Risk Factors for Readmission with Cerebrospinal Fluid Leakage Within 30 Days of Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery

Neurosurgery 82:630–637, 2018

Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leak is a well-recognized complication after surgical resection of vestibular schwannomas and is associated with a number of secondary complications, including readmission and meningitis. OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for and timing of 30-d readmission with CSF leak.

METHODS: Patients who had undergone surgical resection of a vestibular schwannoma from 1995 to 2010 were identified in the California Office of Statewide Health Planning and Development database. The most common admission diagnoses were identified by International Classification of Disease, ninth Revision, diagnosis codes, and predictors of readmission with CSF leak were determined using logistic regression.

RESULTS: A total of 6820 patients were identified. CSF leak, though a relatively uncommon cause of admission after discharge (3.52% of all patients), was implicated in nearly half of 490 readmissions (48.98%). Significant independent predictors of readmission with CSF leak were male sex (odds ratio [OR] 1.72, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.32-2.25), first admission at a teaching hospital (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.06-10.39), CSF leak during first admission (OR 1.84, 95% CI 1.33-2.55), obesity during first admission (OR 2.10, 95% CI 1.20-3.66), and case volume of first admission hospital (OR of log case volume 0.82, 95% CI 0.70-0.95). Median time to readmission was 6 d from hospital discharge.

CONCLUSION: This study has quantified CSF leak as an important contributor to nearly half of all readmissions following vestibular schwannoma surgery. We propose that surgeons should focus on technical factors that may reduce CSF leakage and take advantage of potential screening strategies for the detection of CSF leakage prior to first admission discharge.