A Comparative Analysis of the Results of Vertebroplasty and Kyphoplasty in Osteoporotic Vertebral Compression Fractures

Neurosurgery 67[ONS Suppl 1]:ons171-ons188, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000380936.00143.11

The most common complication of osteoporosis is vertebral fractures, which occur more frequently than all other fractures (hip, wrist, and ankle).

OBJECTIVE: To prospectively analyze vertebroplasty compared with kyphoplasty for the treatment of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures using improvement in pain, functional capacity, and quality of life as outcome measures.

METHODS: The study population included 28 patients in the vertebroplasty group and 24 patients in the kyphoplasty group. The mean follow-up period was 42.2 weeks and 42.3 weeks in the vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty groups, respectively. Outcomes were measured pre- and postoperatively using the visual analogue scale, the Oswestry Disability Index, the EuroQol-5D questionnaire, and the Short-Form 36 Health Survey.

RESULTS: In the vertebroplasty group, visual analogue scale scores improved from a mean of 8.0 cm to 5.5 cm at last follow-up (P = .001). Preoperatively, the Oswestry Disability Index was 57.6, which improved to 38.4 (P = .006). The EuroQol-5D score preoperatively was 0.157 and improved to 0.504 (P = .001). The Short-Form 36 Health Survey showed greatest improvement in the areas of physical health, role physical, body pain, and vitality. In the kyphoplasty group, visual analogue scale scores improved from a mean of 7.5 cm preoperatively to 2.5 cm postoperatively (P = .000001). The mean Oswestry Disability Index preoperatively was 50.7 and improved to 28.8 (P = .002). The EuroQol-5D score improved from a mean of 0.234 preoperatively to 0.749 (P = .00004). The Short-Form 36 Health Survey showed greatest improvement in the areas of physical health, physical functioning, role physical, body pain, and social functioning.

CONCLUSION: Both vertebroplasty and kyphoplasty are effective at improving pain, functional disability, and quality of life; however, kyphoplasty provides better results, which are maintained over long-term follow-up.

Hyponatremia in Neurosurgical Patients: Clinical Guidelines Development

Neurosurgery. 65(5):925-936, November 2009. DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000358954.62182.B3

OBJECTIVE: Neurosurgical patients have a high risk of hyponatremia and associated complications. We critically evaluated the existing literature to identify the determinants for the development of hyponatremia and which management strategies provided the best outcomes.

METHODS: A multidisciplinary panel in the areas of neurosurgery, nephrology, critical care medicine, endocrinology, pharmacy, and nursing summarized and classified hyponatremia literature scientific studies published in English from 1950 through 2008. The panel’s recommendations were used to create an evaluation and treatment protocol for hyponatremia in neurosurgical patients at the University of Florida.

RESULTS: Hyponatremia should be further investigated and treated when the serum sodium level is less than 131 mmol/L (class II). Evaluation of hyponatremia should include a combination of physical examination findings, basic laboratory studies, and invasive monitoring when available (class III). Obtaining levels of hormones such as antidiuretic hormone and natriuretic peptides is not supported by the literature (class III). Treatment of hyponatremia should be based on severity of symptoms (class III). The serum sodium level should not be corrected by more than 10 mmol/L/d (class III). Cerebral salt wasting should be treated with replacement of serum sodium and intravenous fluids (class III). Fludrocortisone may be considered in the treatment of hyponatremia in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients at risk of vasospasm (class I). Hydrocortisone may be used to prevent natriuresis in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients (class I). Hyponatremia in subarachnoid hemorrhage patients at risk of vasospasm should not be treated with fluid restriction (class II). Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone may be treated with urea, diuretics, lithium, demeclocycline, and/or fluid restriction (class III).

CONCLUSION: The summarized literature on the evaluation and treatment of hyponatremia was used to develop practice management recommendations for hyponatremia in the neurosurgical population. However, the practice management recommendations relied heavily on expert opinion because of a paucity of class I evidence literature on hyponatremia.