Cavernous venous malformations in and around the central nervous system. Part 2: Intradural

J Neurosurg 140:746–754, 2024

Cavernous venous malformations (CavVMs) account for a spectrum of lesions with a shared pathogenesis. Their anatomical location dictates their clinical features and surgical treatment. Extradural and dura-based CavVMs were discussed in Part 1 of this review.

In this part, intradural CavVMs are discussed, encompassing malformations growing within the intradural space without direct dural involvement. In addition to classic intra-axial CavVMs, cranial nerve CavVMs, intraventricular CavVMs, and intradural extramedullary spinal CavVMs are discussed in this group, given the similar natural history and specific management challenges.

Herein the authors focus on critical clinical aspects of and surgical management of these malformations based on their location and discuss optimal surgical approaches at each of these anatomical locations with illustrative cases. The commonalities of the natural history and surgical management that are dictated by anatomical considerations lend to a new location-based taxonomy for classification of CavVMs.