Predictors of postoperative seizure outcome in supratentorial meningioma

J Neurosurg 137:515–524, 2022

Meningiomas are the most common primary intracranial tumor. Seizures are common sequelae of meningioma development. Meningioma patients with seizures can be effectively treated with resection, with reports of seizure freedom of 60%–90%. Still, many patients manifest persistent epilepsy. Determining factors associated with worsened seizure outcomes remains critical in improving the quality of life for these patients. The authors sought to identify clinical, radiological, and histological factors associated with worse seizure outcomes in patients with supratentorial meningioma and preoperative seizures.

METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the charts of 384 patients who underwent meningioma resection from 2008 to 2020. The charts of patients with a documented history of preoperative seizures were further reviewed for clinical, radiological, operative, perioperative, histological, and postoperative factors associated with seizures. Engel class at last follow-up was retrospectively assigned by the authors and further grouped into favorable (class I) and worse (class II–IV) outcomes. Factors were subsequently compared by group using comparative statistics. Univariable and multivariable regression models were utilized to identify independent predictors of worse seizure outcome.

RESULTS Fifty-nine patients (15.4%) were found to have preoperative seizures, of whom 57 had sufficient postoperative data to determine Engel class outcome. Forty-two patients (74%) had Engel class I outcomes. The median follow-up was 17 months. Distinct margins on preoperative imaging (p = 0.012), Simpson grade I resection (p = 0.004), postresection ischemia (p = 0.019), WHO grade (p = 0.019), and recurrent disease (p = 0.015) were found to be the strongest predictors of Engel class outcome in univariable logistic regression. MIB-1 index (p = 0.001) and residual volume (p = 0.014) at last follow-up were found to be the strongest predictors of Engel class outcome in univariable generalized linear regression. Postresection ischemia (p = 0.012), WHO grade (p = 0.022), recurrent disease (p = 0.038), and MIB-1 index (p = 0.002) were found to be the strongest independent predictors of Engel class outcomes in multivariable analysis.

CONCLUSIONS Postresection ischemia, higher WHO grade, elevated MIB-1 index, and disease recurrence independently predict postresection seizure persistence in patients with supratentorial meningioma. Further understanding of the etiology of these markers may aid in elucidation of this complex disease process and guide management to prevent worse outcomes.