperative and postoperative parameters were compared statistically.
RESULTS Ten patients were included in this study. Six patients had acute hydrocephalus, and 4 had chronic hydrocephalus. After EAETV, all patients showed clinical improvement. An mRS score of 0 or 1 was achieved in 9 patients, but the mRS score remained at 4 in a patient with tectal tuberculoma. There was a significant reduction in Evans’ Index, FOHR, and third ventricle index after EAETV (p < 0.05). The mean percent reduction in Evans’ Index was 20.80% ± 13.89%, the mean percent reduction in FOHR was 20.79% ± 12.98%, and the mean percent reduction in the third ventricle index was 37.45% ± 14.74%. CSF flow voids were seen in all cases. The results of CSF flow quantification parameters were as follows: mean peak velocity 3.82 ± 0.93 cm/sec, mean average velocity 0.10 ± 0.05 cm/sec, mean average flow rate 46.60 ± 28.58 μL/sec, mean forward volume 39.90 ± 23.29 μL, mean reverse volume 34.10 ± 15.98 μL, mean overall flow amplitude 74.00 ± 27.61 μL, and mean stroke volume 37.00 ± 13.80 μL. One patient developed a minor frontal lobe contusion. The frontal air sinus was breached in 5 patients, but none had CSF rhinorrhea. Transient supraorbital hypesthesia was seen in 3 patients. No patient had electrolyte disturbance or change in thirst or fluid intake habits.
CONCLUSIONS EAETV is a feasible, safe, and effective surgical alternative to conventional ETV.
J Neurosurg 138:476–482, 2023
Vascular risk factors (VRFs) may act synergistically, and clinical decision support tools (CDSTs) have been developed that present vascular risk as a summarized score. Because VRFs are a major issue in patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (INPH), a CDST may be useful in the diagnostic workup. The objective was to compare 4 CDSTs to determine which one most accurately predicts short-term outcome and 10-year mortality after CSF shunt surgery in INPH patients.
METHODS One-hundred forty INPH patients who underwent CSF shunt surgery were included. For each patient, 4 CDST scores (Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation–Older Persons [SCORE-OP], Framingham Risk Score [FRS], Revised Framingham Stroke Risk Profile, and Kiefer’s Comorbidity Index [KCI]) were estimated. Short-term outcome (3 months after CSF shunt surgery) was defined on the basis of improvements in gait, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and modified Rankin Scale score. The 10-year mortality rate after surgery was noted. The CDSTs were compared by using Cox regression analysis, receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, and the chi-square test.
RESULTS For 3 CDSTs, increased score was associated with increased risk of 10-year mortality. A 1-point increase in the FRS indicated a 2% higher risk of death within 10 years (HR 1.02, 95% CI 1.003–1.035, p = 0.021); SCORE-OP, 5% (HR 1.05, 95% CI 1.019–1.087, p = 0.002); and KCI, 12% (HR 1.12, 95% CI 1.03–1.219, p = 0.008). FRS predicted short-term outcome of surgery (p = 0.024). When the cutoff value was set to 32.5%, the positive predictive value was 80% and the negative predictive value was 48% (p = 0.012).
CONCLUSIONS The authors recommend using FRS to predict short-term outcome and 10-year risk of mortality in INPH patients. The study indicated that extensive treatment of the risk factors of INPH may decrease risk of mortality.
World Neurosurg. (2023) 169:20-30
Reported rates of failures of internal cerebrospinal fluid shunt (ICSFS) vary greatly from less than 5% to more than 50% and no meta-analysis to assess the overall prevalence has been performed. We estimated the failure rate after ICSFS insertion and searched for associated factors.
METHODS: Six databases were searched from January 1990 to February 2022. Only original articles reporting the rate of adult shunt failure were included. Random-effects meta-analysis with a generalized linear mixed model method and logit transformation was used to compute the overall failure prevalence. Subgroup analysis and meta-regression were implemented to search for associated factors.
RESULTS: Of 1763 identified articles, 46 were selected, comprising 70,859 ICSFS implantations and 13,603 shunt failures, suggesting an accumulated incidence of 19.2%. However, the calculated pooled prevalence value and its 95% confidence interval (CI) were 22.7% (95% CI, 19.8e5.8). The CI of the different estimates did not overlap, indicating a strong heterogeneity confirmed by a high I 2 of 97.5% (95% CI, 97.1e97.8; P < 0.001; s 2 [ 0.3). Ninety-five percent prediction interval of shunt failure prevalence ranged from 8.75% to 47.36%. A meta-regression of prevalence of publication found a barely significant decreasing failure rate of about 2% per year (e2.11; 95% CI, e4.02 to e0.2; P [ 0.031).
CONCLUSIONS: Despite being a simple neurosurgical procedure, ICSFS insertion has one of the highest risk of complications, with failure prevalence involving more than 1 patient of 5. Nonetheless, all efforts to lower this high level of shunt failure seem to be effective.
J Neurosurg 137:905–913, 2022
Colloid cysts of the third ventricle are histologically benign lesions that can cause obstructive hydrocephalus and death. Historically, colloid cysts have been removed by open microsurgical approaches. More recently, minimally invasive endoscopic and port-based techniques have offered decreased complications and length of stay, with improved patient satisfaction.
METHODS A single-center retrospective analysis of patients with colloid cysts who underwent surgery at a large tertiary care hospital was performed. The cohort was assessed based on the surgical approach, comparing endoscopic resection to open microsurgical resection. The primary endpoint was rate of perioperative complications. Univariate analysis was used to assess several procedure-related variables and the cost of treatment. Multivariate analysis was used to assess predictors of perioperative complications. Total inpatient cost for each case was extracted from the health system financial database.
RESULTS The study included 78 patients with colloid cysts who underwent resection either via an endoscopic approach (n = 33) or through a craniotomy (n = 45) with an interhemispheric-transcallosal or transcortical-transventricular approach. Nearly all patients were symptomatic, and half had obstructive hydrocephalus. Endoscopic resection was associated with reduced operative time (3.2 vs 4.9 hours, p < 0.001); lower complication rate (6.1% vs 33.1%, p = 0.009); reduced length of stay (4.1 vs 8.9 days, p < 0.001); and improved discharge to home (100% vs 75.6%, p = 0.008) compared to microsurgical resection. Coagulated residual cyst wall remnants were more common after endoscopic resection (63.6% vs 19.0%, p < 0.001) although this was not associated with a significantly increased rate of reoperation for recurrence. The mean follow-up was longer in the microsurgical resection group (3.1 vs 4.9 years, p = 0.016). The total inpatient cost of endoscopic resection was, on average, one-half (47%) that of microsurgical resection. When complications were encountered, the total inpatient cost of microsurgical resection was 4 times greater than that of endoscopic resection where no major complications were observed. The increased cost-effectiveness of endoscopic resection remained during reoperation.
CONCLUSIONS Endoscopic resection of colloid cysts of the third ventricle offers a significant reduction in perioperative complications when compared to microsurgical resection. Endoscopic resection optimizes nearly all procedure-related variables compared to microsurgical resection, and reduces total inpatient cost by > 50%. However, endoscopic resection is associated with a significantly increased likelihood of residual coagulated cyst wall remnants that could increase the rate of reoperation for recurrence. Taken together, endoscopic resection represents a safe and effective minimally invasive approach for removal of colloid cysts.
J Neurosurg 137:813–819, 2022
Transforaminal endoscopic colloid cyst resection is well described. However, some anatomical colloid cyst variants may warrant a modified approach. Rarely, colloid cysts separate the forniceal columns and grow superiorly within the leaflets of the septum pellucidum. Thus, the authors’ goal was to characterize the imaging features, clinical presentation, surgical strategy, and outcomes of patients with this superiorly recessed colloid cyst variant.
METHODS A retrospective evaluation of patients who underwent endoscopic resection of colloid cysts from 1999 to 2020 was performed. The patients were dichotomized depending on whether the cyst was located predominately below the forniceal columns or was superiorly recessed (forniceal column separation with variable intraseptal extension). This comparative cohort study focused on clinical presentation, imaging features, operative technique, and patient outcome.
RESULTS In total, 182 patients were identified. Seventeen patients had colloid cysts that were defined as superiorly recessed and underwent transseptal interforniceal removal, and 165 patients underwent a standard transforaminal approach. Patients had similar demographic characteristics. However, transseptal cysts were on average larger (17.8 mm vs 11.4 mm, p < 0.0001), and these patients had a greater frontal-occipital horn ratio (0.45 vs 0.41, p = 0.012). They were also more likely to have undergone a previous resection (p = 0.02). The two cohorts had similar surgical outcomes, with no differences in extent of resection, recurrence, or complications.
CONCLUSIONS Superiorly recessed intraseptal colloid cysts are larger and tend to splay the bodies of the fornix, thus requiring a parasagittal transseptal interforniceal endoscopic approach. This achieves complete removal with comparatively negligible morbidity or rare recurrence (5.9%).
Neurosurgery 91:1–7, 2022
The flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been described as a unidirectional system with the choroid plexus serving as the primary secretor of CSF and the arachnoid granulations as primary reabsorption site. This theory of neurosurgical forefathers has been universally adopted and taught as dogma. Many neuroscientists have found difficulty reconciling this theory with common pathologies, and recent studies have found that this “classic” hypothesis may not represent the full picture.
OBJECTIVE: To review modern CSF dynamic theories and to call formedical education reform.
METHODS: We reviewed the literature from January 1990 to December 2020. We searched the PubMed database using key terms “cerebrospinal fluid circulation,” “cerebrospinal fluid dynamics,” “cerebrospinal fluid physiology,” “glymphatic system,” and “glymphatic pathway.” We selected articles with a primary aim to discuss either CSF dynamics and/or the glymphatic system.
RESULTS: The Bulat–Klarica–Oreˇskovi´c hypothesis purports that CSF is secreted and reabsorbed throughout the craniospinal axis. CSF demonstrates similar physiology to that of water elsewhere in the body. CSF “circulates” throughout the subarachnoid space in a pulsatile to-and-fro fashion. Osmolarity plays a critical role in CSF dynamics. Aquaporin-4 and the glymphatic system contribute to CSF volume and flow by establishing osmolarity gradients and facilitating CSF movement. Multiple studies demonstrate that the choroid plexus does not play any significant role in CSF circulation.
CONCLUSION: We have highlighted major studies to illustrate modern principles of CSF dynamics. Despite these, the medical education system has been slow to reform curricula and update learning resources.
Traditionally, clinical findings of normal pressure hydrocephalus are mainly characterized by the Hakim triad. The aim of this study is to evaluate the performance of patients suffering from idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) in a more holistic manner regarding motor skills, cognitive impairment, and quality of life.
Methods In total, 30 individuals diagnosed with iNPH as well as a reference group with another 30 individuals were included. The iNPH patients and the reference group were age, educational, and morbidity matched. A standardized test battery for psychomotor skills, gait, neuropsychological abilities as well as questionnaires for quality of life was applied. The iNPH group was tested prior to surgery, at 6 weeks, and 3 months postoperatively. The reference group was tested once.
Results Patients showed a significant improved performance in various items of the test battery during the first 3 months postoperatively. This included neuropsychological evaluation, motor skills including gait and upper motor function as well as the quality of life of the patients. Compared to reference individuals, neuropsychological aspects and quality of life of iNPH patients improved in some parts nearly to normal values.
Conclusion Our findings underline that shunt surgery does not only improve the symptoms in iNPH patients but also ameliorates the quality of life to a great extent close to those of age and comorbidity matched reference individuals. This data enables an optimized counseling of iNPH patients regarding the expectable outcome after shunt surgery especially regarding cognitive performance, motor skills as well as life quality.
J Neurosurg 136:1790–1795, 2022
Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunting in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is associated with high complication rates, primarily because of the technical challenges that are related to small ventricles and a large body habitus. In this study, the authors report the benefits of a standardized protocol for CSF shunting in patients with IIH as relates to shunt revisions.
METHODS This was a retrospective study of consecutive patients with IIH who had undergone primary insertion of a CSF shunt between January 2014 and December 2020 at the authors’ hospital. In July 2019, they implemented a surgical protocol for shunting in IIH. This protocol recommended IIH shunt insertion by neurosurgeons with expertise in CSF disorders, a frontal ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt with an adjustable gravitational valve and integrated intracranial pressure monitoring device, frameless stereotactic insertion of the ventricular catheter, and laparoscopic insertion of the peritoneal catheter. Thirty-day revision rates before and after implementation of the protocol were compared in order to assess the impact of standardizing shunting for IIH on shunt complications.
RESULTS The 81 patients included in the study were predominantly female (93%), with a mean age of 31 years at primary surgery and mean body mass index (BMI) of 37 kg/m2. Forty-five patients underwent primary surgery prior to implementation of the protocol and 36 patients after. Overall, 12 (15%) of 81 patients needed CSF shunt revision in the first 30 days, 10 before and 2 after introduction of the protocol. This represented a significant reduction in the early revision rate from 22% to 6% after the protocol (p = 0.036). The most common cause of shunt revision for the whole cohort was migration or misplacement of the peritoneal catheter, occurring in 6 of the 12 patients. Patients with a higher BMI were significantly more likely to have a shunt revision within 30 days (p = 0.022).
CONCLUSIONS The Birmingham standardized IIH shunt protocol resulted in a significant reduction in revisions within 30 days of primary shunt surgery in patients with IIH. The authors recommend standardization for shunting in IIH as a method for improving surgical outcomes. They support the notion of subspecialization for IIH shunts, the use of a frontal VP shunt with sophisticated technology, and laparoscopic insertion of the peritoneal end. https:
J Neurosurg 136:877–886, 2022
Patient outcomes of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery, the mainstay treatment for hydrocephalus in adults, are poor because of high shunt failure rates. The use of neuronavigation or laparoscopy can reduce the risks of proximal or distal shunt catheter failure, respectively, but has less independent effect on overall shunt failures. No adult studies to date have combined both approaches in the setting of a shunt infection prevention protocol to reduce shunt failure. The goal of this study was to determine whether combining neuronavigation and laparoscopy with a shunt infection prevention strategy would reduce the incidence of shunt failures in adult hydrocephalic patients.
METHODS Adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) undergoing VP shunt surgery at a tertiary care institution prior to (pre–Shunt Outcomes [ShOut]) and after (post-ShOut) the start of a prospective continuous quality improvement (QI) study were compared. Pre-ShOut patients had their proximal and distal catheters placed under conventional freehand approaches. Post-ShOut patients had their shunts inserted with neuronavigational and laparoscopy assistance in placing the distal catheter in the perihepatic space (falciform technique). A shunt infection reduction protocol had been instituted 1.5 years prior to the start of the QI initiative. The primary outcome of interest was the incidence of shunt failure (including infection) confirmed by standardized criteria indicating shunt revision surgery.
RESULTS There were 244 (115 pre-ShOut and 129 post-ShOut) patients observed over 7 years. With a background of shunt infection prophylaxis, combined neuronavigation and laparoscopy was associated with a reduction in overall shunt failure rates from 37% to 14%, 45% to 22%, and 51% to 29% at 1, 2, and 3 years, respectively (HR 0.44, p < 0.001). Shunt infection rates decreased from 8% in the pre-ShOut group to 0% in the post-ShOut group. There were no proximal catheter failures in the post-ShOut group. The 2-year rates of distal catheter failure were 42% versus 20% in the pre- and post-ShOut groups, respectively (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Introducing a shunt infection prevention protocol, placing the proximal catheter under neuronavigation, and placing the peritoneal catheter in the perihepatic space by using the falciform technique led to decreased rates of infection, distal shunt failure, and overall shunt failure.