Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:2551–2557
Neuroendoscopic procedures inside the ventricular system always bear the risk for an unexpected intraoperative hemorrhage with potentially devastating consequences. The authors present here their experience, and a stage-to-stage guide for the endoscopic management of intraoperative hemorrhages.
Methods A step-by-step guide for the management to gain control of and stop the bleeding is described including a grading system. More advanced techniques are presented in cases examples.
Conclusion Most of intraoperative hemorrhages can be controlled by constant irrigation and coagulation. More advanced techniques can be applied quickly and easily to ensure control of the hemorrhages and avoid the need for a microsurgical conversion.