Duraplasty using a combination of a pedicled dural flap and collagen matrix in posterior fossa decompression for pediatric Chiari malformation type 1 with syrinx

Acta Neurochirurgica (2024) 166:70

In posterior fossa decompression for pediatric Chiari malformation type 1 (CM-1), duraplasty methods using various dural substitutes have been reported to improve surgical outcomes and minimize postoperative complications. To obtain sufficient posterior fossa decompression without cerebrospinal fluid-related complications, we developed a novel duraplasty technique using a combination of a pedicled dural flap and collagen matrix. The objective of this study was to describe the operative nuances of duraplasty using a combination of a pedicled dural flap and collagen matrix in posterior fossa decompression for pediatric CM-1.

Methods We reviewed the clinical and radiographic records of 11 consecutive pediatric patients who underwent posterior fossa decompression with duraplasty using a combination of a pedicled dural flap and collagen matrix followed by expansile cranioplasty for CM-1. The largest area of the syrinx and the size of the posterior fossa were calculated.

Results The maximum syrinx area was reduced by a mean of 68.5% ± 27.3% from preoperatively to postoperatively. Four patients (36.4%) had near-complete syrinx resolution (> 90%, grade III reduction), five (45.5%) had 50% to 90% reduction (grade II), and two (18.2%) had < 50% reduction (grade I). The posterior fossa area in the midsagittal section increased by 8.9% from preoperatively to postoperatively. There were no postoperative complications, including cerebrospinal fluid leakage, pseudomeningocele formation, or infection.

Conclusion Duraplasty using a combination of a pedicled dural flap and collagen matrix in posterior fossa decompression is a promising safe and effective surgical technique for pediatric CM-1 with syrinx.