An analysis of flow dynamics in cerebral cavernous malformation and orbital cavernous angioma using indocyanine green videoangiography

Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:1169–1175 DOI 10.1007/s00701-012-1354-9

Cerebral cavernous malformations (CCMs) are known to be vascular anomalies with low perfusion because of being angiographically occult. We attempted direct visualization of blood flow within CCMs and orbital cavernous angiomas (CAs), and analyzed flow dynamics using indocyanine green videoangiography (ICG-VAG).

Methods This series included seven CCMs and two orbital CAs. ICG-VAG was performed to visualize blood flow of the lesions before resection. Time to peak of staining was evaluated by reviewing recorded ICG-VAG.

Results In five of seven CCMs, stain was identified. CCMs were seen as avascular areas in both arterial and venous phases, and were stained gradually. Stain was maximized late after venous phase. The orbital CAs were also stained lately, but more intensely than CCMs.

Conclusions The present study directly demonstrated slow and low perfusion within CCM and orbital CA using ICGVAG. On the basis of characteristic flow dynamics of CCMs, intraoperative ICG-VAG provides useful information in microsurgical resection.