Adult Posterior Fossa Anaplastic Ependymoma

World Neurosurg. (2022) 158:205-209

Ependymomas are rare central nervous system tumors. The current treatment strategy is gross total tumor removal. Whether adjuvant therapy will be beneficial is controversial. We retrospectively analyzed 3 cases of World Health Organization (WHO) grade III posterior fossa anaplastic ependymomas treated with different treatment modalities. We aimed to identify possible treatment options for infratentorial WHO grade III anaplastic ependymoma in adults.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of 3 patients diagnosed with infratentorial anaplastic ependymomas in our institution from 2016 to 2020. The demographic data were documented. This case series of 3 patients does not meet the Department of Health and Human Services definition of research and does not need Institutional Review Board approval. All patients’ informed consents have been obtained.

RESULTS: One patient underwent subtotal tumor resection combined with adjuvant radiotherapy and Gamma Knife radiosurgery while the other 2 patients underwent gross total tumor removal combined with Gamma Knife radiosurgery or adjuvant radiotherapy. Tumors recurred in the first patient 20 months later, while the other 2 patents did not develop recurrence. The modified Rankin scale scores of these patients were 1, 0, and 0. All patients are followed up with regular magnetic resonance imaging at our facility.

CONCLUSIONS: The strategy for treating WHO grade III anaplastic ependymomas is controversial, but gross total tumor resection remains the key element. Adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery after tumor removal might be considered if radiotherapy is not an option. The role of chemotherapy is unclear, and the use of chemotherapy should be tailored to individual patients