Patient Selection and Clinical Efficacy of Urgent Superficial Temporal Artery-Middle Cerebral Artery Bypass in Acute Ischemic Stroke Using Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Techniques

Operative Neurosurgery 13:552–559, 2017

Selected patients with acute ischemic stroke might benefit from superficial temporal artery-middle cerebral artery (STA-MCA) bypass, but the indications for urgent STA-MCA bypass are unknown.

OBJECTIVE: To report our experiences of urgent STA-MCA bypass in patients requiring urgent reperfusion who were ineligible for other reperfusion therapies, using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques.

METHODS: The inclusion criteria for urgent STA-MCA bypass were as follows: acute infarct volume <70 mL with a ratio of perfusion/diffusion lesion volume ≥1.2, and a regional cerebral blood volume ratio >0.85. FromJanuary 2013 to October 2015, 21 urgent STA-MCA bypass surgeries were performed. The control group included 19 patients who did not undergo bypass surgery mainly due to refusal of surgery or the decision of the neurologist. Clinical and radiological data were compared between the surgery and control group.

RESULTS: The median age of the control group (70 years, interquartile range [IQR] 58-76) was higher than that of the surgery group (62 years, IQR 49-66), but the median preoperative diffusion and perfusion lesion volumes of the surgery group (13.8 mL, IQR 7.5-26.0 and 120.9 mL, IQR 84.9-176.0, respectively) were higher than those of the control group (5.6 mL, IQR 2.1-9.1 and 69.7 mL, IQR 23.9-125.3, respectively). Sixteen (76.2%) patients in the surgery group and 2 (10.5%) patients in the control group had favorable outcomes (P < .001). Logistic regression analysis identified bypass surgery as the strongest predictive factor.

CONCLUSION: STA-MCA bypass can be used as a therapeutic tool for acute ischemic stroke.Advanced MRI techniques are helpful for selecting patients and for decision making.