The accuracy of 3D fluoroscopy (XT) vs computed tomography (CT) registration in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:1871–1878

Stereotactic registration is the most critical step ensuring accuracy in deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery. 3D fluoroscopy (XT) is emerging as an alternative to CT. XT has been shown to be safe and effective for intraoperative confirmation of lead position following implantation. However, there is a lack of studies evaluating the suitability ofXT to be used for themore crucial step of registration and its capability of being merged to a preoperative MRI. This is the first study comparing accuracy, efficiency, and radiation exposure of XT- vs CT-based stereotactic registration and XT/MRI merging in deep brain stimulation.

Methods Mean absolute differences and Euclidean distance between planned (adjusted for intraoperative testing) and actual lead trajectories were calculated for accuracy of implantation. The radiation dose from each scan was recorded as the dose length product (DLP). Efficiency was measured as the time between the patient entering the operating room and the initial skin incision. A one-way ANOVA compared these parameters between patients that had either CT- or XT-based registration.

Results Forty-one patients underwent DBS surgery—25 in the CT group and 16 in the XT group. The mean absolute difference between CT and XTwas not statistically significant in the x (p = 0.331), y (p = 0.951), or z (p = 0.807) directions. The Euclidean distance between patient groups did not differ significantly (p = 0.874). The average radiation exposure with XT (220.0 ± 0.1 mGy*cm) was significantly lower than CT (1269.3 ± 112.9 mGy*cm) (p < 0.001). There was no significant difference in registration time between CT (107.8 ± 23.1 min) and XT (106.0 ± 18.2 min) (p = 0.518).

Conclusion XT-based frame registration was shown to result in similar implantation accuracy and significantly less radiation exposure compared with CT. Our results surprisingly showed no significant difference in registration time, but this may be due to a learning curve effect.

Management of C1–2 traumatic fractures using an intraoperative 3D imaging–based navigation system

Management of C1–2 traumatic fractures using an intraoperative 3D imaging–based navigation system

J Neurosurg Spine 22:128–133, 2015

Fractures of C-1 and C-2 are complex and surgical management may be difficult and challenging due to the anatomical relationship between the vertebrae and neurovascular structures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role, reliability, and accuracy of cervical fixation using the O-arm intraoperative 3D image–based navigation system.

Methods The authors evaluated patients who underwent a navigation system–based surgery for stabilization of a fracture of C-1 and/or C-2 from August 2011 to August 2013. All of the fixation screws were intraoperatively checked and their position was graded.

Results The patient population comprised 17 patients whose median age was 47.6 years. The surgical procedures were as follows: anterior dens screw fixation in 2 cases, transarticular fixation of C-1 and C-2 in 1 case, fixation using the Harms technique in 12 cases, and occipitocervical fixation in 2 cases. A total of 67 screws were placed. The control intraoperative CT scan revealed 62 screws (92.6%) correctly placed, 4 (5.9%) with a minor cortical violation (< 2 mm), and only 1 screw (1.5%) that was judged to be incorrectly placed and that was immediately corrected. No vascular injury of the vertebral artery was observed either during exposition or during screw placement. No implant failure was observed.

Conclusions The use of a navigation system based on an intraoperative CT allows a real-time visualization of the vertebrae, reducing the risks of screw misplacement and consequent complications.

The use of intraoperative navigation for complex upper cervical spine surgery

The use of intraoperative navigation for complex upper cervical spine surgery

Neurosurg Focus 36 (3):E5, 2014

Imaging guidance using intraoperative CT (O-arm surgical imaging system) combined with a navigation system has been shown to increase accuracy in the placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors describe 4 complex upper cervical spine cases in which the O-arm combined with the StealthStation surgical navigation system was used to accurately place occipital screws, C-1 screws anteriorly and posteriorly, C-2 lateral mass screws, and pedicle screws in C-6. This combination was also used to navigate through complex bony anatomy altered by tumor growth and bony overgrowth.

The 4 cases presented are: 1) a developmental deformity case in which the C-1 lateral mass was in the center of the cervical canal causing cord compression; 2) a case of odontoid compression of the spinal cord requiring an odontoidectomy in a patient with cerebral palsy; 3) a case of an en bloc resection of a C2–3 chordoma with instrumentation from the occiput to C-6 and placement of C-1 lateral mass screws anteriorly and posteriorly; and 4) a case of repeat surgery for a non-union at C1–2 with distortion of the anatomy and overgrowth of the bony structure at C-2.

Placement of thoracolumbar pedicle screws using O-arm-based navigation

Placement of thoracolumbar pedicle screws using O-arm-based navigation- technical note on controlling the operational accuracy of the navigation system

Neurosurg Rev (2013) 36:157–162

Suboptimal placements of pedicle screws may lead to neurological and vascular complications. Computer-assisted image guidance has been shown to improve accuracy in spinal instrumentation.Checking the accuracy of the navigation system during pedicle screw placement is fundamental.

We describe a novel technique of using continuous accuracy check of the navigation system during O-arm based neuronavigation to instrument the thoracolumbar region.

Forty thoracic and 42 lumbar screws were inserted in 12 patients. The Mirza evaluation system was used to evaluate the accuracy of the inserted screws. There was no neurological injury and no need to reposition any screw. The accuracy of the screws placement was excellent.

Our technique of continuous at will operational accuracy check of the neuronavigation system is associated with extreme accuracy of screw placement, no need to bring a patient back to the operating room to reposition a pedicle screw, and with excellent outcome.

The Use of Intraoperative Navigation for Percutaneous Procedures at the Skull Base Including a Difficult-to-Access Foramen Ovale

Neurosurgery 70[ONS Suppl 2]:ons177–ons180, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e3182309448

We describe the use of an intraoperative CT scan obtained using the Medtronic O-arm (Littleton, Massachusetts) for image-guided cannulation of the foramen ovale not previously accessible with the use of fluoroscopy alone. Unlike previously described procedures, this technique does not require placement of an invasive head clamp and may be used with an awake patient.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the use of intraoperative neuronavigation for accessing skull base foramina and, specifically, cannulating of the foramen ovale during percutaneous rhizotomy procedures using an intraoperative image guidance CT scanner (Medtronic O-arm, Littleton, Massachusetts).

METHODS: A noninvasive Landmark Fess Strap attached to a spine reference frame was applied to the heads of 4 patients who harbored a difficult-to-access foramen ovale. An intraoperative HD3D skull base scan using a Medtronic O-arm was obtained, and Synergy Spine software was used to create 3D reconstructions of the skull base. Using image guidance, we navigated the needle to percutaneously access the foramen ovale by the use of a single tract for successful completion of balloon compression of the trigeminal nerve.

RESULTS: All 4 patients (3 females and 1 male; ages 65-75) underwent the procedure with no complications.

CONCLUSION: Based on our experience, neuronavigation with the use of intraoperative O-arm CT imaging is useful during these cases.

Clinical Assessment of Percutaneous Lumbar Pedicle Screw Placement Using the O-Arm Multidimensional Surgical Imaging System

Neurosurgery 70:990–995, 2012 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e318237a829

Increasing popularity of minimally invasive surgery for lumbar fusion has led to dependence upon intraoperative fluoroscopy for pedicle screw placement, because limited muscle dissection does not expose the bony anatomy necessary for traditional, freehand techniques nor for registration steps in image-guidance techniques. This has raised concerns about cumulative radiation exposure for both surgeon and operating room staff. The recent introduction of the O-arm Multidimensional Surgical Imaging System allows for percutaneous placement of pedicle screws, but there is limited clinical experience with the technique and data examining its accuracy.

OBJECTIVE: We present the first large clinical series of percutaneous screw placement using navigation of O-arm imaging and compare the results with the fluoroscopyguided method.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a 24-month period identified patients undergoing minimally invasive lumbar interbody fusion. The O-arm was introduced in the middle of this period and was used for all subsequent patients. Accuracy of screw placement was assessed by examination of axial computed tomography or O-arm scans.

RESULTS: The fluoroscopy group included 141 screws in 42 patients, and the O-arm group included 205 screws in 52 patients. The perforation rate was 12.8% in the fluoroscopy group and 3% in the O-arm group (P < .001). Single-level O-arm procedures took a mean 200 (153-241) minutes, whereas fluoroscopy took 221 (178-302) minutes (P < .03).

CONCLUSION: Percutaneous pedicle screw placement with the O-arm Multidimensional Intraoperative Imaging System is a safe and effective technique and provided improved overall accuracy and reduced operative time compared with conventional fluoroscopic techniques.

Intraoperative, full-rotation, three-dimensional image (O-arm)–based navigation system for cervical pedicle screw insertion

J Neurosurg Spine 15:472–478, 2011. DOI: 10.3171/2011.6.SPINE10809

The aim of this study was to retrospectively evaluate the reliability and accuracy of cervical pedicle screw (CPS) placement using an intraoperative, full-rotation, 3D image (O-arm)–based navigation system and to assess the advantages and disadvantages of the system.

Methods. The study involved 21 consecutive patients undergoing posterior stabilization surgery of the cervical spine between April and December 2009. The patients, in whom 108 CPSs had been inserted, underwent screw placement based on intraoperative 3D imaging and navigation using the O-arm system. Cervical pedicle screw positions were classified into 4 grades, according to pedicle-wall perforations, by using postoperative CT.

Results. Of the 108 CPSs, 96 (88.9%) were classified as Grade 0 (no perforation), 9 (8.3%) as Grade 1 (perforations < 2 mm, CPS exposed, and < 50% of screw diameter outside the pedicle), and 3 (2.8%) as Grade 2 (perforations between ≥ 2 and < 4 mm, CPS breached the pedicle wall, and > 50% of screw diameter outside the pedicle). No screw was classified as Grade 3 (perforation > 4 mm, complete perforation). No neurovascular complications occurred because of CPS placement.

Conclusions. The O-arm offers high-resolution 2D or 3D images, facilitates accurate and safe CPS insertion with high-quality navigation, and provides other substantial benefits for cervical spinal instrumentation. Even with current optimized technology, however, CPS perforation cannot be completely prevented, with 8.3% instances of minor violations, which do not cause significant complications, and 2.8% instances of major pedicle violations, which may cause catastrophic complications. Therefore, a combination of intraoperative 3D image–based navigation with other techniques may result in more accurate CPS placement.