Intermediate-term clinical and radiographic outcomes with less invasive adult spinal deformity surgery

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:1393–1400

Little information exists regarding longer-term outcomes with minimally invasive spine surgery (MISS), particularly regarding long-segment and deformity procedures. We aimed to evaluate intermediate-term outcomes of MISS for adult spinal deformity (ASD).

Methods This retrospective review of a prospectively collected multicenter database examined outcomes at 4 or more years following circumferential MIS (cMIS) or hybrid (HYB) surgery for ASD. A total of 53 patients at 8 academic centers satisfied the following inclusion criteria: age > 18 years and coronal Cobb > 20°, pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) > 10°, or sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm.

Results Radiographic outcomes demonstrated improvements of PI-LL from 16.8° preoperatively to 10.8° and coronal Cobb angle from38° preoperatively to 18.2° at 4 years. The incidence of complications over the follow-up periodwas 56.6%.A total of 21 (39.6%) patients underwent reoperation in the thoracolumbar spine, most commonly for adjacent level disease or proximal junctional kyphosis, which occurred in 11 (20.8%) patients. Mean Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) at baseline and years 1 through 4 were 49.9, 33.1, 30.2, 32.7, and 35.0, respectively. The percentage of patients meeting minimal clinically important difference (MCID) (defined as 12% or more from baseline) decreased over time, with leg pain reduction more durable than back pain reduction.

Conclusions Intermediate-term clinical and radiographic improvement following MISS for ASD is sustained, but extent of improvement lessens over time. Outcome variability exists within a subset of patients not meeting MCID, which increases over time after year two. Loss of improvement over time wasmore notable in back than leg pain. However, average ODI improvement meets MCID at 4 years after MIS ASD surgery.