Tumor-associated hemorrhage in patients with vestibular schwannoma

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:1563–1569

Intratumoral hemorrhage (ITH) associated with vestibular schwannomas (VS) is very rare. We retrospectively analyzed VS patients presenting with ITH in our department to further gain a better understanding of this uncommon clinical presentation.

Methods We treated seven patients who had VS presenting with ITH between January 2012 and June 2017. All the patients had preoperative computed tomography (CT), computed tomography angiography (CTA), and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) done which aided in the radiological diagnosis as well as postoperative MRI to confirm the resection extent of the VS. Continuous electrophysiological monitoring of cranial nerves was carried out during surgery.

Results Of the seven patients, three were male and four were female. Their ages ranged from 42 to 71 years (average age, 57.4 years). Two patients reported a history of hypertension. Sudden onset or rapid worsening of clinical symptoms occurred in five patients at time of hemorrhage. The mean diameter of the lesions was 4.1 cm (range, 3.0–5.0 cm). No patient had a pretreatment of stereotactic radiosurgery. Gross total resection was achieved in four cases and subtotal resection in three cases. There were no surgery-related neurological deficits but one patient died 18 days after surgery. Follow-up visits were scheduled at 6 months postoperatively and two patients had tumor recurrence and received stereotactic radiosurgery again.

Conclusions The incidence of ITH in VS is relatively rare and hypertension may highly correlate with ITH in VS. In comparison with peritumoral adhesion caused by chronic inflammation in multicystic VS with microhemorrhage,ITH caused by acute massive hemorrhage will not increase the extent of peritumoral adhesion immediately. The prognosis of surgery for patients with acute hemorrhagic VS may be better than that for microhemorrhage in multicystic VS. Besides, timely microsurgical treatment is also important to relieve symptoms.