Neurosurgical treatment of gangliogliomas in children and adolescents

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1207–1214

The object of this study was to delineate long-term results of the surgical treatment of pediatric tumors classified as ganglioglioma or gangliocytoma.

Methods A cohort of consecutive patients 19 years or younger who had undergone primary resection of CNS tumors during the years 1980–2016 at a single institution were reviewed in this retrospective study of surgical morbidity, mortality, and academic achievement and/or work participation. Grossmotor function and activities of daily living were scored using the Barthel Index (BI).

Results Patient records for 32 consecutive children and adolescents who had undergone resection for a ganglioglioma were included in this study. Of the 32 patients, 13 were in the first decade at the first surgery, whereas 19 were in the second decade. The male/female ratio was 1.0 (16/16). No patient was lost to follow-up. The tumor was localized to the supratentorial compartment in 26 patients, to the posterior fossa in 5 patients, and to the spinal cord in 1 patient. Only two of the tumors were classified as anaplastic. Of the 30 low-grade tumors, 2 were classified as gangliocytomas, 6 were desmoplastic infantile gangliogliomas, and 22 were ordinary gangliogliomas. The aim of primary surgery was gross-total resection (GTR) and was achieved in 23 patients (71.9%). Altogether, 43 tumor resections were performed. Eight patients underwent a second resection from 1 to 10 years after primary surgery and three of these also had a third resection from 2 to 24 years after initial surgery. The reason for further resection was clinical (seizure control failure/recurrence of epilepsy or progressive neurological deficit) and/or residual tumor progression/recurrence. There was no operative mortality in this series and all 32 patients are alive with follow-up periods from 0.5 to 36 years (median 14 years). Observed 14-year survival is thus 100%. One out of two children with primary anaplastic tumor received local radiotherapy (proton) postoperatively. The other 31 patients did not have any kind of non-surgical adjuvant therapy. Twenty-one out of 26 children with supratentorial tumor had epilepsy as one of their presenting symptoms. Nineteen of these became seizure-free after initial surgery (18 of them after GTR), but 3 patients experienced recurrence of seizures within some years. Functional outcome in terms ofADL, schooling, and work participation was gratifying in most patients. Five patients have persistent hydrocephalus (HC), treated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts.

Conclusion Low-grade gangliogliomas (GGs) can be surgically treated with good long-term results including seizure and tumor control as well as school and working participation.