Asleep triple-modality motor mapping for perirolandic gliomas: an update on outcomes

J Neurosurg 140:1029–1037, 2024

Maximal safe resection of gliomas near motor pathways is facilitated by intraoperative mapping. Here, the authors review their results with triple-modality asleep motor mapping with motor evoked potentials and bipolar and monopolar stimulation for cortical and subcortical mapping during glioma surgery in an expanded cohort.

METHODS This was a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent resection of a perirolandic glioma near motor pathways. Clinical and neuromonitoring data were extracted from the electronic medical records for review. All patients with new or worsened postoperative motor deficits were followed for at least 6 months. Regression analyses were performed to assess factors associated with a persistent motor deficit.

RESULTS Between January 2018 and December 2021, 160 operations were performed in 151 patients with perirolandic glioma. Sixty-four patients (40%) had preoperative motor deficits, and the median extent of resection was 98%. Overall, patients in 38 cases (23.8%) had new or worse immediate postoperative deficits by discharge, and persistent deficits by 6 months were seen in 6 cases (3.8%), all in patients with high-grade gliomas. There were no new persistent deficits in low-grade glioma patients (0%). The risk factors for a persistent deficit included an insular tumor component (OR 8.6, p = 0.01), preoperative motor weakness (OR 8.1, p = 0.03), intraoperative motor evoked potential (MEP) changes (OR 36.5, p < 0.0001), and peri–resection cavity ischemia (OR 7.5, p = 0.04). Most persistent deficits were attributable to ischemic injury despite structural preservation of the descending motor tracts. For patients with persistent motor deficits, there were 3 cases (50%) in which a change in MEP was noted but subsequent subcortical monopolar stimulation still elicited a response in the corresponding muscle groups, suggesting axonal activation distal to a point of injury.

CONCLUSIONS Asleep triple motor mapping results in a low rate of permanent deficits, especially for low-grade gliomas. Peri–resection cavity ischemia continues to be a significant risk factor for permanent deficit despite maintaining appropriate distance for subcortical tracts based on monopolar feedback.