Clinical outcomes of solitary fibrous tumors and hemangiopericytomas and risk factors related to recurrence and survival based on the 2021 WHO classification of central nervous system tumors

J Neurosurg 140:69–79, 2024

OBJECTIVE The authors aimed to explore the clinical outcomes and risk factors related to recurrence of and survival from solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) and hemangiopericytomas (HPCs) that were reclassified according to the 2021 WHO classification of central nervous system (CNS) tumors.

METHODS The authors retrospectively collected and analyzed the clinical and pathological data of SFTs and HPCs recorded from January 2007 to December 2021. Two neuropathologists reassessed pathological slides and regraded specimens on the basis of the 2021 WHO classification. The prognostic factors related to progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) were statistically assessed with univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses.

RESULTS A total of 146 patients (74 men and 72 women, mean ± SD [range] age 46.1 ± 14.3 [3–78] years) were reviewed, and 86, 35, and 25 patients were reclassified as having grade 1, 2, and 3 SFTs on the basis of the 2021 WHO classification, respectively. The median PFS and OS of the patients with WHO grade 1 SFT were 105 months and 199 months after initial diagnosis; for patients with WHO grade 2 SFT, 77 months and 145 months; and for patients with WHO grade 3 SFT, 44 months and 112 months, respectively. Of the entire cohort, 61 patients experienced local recurrence and 31 died, of whom 27 (87.1%) died of SFT and relevant complications. Ten patients had extracranial metastasis. In multivariate Cox regression analysis, subtotal resection (STR) (HR 4.648, 95% CI 2.601–8.304, p < 0.001), tumor located in the parasagittal or parafalx region (HR 2.105, 95% CI 1.099–4.033, p = 0.025), tumor in the vertebrae (HR 3.352, 95% CI 1.228–9.148, p = 0.018), WHO grade 2 SFT (HR 2.579, 95% CI 1.343–4.953, p = 0.004), and WHO grade 3 SFT (HR 5.814, 95% CI 2.887–11.712, p < 0.001) were significantly associated with shortened PFS, whereas STR (HR 3.217, 95% CI 1.435–7.210, p = 0.005) and WHO grade 3 SFT (HR 3.433, 95% CI 1.324–8.901, p = 0.011) were significantly associated with shortened OS. In univariate analyses, patients who received adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after STR had longer PFS than patients who did not receive RT.

CONCLUSIONS The 2021 WHO classification of CNS tumors better predicted malignancy with different pathological grades, and in particular WHO grade 3 SFT had worse prognosis. Gross-total resection (GTR) can significantly prolong PFS and OS and should serve as the most important treatment method. Adjuvant RT was helpful for patients who underwent STR but not for patients who underwent GTR.