Adjuvant Radiotherapy Versus Watchful Waiting for World Health Organization Grade II Atypical Meningioma

Neurosurgery 88:E435–E442, 2021

Atypical meningiomas (AMs) are meningiomas that have a higher rate of recurrence than grade Imeningioma. Due to the higher risk of recurrence, adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) after resection of AM has been employed. At our institution, some neurosurgeons employ adjuvant RT on all primarily resected AMs, while others employ watchful waiting with serial imaging.

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of adjuvant RT on newly resected AMs.

METHODS: A retrospective review of all AMs primarily resected at our institution from 1996 to 2018 was completed. Data on patient demographics, radiographic findings, use of adjuvant RT, time of follow-up, and recurrences were collected. Adjuvant RT was defined as RT that occurred within 6 mo of initial resection.

RESULTS: A total of 162 patients met the inclusion criteria. Gross total resection was achieved in 73% of cases. Average time until recurrence in the cohort was 37mo. A total of 108 patients had adjuvant RT, while 54 patients did not. On multivariate survival analysis, sex, Simpson grade resection, and use of adjuvant RT were independent predictors of recurrence. Mean time to recurrence in patients who received adjuvant RT was 43.7 mo versus 34.7 mo for those who did not receive adjuvant RT.

CONCLUSION: This study includes the largest retrospective cohort of patients who have received adjuvant RT after primary resection of AM. Our results suggest that the use of adjuvant RT is independently associated with a lower chance of recurrence. These data suggest that practitioners can consider the use of adjuvant RT for newly resected AMs, regardless of Simpson grade resection.

Management of Atypical Cranial Meningiomas, Part 2: Predictors of Progression and the Role of Adjuvant Radiation After Subtotal Resection


Neurosurgery 75:356–363, 2014

The efficacies of adjuvant stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) and external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for atypical meningiomas (AMs) after subtotal resection (STR) remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the clinical, histopathological, and radiographic features associated with progression in AM patients after STR.

METHODS: Fifty-nine primary AMs after STR were examined for predictors of progression, including the impact of SRS and EBRT, in a retrospective cohort study.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients (46%) progressed after STR (median, 30 months). On univariate analysis, spontaneous necrosis positively (hazard ratio = 5.2; P = .006) and adjuvant radiation negatively (hazard ratio = 0.3; P = .009) correlated with progression; on multivariate analysis, only adjuvant radiation remained independently significant (hazard ratio = 0.3; P = .006). SRS and EBRT were associated with greater local control (LC; P = .02) and progression-free survival (P = .007). The 2-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial LC rates after STR vs STR/EBRT were 60%, 34%, and 34% vs 96%, 65%, and 45%. The 2-, 5-, and 10-year actuarial progression-free survival rates after STR vs STR/EBRT were 60%, 30%, and 26% vs 96%, 65%, and 45%. Compared with STR alone, adjuvant radiation therapy significantly improved LC in AMs that lack spontaneous necrosis (P = .003) but did not improve LC in AMs with spontaneous necrosis (P = .6).

CONCLUSION: Adjuvant SRS or EBRT improved LC of AMs after STR but only for tumors without spontaneous necrosis. Spontaneous necrosis may aid in decisions to administer adjuvant SRS or EBRT after STR of AMs.

Management of Atypical Cranial Meningiomas, Part 1: Predictors of Recurrence and the Role of Adjuvant Radiation After Gross Total Resection


Neurosurgery 75:347–355, 2014

Indications for external beam radiation therapy (EBRT) for atypical meningiomas (AMs) remain unclear.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze features associated with recurrence in AM patients after gross total resection (GTR) and to assess the relative benefit of EBRT in a retrospective cohort study.

METHODS: One hundred fifty-one primary AMs after GTR (88 female patients; median follow-up, 45.0 months) were examined for possible predictors of recurrence (age, sex, location, volume, bone involvement, brain invasion). The Fisher exact and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to analyze the association between these predictors and use of EBRT. The impact on recurrence for these predictors and EBRT was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression.

RESULTS: Of 151 patients, 13 (8.6%) experienced recurrence after GTR (median, 47.0 months). Multivariate analysis identified elevated mitotic index (P = .007) and brain invasion (P = .002) as predictors of recurrence. Larger volume (P = .96) was not associated with recurrence but was more likely to prompt EBRT (P = .001). Recurrences occurred in 11 of 112 with GTR (9.8%; median, 44 months) and 2 of 39 with GTR/EBRT (5.1%; median, 133 months). The 2-, 5-, and 10-year progression-free survival rates after GTR vs GTR/ EBRT were 97%, 86%, and 68% vs 100%, 100%, and 78%. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated no difference in progression-free survival or overall survival after GTR vs GTR/ EBRT (P = .8, P . .99).

CONCLUSION: Brain invasion and high mitotic rates may predict recurrence. After GTR of AMs, EBRT appears not to affect progression-free survival and overall survival, suggesting that observation rather than EBRT may be indicated after GTR.