World Neurosurg. (2018) 109:188-196.
Low back pain is the principal cause of long-term disability worldwide. We intend to address one of its main causes, degenerative disk disease, a spinal condition involving degradation of an intervertebral disk.
Following unsuccessful conservative treatment, patients may be recommended for surgery. The two main surgical treatments for lumbar degenerative disk disease are lumbar fusion: traditional standard surgical treatment and lumbar disk arthroplasty, also known as lumbar total disk replacement. Lumbar fusion aims to relieve pain by fusing vertebrae together to eliminate movement at the joint, but it has been criticized for problems involving insignificant pain relief, a reduced range of motion, and an increased risk of adjacent segment degeneration. This leads to development of the lumbar total disk replacement technique, which aims to relieve pain replacing a degenerated intervertebral disk with a moveable prosthesis, thus mimicking the functional anatomy and biomechanics of a native intervertebral disk. Over the years a large range of prosthetic disks has been developed.
The efficacy and current evidence for these prostheses are discussed in this review. The results of this study are intended to guide clinical practice and future lumbar total disk replacement device choice and design.