Stereoelectroencephalography Using Magnetic Resonance Angiography for Avascular Trajectory Planning

Neurosurgery 81:688–695, 2017

Stereoelectroencephalography (SEEG) requires high-quality angiographic studies because avascular trajectory planning is a prerequisite for the safety of this procedure. Some epilepsy surgery groups have begun to use computed tomography angiography and magnetic resonance T1-weighted sequence with contrast enhancement for this purpose.

OBJECTIVE: To present the first series of patients with avascular trajectory planning of SEEG based on magnetic resonance angiography (MRA).

METHODS: Thirty-six SEEG explorations for drug-resistant focal epilepsy were performed from January 2013 to December 2015. A retrospective analysis of this consecutive surgical series was then performed. Magnetic resonance imaging included MRA with a modified contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance venography (MRV) protocol with a short acquisition delay, which allowed simultaneous arterial and venous visualization. Our criteria for satisfactoryMRAwere the visualization of at least first-order branches of the angular artery, paracentral and calcarine artery, and third-order tributaries of the superficial Sylvian vein, vein of Labbe, and vein of Trolard.

RESULTS: Thirty-four patients underwent 36 SEEG explorations with 369 electrodes carrying 4321 contacts. Contrast-enhanced MRA using the MRV protocol was judged satisfactory for SEEG planning in all explorations. Postoperative complications were not observed in our series of 36 SEEG explorations, which included 50 transopercular insular trajectories.

CONCLUSION: MRA using an MRV protocol may be applied for avascular trajectory planning during SEEG procedures. This technique provides a simultaneous visualization of cortical arteries and veins without the need for additional radiation exposure or intraarterial catheter placement.