Incidence and Risk Factor of Implant Dislocation After Cervical Disk Arthroplasty: A Retrospective Cohort Analysis of 756 Patients

Neurosurgery 93:330–338, 2023

Implant dislocation after cervical disk arthroplasty (CDA) is obviously a critical complication, but no information about the incidence and associated risk factor has been reported.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the incidence and risk factor of implant dislocation after CDA by a retrospective cohort analysis.

METHODS: A retrospective review of a consecutive series of CDA performed between January 2009 and March 2021 at a single institution was conducted. Analyses of chart records and radiological data established the incidence and associated risk factor of implant dislocation after CDA. A Kaplan-Meier survival estimation of implant survival was performed.

RESULTS: A total of 756 consecutive patients were included in this analysis. Five patients (0.7%) had a migration and even dropout of the artificial disk. The overall cumulative survival rate of the implant reached approximately 99.3% of the 756 patients. Preoperative kyphosis was significantly related to implant dislocation (P = .016), with an odds ratio of 15.013.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of implant dislocation after CDA is as low as 0.7% or 5/756 patients. Preoperative kyphosis significantly increases the risk of postoperative implant dislocation by a factor of 15. The migrating implants could be revealed on radiographs as early as 0.9 to 1.4 months postoperatively and were revised to anterior cervical diskectomy and fusion within half a year. No new event of implant dislocation occurred half a year postoperatively. The overall cumulative survival rate of the implant reached 99.3% of the 756 patients. In conclusion, CDA remains a safe and reliable procedure.