Predictors of pelvic tilt normalization: a multicenter study on the impact of regional and lower-extremity compensation on pelvic alignment after complex adult spinal deformity surgery

J Neurosurg Spine 40:505–512, 2024

OBJECTIVE The objective was to determine the degree of regional decompensation to pelvic tilt (PT) normalization after complex adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery.

METHODS Operative ASD patients with 1 year of PT measurements were included. Patients with normalized PT at baseline were excluded. Predicted PT was compared to actual PT, tested for change from baseline, and then compared against age-adjusted, Scoliosis Research Society–Schwab, and global alignment and proportion (GAP) scores. Lowerextremity (LE) parameters included the cranial-hip-sacrum angle, cranial-knee-sacrum angle, and cranial-ankle-sacrum angle. LE compensation was set as the 1-year upper tertile compared with intraoperative baseline. Univariate analyses were used to compare normalized and nonnormalized data against alignment outcomes. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to develop a model consisting of significant predictors for normalization related to regional compensation.

RESULTS In total, 156 patients met the inclusion criteria (mean ± SD age 64.6 ± 9.1 years, BMI 27.9 ± 5.6 kg/m 2 , Charlson Comorbidity Index 1.9 ± 1.6). Patients with normalized PT were more likely to have overcorrected pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis and sagittal vertical axis at 6 weeks (p < 0.05). GAP score at 6 weeks was greater for patients with nonnormalized PT (0.6 vs 1.3, p = 0.08). At baseline, 58.5% of patients had compensation in the thoracic and cervical regions. Postoperatively, compensation was maintained by 42% with no change after matching in age-adjusted or GAP score. The patients with nonnormalized PT had increased rates of thoracic and cervical compensation (p < 0.05). Compensation in thoracic kyphosis differed between patients with normalized PT at 6 weeks and those with normalized PT at 1 year (69% vs 35%, p < 0.05). Those who compensated had increased rates of implant complications by 1 year (OR [95% CI] 2.08 [1.32–6.56], p < 0.05). Cervical compensation was maintained at 6 weeks and 1 year (56% vs 43%, p = 0.12), with no difference in implant complications (OR 1.31 [95% CI −2.34 to 1.03], p = 0.09). For the lower extremities at baseline, 61% were compensating. Matching age-adjusted alignment did not eliminate compensation at any joint (all p > 0.05). Patients with nonnormalized PT had higher rates of LE compensation across joints (all p < 0.01). Overall, patients with normalized PT at 1 year had the greatest odds of resolving LE compensation (OR 9.6, p < 0.001). Patients with normalized PT at 1 year had lower rates of implant failure (8.9% vs 19.5%, p < 0.05), rod breakage (1.3% vs 13.8%, p < 0.05), and pseudarthrosis (0% vs 4.6%, p < 0.05) compared with patients with nonnormalized PT. The complication rate was significantly lower for patients with normalized PT at 1 year (56.7% vs 66.1%, p = 0.02), despite comparable health-related quality of life scores.

CONCLUSIONS Patients with PT normalization had greater rates of resolution in thoracic and LE compensation, leading to lower rates of complications by 1 year. Thus, consideration of both the lower extremities and thoracic regions in surgical planning is vital to preventing adverse outcomes and maintaining pelvic alignment.

Gravity Line–Hip Axis Offset as a Guide for Global Alignment to Prevent Recurrent Proximal Junctional Kyphosis/Failure

Operative Neurosurgery 26:268–278, 2024

Proximal junctional kyphosis/failure (PJK/F) is a potentially serious complication after adult spinal deformity (ASD) corrective surgery. Recurrent PJK/F is especially troublesome, necessitating fusion extension and occasionally resulting in irreversible neurological deficits. The gravity line (GL) offers valuable insights into global sagittal balance. This study aims to examine the postoperative GL–hip axis (GL-HA) offset as a critical risk factor for recurrent PJK/F.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed patients with ASD who had undergone revision surgery for initial PJK/F at a single academic center. Patients were categorized into 2 groups: nonrecurrent PJK/F group and recurrent PJK/F group. Demographics, surgical characteristics, preoperative and postoperative parameters of spinopelvic and global alignment, and the Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores were assessed. We examined these measures for differences and correlations with recurrent PJK/F.

RESULTS: Our study included 32 patients without recurrent PJK/F and 28 patients with recurrent PJK/F. No significant differences were observed in baseline demographics, operative characteristics, or Scoliosis Research Society-22 scores before and after surgery. Importantly, using a cutoff of À52.6 mm from logistic regression, there were considerable differences and correlations with recurrent PJK/F in the postoperative GL-HA offset, leading to an odds ratio of 7.0 (95% CI: 1.94-25.25, P = .003).

CONCLUSION: Postoperative GL-HA offset serves as a considerable risk factor for recurrent PJK/F in patients with ASD who have undergone revision surgery. Overcorrection, with GL-HA offset less than À5 cm, is associated with recurrent PJK/F. The instrumented spine tends to align the GL near the HA, even at the cost of proximal junction.

Economic burden of nonoperative treatment of adult spinal deformity

J Neurosurg Spine 39:751–756, 2023

OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to investigate the cost utility of nonoperative treatment for adult spinal deformity (ASD).

METHODS Nonoperatively and operatively treated patients who met database criteria for ASD and in whom complete radiographic and health-related quality of life data at baseline and at 2 years were available were included. A cost analysis was completed on the PearlDiver database assessing the average cost of nonoperative treatment prior to surgical intervention based on previously published treatments (NSAIDs, narcotics, muscle relaxants, epidural steroid injections, physical therapy, and chiropractor). Utility data were calculated using the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) converted to SF-6D with published conversion methods. Quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) used a 3% discount rate to account for residual decline in life expectancy (78.7 years). Minor and major comorbidities and complications were assessed according to the CMS.gov manual’s definitions. Successful nonoperative treatment was defined as a gain in the minimum clinically importance difference (MCID) in both ODI and Scoliosis Research Society (SRS)–pain scores, and failure was defined as a loss in MCID or conversion to operative treatment. Patients with baseline ODI ≤ 20 and continued ODI of ≤ 20 at 2 years were considered nonoperative successful maintenance. The average utilization of nonoperative treatment and cost were applied to the ASD cohort.

RESULTS A total of 824 patients were included (mean age 58.24 years, 81% female, mean body mass index 27.2 kg/m 2 ). Overall, 75.5% of patients were in the operative and 24.5% were in the nonoperative cohort. At baseline patients in the operative cohort were significantly older, had a greater body mass index, increased pelvic tilt, and increased pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch (all p < 0.05). With respect to deformity, patients in the operative group had higher rates of severe (i.e., ++) sagittal deformity according to SRS–Schwab modifiers for pelvic tilt, sagittal vertical axis, and pelvic incidence–lumbar lordosis mismatch (p < 0.05). At 2 years, patients in the operative cohort showed significantly increased rates of a gain in MCID for physical component summary of SF-36, ODI, and SRS-activity, SRS-pain, SRSappearance, and SRS-mental scores. Cost analysis showed the average cost of nonoperative treatment 2 years prior

to surgical intervention to be $2041. Overall, at 2 years patients in the nonoperative cohort had again in ODI of 0.36, did not show a gain in QALYs, and nonoperative treatment was determined to be cost-ineffective. However, a subset of patients in this cohort underwent successful maintenance treatment and had a decrease in ODI of 1.1 and a gain in utility of 0.006 at 2 years. If utility gained for this cohort was sustained to full life expectancy, patients’ cost per QALY was $18,934 compared to a cost per QALY gained of $70,690.79 for posterior-only and $48,273.49 for combined approach in patients in the operative cohort.

CONCLUSIONS Patients with ASD undergoing operative treatment at baseline had greater sagittal deformity and greater improvement in health-related quality of life postoperatively compared to patients treated nonoperatively. Additionally, patients in the nonoperative cohort overall had an increase in ODI and did not show improvement in utility gained. Patients in the nonoperative cohort who had low disability and sagittal deformity underwent successful maintenance and cost-effective treatment.

Mechanical complications and patient-reported outcome measures associated with high pelvic incidence and persistent pelvic retroversion: the Roussouly “false type 2” profile

J Neurosurg Spine May 12, 2023

OBJECTIVE The objective of this paper was to report mechanical complications and patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) for adult spinal deformity (ASD) patients with a Roussouly “false type 2” (FT2) profile.

METHODS ASD patients treated from 2004 to 2014 at a single center were identified. Inclusion criteria were pelvic incidence ≥ 60° and a minimum 2-year follow-up. FT2 was defined as a high postoperative pelvic tilt (PT), as defined by the Global Alignment and Proportion target, and thoracic kyphosis < 30°. Mechanical complications, defined as proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and/or instrumentation failure, were determined and compared. Scoliosis Research Society22r (SRS-22r) scores were compared between groups.

RESULTS Ninety-five patients (normal PT [NPT] group 49, FT2 group 46) who met the inclusion criteria were identified and studied. Most surgeries were revisions (NPT group 30 [61%], FT2 group 30 [65%]), and most were performed via a posterior-only approach (86%) (mean ± SD 9.6 ± 5 levels). Proximal junctional angles increased after surgery in both groups, without differences between groups. Neither rates of radiographic PJK (p = 0.10), revision for PJK (p = 0.45), nor revision for pseudarthrosis (p = 0.66) were different between groups. There were no differences between groups for SRS-22r domain scores or subscores.

CONCLUSIONS In this single-center experience, patients with high pelvic incidence fixed with persistent lumbopelvic parameter mismatch and engaged compensatory mechanisms (Roussouly FT2) had mechanical complications and PROMs not different from those with normalized alignment parameters. Compensatory PT may be acceptable in some cases of ASD surgery.

Radiographic and MRI evidence of indirect neural decompression after the anterior column realignment procedure for adult spinal deformity

J Neurosurg Spine 37:703–712, 2022

The anterior column realignment (ACR) procedure, which consists of sectioning the anterior longitudinal ligament/annulus and placing a hyperlordotic interbody cage, has emerged as a minimally invasive surgery (MIS) for achieving aggressive segmental lordosis enhancement to address adult spinal deformity (ASD). Although accumulated evidence has revealed indirect neural decompression after lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF), whether ACR serves equally well for neural decompression remains to be proven. The current study intended to clarify this ambiguous issue.

METHODS A series of 36 ASD patients with spinopelvic mismatch, defined as pelvic incidence (PI) minus lumbar lordosis (LL) > 10°, underwent a combination of ACR, LLIF, and percutaneous pedicle screw (PPS) fixation. This “MIS triad” procedure was applied over short segments with mean fusion length of 3.3 levels, and most patients underwent single-level ACR. The authors analyzed full-length standing radiographs, CT and MRI scans, and Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) scores in patients with minimum 1 year of follow-up (mean [range] 20.3 [12–39] months).

RESULTS Compared with the preoperative values, the radiographic and MRI measurements of the latest postoperative studies changed as follows. Segmental disc angle more than quadrupled at the ACR level and LL nearly doubled. MRI examinations at the ACR level revealed a significant (p < 0.0001) increase in the area of the dural sac that was accompanied by significant (p < 0.0001) decreases in area and thickness of the ligamentum flavum and in thickness of the disc bulge. The corresponding CT scans demonstrated significant (all p < 0.0001) increases in disc height to 280% of the preoperative value at the anterior edge, 224% at the middle edge, and 209% at the posterior edge, as well as in pedicleto-pedicle distance to 122%. Mean ODI significantly (p < 0.0001) decreased from 46.3 to 26.0.

CONCLUSIONS The CT-based data showing vertebral column lengthening across the entire ACR segment with an increasingly greater degree anteriorly suggest that the corrective action of ACR relies on a lever mechanism, with the intact facet joints acting as the fulcrum. Whole-segment spine lengthening at the ACR level reduced the disc bulge anteriorly and the ligamentum flavum posteriorly, with eventual enlargement of the dural sac. ACR plays an important role in not only LL restoration but also stenotic spinal canal enlargement for ASD surgery.

Characteristics of patients undergoing revision surgery for proximal junctional failure after adult spinal deformity surgery

J Neurosurg Spine 37:402–409, 2022

Score on the proximal junctional kyphosis severity scale (PJKSS) has been validated to show good correlations with likelihood of revision surgery for proximal junctional failure (PJF) after surgical treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD). However, if the patient has progressive neurological deterioration, revision surgery should be considered regardless of severity based on PJKSS score. This study aimed to revalidate the correlation of PJKSS score with likelihood of revision surgery in patients with PJF but without neurological deficit. In addition, the authors provide the cutoff score on PJKSS that indicates need for revision surgery.

METHODS A retrospective study was performed. Among 360 patients who underwent fusion of more than 4 segments including the sacrum, 83 patients who developed PJF without acute neurological deficit were included. Thirty patients underwent revision surgery (R group) and 53 patients did not undergo revision surgery (NR group). All components of PJKSS and variables other than those included in PJKSS were compared between groups. The cutoff score on PJKSS that indicated need for revision surgery was calculated with receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Multivariate analysis with logistic regression was performed to identify which variables were most predictive of revision surgery.

RESULTS The mean patient age at the time of index surgery was 69.4 years, and the mean fusion length was 6.1 segments. All components of PJKSS, such as focal pain, instrumentation problem, change in kyphosis, fracture at the uppermost instrumented vertebra (UIV)/UIV+1, and level of UIV, were significantly different between groups. The average total PJKSS score was significantly greater in the R group than in the NR group (6.0 vs 3.9, p < 0.001). The calculated cutoff score was 4.5, with 70% sensitivity and specificity. There were no significant between-group differences in patient, surgical, and radiographic factors (other than the PJKSS components). Three factors were significantly associated with revision surgery on multivariate analysis: instrumentation problem (OR 8.160, p = 0.004), change in kyphosis (OR 4.809, p = 0.026), and UIV/UIV+1 fracture (OR 6.462, p = 0.002).

CONCLUSIONS PJKSS score positively predicted need for revision surgery in patients with PJF who were neurologically intact. The calculated cutoff score on PJKSS that indicated need for revision surgery was 4.5, with 70% sensitivity and specificity. The factor most responsible for revision surgery was bony failure with > 20° focal kyphotic deformity. Therefore, early revision surgery should be considered for these patients even in the absence of neurological deficit.

Characteristics of Sagittal Spinopelvic Alignment Changes After Symptom Relief After Simple Lumbar Decompression

 Neurosurgery 91:331–338, 2022

Sagittal spinopelvic alignment (SSPA) parameters are essential for the diagnosis of adult spinal deformities (ASDs) and their progression. Certain clinical symptoms that occur in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS) and herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP) may distort the SSPA and mimic ASD.

OBJECTIVE: To differentiate SSPA in symptomatic patients from asymptomatic patients within 10 minutes in the standing position.

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study evaluated changes in SSPA after simple lumbar decompression surgery in patients with LSS and HNP. Relative sagittal alignment (RSA), relative pelvic version, relative lumbar lordosis (RLL), Lordosis Distribution Index (LDI), and global alignment and proportion (GAP) values were calculated using the conventional Schwab classification method. First, the preoperative and postoperative SSPA parameters were compared. Second, patients were subgrouped into symptomatic within 10 minutes of standing (SP group) and other symptoms of LSS and HNP as controls. Changes in SSPA parameters after symptom relief after simple lumbar decompression surgery were compared between the two groups.

RESULTS: Overall, all SSPA parameters improved after surgery. However, after subgrouping, patients in the control group did not show significant SSPA alterations, except for LDI, whereas patients in the SP group significantly improved in terms of their RSA, RLL, LDI, and GAP values after symptom relief after surgery.

CONCLUSION: Patients with pain on standing within 10 minutes showed significant correction in RSA, RLL, and GAP values after simple lumbar decompression. Therefore, it is important to observe such clinical symptoms to avoid misdiagnosis of ASD.

Surgical versus Nonsurgical Treatment for Adult Spinal Deformity: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

World Neurosurg. (2022) 159:1-11

OBJECTIVE: To systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of surgical and nonsurgical methods for the treatment of adult spinal deformity (ASD).

METHODS: The PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases were searched for relevant controlled studies of surgical and nonsurgical approaches for the treatment of ASD; all studies reported from database creation to October 2021 were eligible for inclusion. Stata 11.0 software was used for the metaanalysis. Publication bias was assessed using a Begg test. Heterogeneity was assessed using the I2 test, and fixed-effects or random-effects models were used, as appropriate. Meta-regression was used to determine the cause of heterogeneity. Subgroup analyses were performed to assess the effects of age on the outcomes. –

RESULTS: Eleven articles comprising 1880 participants met the inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis showed that surgical treatment was associated with a better improvement in function than was nonsurgical treatment (Scoliosis Research Society 22 questionnaire score change value: weighted mean difference [ 0.696; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.686e0.705; P < 0.0001; Oswestry Dysfunction Index change value: WMD [ 11.222; 95% CI, 10.801e11.642; P < 0.0001). Surgical treatment was more effective in relieving pain and correcting the deformity (numeric rating scale pain score: WMD[3.341; 95% CI, 2.832e3.85; P < 0.0001; Cobb angle change value: WMD [ 15.036 ; 95% CI, 13.325e16.747; P < 0.0001). The complication rate in the surgical group was 17.6%e80.3%.

CONCLUSIONS: Surgical treatment is better than nonsurgical methods for improving the function of patients with ASD and achieving good pain improvement and deformity correction. Elderly patients with ASD can also obtain good symptomatic improvement through surgery

Patient outcomes after circumferential minimally invasive surgery compared with those of open correction for adult spinal deformity

J Neurosurg Spine 36:203–214, 2022

Circumferential minimally invasive spine surgery (cMIS) for adult scoliosis has become more advanced and powerful, but direct comparison with traditional open correction using prospectively collected data is limited. The authors performed a retrospective review of prospectively collected, multicenter adult spinal deformity data. The authors directly compared cMIS for adult scoliosis with open correction in propensity-matched cohorts using health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) measures and surgical parameters.

METHODS Data from a prospective, multicenter adult spinal deformity database were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were age > 18 years, minimum 1-year follow-up, and one of the following characteristics: pelvic tilt (PT) > 25 , pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) > 10 , Cobb angle > 20 , or sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm. Patients were categorized as undergoing cMIS (percutaneous screws with minimally invasive anterior interbody fusion) or open correction (traditional open deformity correction). Propensity matching was used to create two equal groups and to control for age, BMI, preoperative PI-LL, pelvic incidence (PI), T1 pelvic angle (T1PA), SVA, PT, and number of posterior levels fused.

RESULTS A total of 154 patients (77 underwent open procedures and 77 underwent cMIS) were included after matching for age, BMI, PI-LL (mean 15  vs 17 , respectively), PI (54  vs 54 ), T1PA (21  vs 22 ), and mean number of levels fused (6.3 vs 6). Patients who underwent three-column osteotomy were excluded. Follow-up was 1 year for all patients. Postoperative Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) (p = 0.50), Scoliosis Research Society–total (p = 0.45), and EQ-5D (p = 0.33) scores were not different between cMIS and open patients. Maximum Cobb angles were similar for open and cMIS basepatients at baseline (25.9  vs 26.3 , p = 0.85) and at 1 year postoperation (15.0  vs 17.5 , p = 0.17). In total, 58.3% of open patients and 64.4% of cMIS patients (p = 0.31) reached the minimal clinically important difference (MCID) in ODI at 1 year. At 1 year, no differences were observed in terms of PI-LL (p = 0.71), SVA (p = 0.46), PT (p = 0.9), or Cobb angle (p = 0.20). Open patients had greater estimated blood loss compared with cMIS patients (1.36 L vs 0.524 L, p < 0.05) and fewer levels of interbody fusion (1.87 vs 3.46, p < 0.05), but shorter operative times (356 minutes vs 452 minutes, p = 0.003). Revision surgery rates between the two cohorts were similar (p = 0.97).

CONCLUSIONS When cMIS was compared with open adult scoliosis correction with propensity matching, HRQOL improvement, spinopelvic parameters, revision surgery rates, and proportions of patients who reached MCID were similar between cohorts. However, well-selected cMIS patients had less blood loss, comparable results, and longer operative times in comparison with open patients.

 

 

Impact of an intraoperative coronal spinal alignment measurement technique using a navigational tool for a 3D spinal rod bending system in adult spinal deformity cases

J Neurosurg Spine 36:62–70, 2022

In corrective spinal surgery for adult spinal deformity (ASD), the focus has been on achieving optimal spinopelvic alignment. However, the correction of coronal spinal alignment is equally important. The conventional intraoperative measurement methods currently used for coronal alignment are not ideal. Here, the authors have developed a new intraoperative coronal alignment measurement technique using a navigational tool for a 3D spinal rod bending system (CAMNBS). The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of using the CAMNBS for coronal spinal alignment and to evaluate its usefulness in corrective spinal surgery for ASD.

METHODS In this retrospective cohort study, patients with degenerative lumbar kyphoscoliosis, a Cobb angle ≥ 20°, and lumbar lordosis ≤ 20° who had undergone corrective surgery (n = 67) were included. The pelvic teardrops on both sides, the S1 spinous process, the central point of the apex, a point on the 30-mm cranial (or caudal) side of the apex, and the central point of the upper instrumented vertebra (UIV) and C7 vertebra were registered using the CAMNBS. The positional information of all registered points was displayed as 2D figures on a monitor. Deviation of the UIV plumb line from the central sacral vertical line (UIV-CSVL) and deviation of the C7 plumb line from the CSVL (C7-CSVL) were measured using the 2D figures. Nineteen patients evaluated using the CAMNBS (BS group) were compared with 48 patients evaluated using conventional intraoperative radiography (XR group). The UIV-CSVL measured intraoperatively using the CAMNBS was compared with that measured using postoperative radiography. The prevalence of postoperative coronal malalignment (CM) and the absolute value of postoperative C7-CSVL were compared between the groups on radiographs obtained in the standing position within 4 weeks after surgery. Postoperative CM was defined as the absolute value of C7-CSVL ≥ 30 mm. Further, the measurement time and amount of radiation exposure were measured.

RESULTS No significant differences in demographic, sagittal, and coronal parameters were observed between the two groups. UIV-CSVL was 2.3 ± 9.5 mm with the CAMNBS and 1.8 ± 16.6 mm with the radiographs, showing no significant difference between the two methods (p = 0.92). The prevalence of CM was 2/19 (10.5%) in the BS group and 18/48 (37.5%) in the XR group, and absolute values of C7-CSVL were 15.2 ± 13.1 mm in the BS group and 25.0 ± 18.0 mm in the XR group, showing statistically significant differences in both comparisons (p = 0.04 and 0.03, respectively). The CAMNBS method required 3.5 ± 0.9 minutes, while the conventional radiograph method required 13.3 ± 1.5 minutes; radiation exposure was 2.1 ± 1.1 mGy in the BS group and 2.9 ± 0.6 mGy in the XR group. Statistically significant differences were demonstrated in both comparisons (p = 0.0002 and 0.03, respectively).

CONCLUSIONS From this study, it was evident that the CAMNBS did not increase postoperative CM compared with that seen using the conventional radiographic method, and hence can be used in clinical practice.

 

Understanding sagittal compensation in adult spinal deformity patients: relationship between pelvic tilt and lower-extremity position

J Neurosurg Spine 35:616–623, 2021

In adult spinal deformity (ASD), quantifying preoperative lower-extremity (LE) compensation is important in formulating an operative plan to achieve optimal global sagittal alignment. Whole-body radiographs are not always available. This study evaluated the possibility of estimating LE compensation without whole-body radiographs.

METHODS In total, 200 consecutive ASD patients with full-body radiographic assessment were categorized into the following three groups according to their cranio-hip balance (distance from the cranial sagittal vertical axis to the hip axis [CrSVA-H]): group 1, anterior-shift (A-shift) group (CrSVA-H > 40 mm); group 2, balanced group, −40 mm < CrSVA-H < 40 mm; and group 3, posterior-shift (P-shift) group, CrSVA-H < −40 mm. After analyzing the correlation between CrSVAH, pelvic tilt (PT), and LE parameters, the cutoff PT and PT/pelvic incidence (PI) values that correlated with the presence of LE compensation were determined. Previously published data from asymptomatic volunteers were used as a baseline threshold (sacrofemoral angle [SFA] > 217.0° and knee flexion angle [KA] > 11.0°).

RESULTS Among the hip, knee, and ankle, only KA showed a significant increase in the A-shift group compared to the other two groups (p < 0.01). With a wide threshold (SFA > 208.0° and KA > 5.0°), 84.9% of the A-shift group showed LE compensation (hip or knee or both), which was a significantly greater percentage than those in the balanced and P-shift groups (48.4% and 51.9%, p < 0.01). With a narrow threshold (SFA > 217.0° and KA > 11.0°), 62.2% of the A-shift group showed any LE compensation, which was also a higher percentage than the other two groups. The CrSVA-H was moderately correlated with KA (r = 0.502), but had no correlation with PT, SFA, and ankle dorsiflexion angle (AA). PT showed a moderate/strong correlation with SFA, KA, and AA (r = 0.846, 0.624, and 0.622, respectively). With receiver operating characteristic curves, the authors determined that a 23.0° PT with PT/PI > 0.46 predicts the presence of any type of LE compensation with use of the wide threshold.

CONCLUSIONS ASD patients with increased CrSVA-H, which represents cranio-hip anterior imbalance, demonstrated a higher prevalence of LE compensation, especially knee flexion, compared to those with neutral and posterior shift of CrSVA. PT represents the extent of LE compensation in patients with spinal sagittal malalignment. Using the cutoff value of PT determined in this study, surgeons can preoperatively estimate the extent of LE compensation without obtaining a full-body radiograph.

Anterior Column Realignment: Analysis of Neurological Risk and Radiographic Outcomes

Neurosurgery DOI:10.1093/neuros/nyaa064

Anterior column realignment (ACR) is a less invasive alternative to 3-column osteotomy for the correction of sagittal imbalance. We hypothesized that ACR would correct sagittal imbalance with an acceptable neurological risk. OBJECTIVE: To assess long-term neurological and radiographic outcomes after ACR.

METHODS: Patients ≥18 yr who underwent ACR from 2005 to 2013 were eligible. Standing scoliosis radiographs were studied at preoperation, postoperation (≤6 wk), and at minimum 2 yr of follow-up. Clinical/radiographic data were collected through a retrospective chart review, with thoracic 1 spino-pelvic inclination (T1SPi) used as the angular surrogate for sagittal vertical axis.

RESULTS: A total of 26 patients had complete data, with a mean follow-up of 2.8 yr (1.8- 7.4). Preoperative, sagittal parameters were lumbar lordosis (LL) of −16.1◦, pelvic incidence (PI)-LL of 41.7◦, T1SPi of 3.6◦, and pelvis tilt (PT) of 32.4◦. LL improved by 30.6◦ (P < .001) postoperation.Mean changes in PT (−8.3), sacral slope (8.9), T1SPi (−4.9), and PI-LL (−33.5) were all significant. The motion segment angle improved by 26.6◦, from 5.2◦ to −21.4◦ (P < .001). Neurological complications occurred in 32% patients postoperation (n = 8; 1 patient with both sensory and motor). New thigh numbness/paresthesia developed in 3 (13%) patients postoperation; only 1 (4%) persisted at latest follow-up. A total of 6 (24%) patients developed a new lower extremity motor deficit postoperation,with 4 (8%) having persistent new weakness at last follow-up. Out of 8 patients with preoperative motor deficit, half saw improvement postoperation and 75% improved by last follow-up.

CONCLUSION: There was net motor improvement, with 24% of patients improving and 16% having persistent new weakness at latest follow-up; 60% were unchanged. Radiographic results demonstrate that ACR is a useful tool to treat severe sagittal plane deformity.

Uncertainty in the Relationship Between Sagittal Alignment and Patient-Reported Outcomes

Neurosurgery 86:485–491, 2020

Previous studies have reported correlations and precise quantitative relationships between sagittal alignment and health-related quality-of-life (HRQOL) scores. These studies have not reported the extent of uncertainty in these relationships.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the uncertainty in the overall relationships between sagittal alignment and HRQOL and in the predictions of individual patient pain and disability.

METHODS: A retrospective analysis of all new adult patients with long-cassette radiographs and complete outcomes questionnaires presenting to the senior author from 2012 to 2014 was performed. Univariable maximum a posteriori linear regression analyses using Bayesian methods were performed. High-density probability intervals for mean regression relationships and for individual values were calculated using minimally informative prior distributions.

RESULTS: A total of 134 patients satisfied inclusion criteria and were included. For Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) vs pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis (LL), the 90% high-density probability interval ranged from –0.04 to 0.23, indicating that both the magnitude and direction of the relationship were uncertain. For both ODI vs sagittal vertical axis and ODI vs LL, there was uncertainty in the magnitude of the slope.Wide regions of uncertainty were also seen for predicting individual patient scores.

CONCLUSION: We report the previously unpublished degree of uncertainty in the mean quantitative relationships between radiographic sagittal alignment and patient-reported outcomes and in individual patient outcomes scores. Based on these results, establishing treatment thresholds or predicting an individual’s outcome is unreliable. Further research efforts should be focused on developing multilevel hierarchical models incorporating parameter uncertainty and heterogeneous effects.

Surgical correction of severe adult lumbar scoliosis (major curves ≥ 75°): retrospective analysis with minimum 2-year follow-up

J Neurosurg Spine 31:548–561, 2019

Prior reports have demonstrated the efficacy of surgical correction for adult lumbar scoliosis. Many of these reports focused on mild to moderate scoliosis. The authors’ objective was to report their experience and to assess outcomes and complications after deformity correction for severe adult scoliosis.

METHODS The authors retrospectively analyzed consecutive adult scoliosis patients with major thoracolumbar/lumbar (TL/L) curves ≥ 75° who underwent deformity correction at their institution. Those eligible with a minimum 2 years of follow-up were included. Demographic, surgical, coronal and sagittal plane radiographic measurements, and healthrelated quality of life (HRQL) scores were analyzed.

RESULTS Among 26 potentially eligible patients, 22 (85%) had a minimum 2 years of follow-up (range 24–89 months) and were included in the study (mean age 57 ± 11 years; 91% women). The cohort comprised 16 (73%), 4 (18%), and 2 (9%) patients with adult idiopathic scoliosis, de novo degenerative scoliosis, and iatrogenic scoliosis, respectively. The surgical approach was posterior-only and multistage anterior-posterior in 18 (82%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. Three-column osteotomy was performed in 5 (23%) patients. Transforaminal and anterior lumbar interbody fusion were performed in 14 (64%) and 4 (18%) patients, respectively. All patients had sacropelvic fixation with uppermost instrumented vertebra in the lower thoracic spine (46% [10/22]) versus upper thoracic spine (55% [12/22]). The mean fusion length was 14 ± 3 levels. Preoperative major TL/L and lumbosacral fractional (L4–S1) curves were corrected from 83° ± 8° to 28° ± 13° (p < 0.001) and 34° ± 8° to 13° ± 6° (p < 0.001), respectively. Global coronal and sagittal balance significantly improved from 5 ± 4 cm to 1 ± 1 cm (p = 0.001) and 9 ± 8 cm to 2 ± 3 cm (p < 0.001), respectively. Pelvic tilt significantly improved from 33° ± 9° to 23° ± 10° (p < 0.001). Significant improvement in HRQL measures included the following: Scoliosis Research Society (SRS) pain score (p = 0.009), SRS appearance score (p = 0.004), and SF-12/ SF-36 physical component summary (PCS) score (p = 0.026). Transient and persistent neurological deficits occurred in 8 (36%) and 2 (9%) patients, respectively. Rod fracture/pseudarthrosis occurred in 6 (27%) patients (supplemental rods were utilized more recently in 23%). Revisions were performed in 7 (32%) patients.

CONCLUSIONS In this single-center surgical series for severe adult scoliosis (major curves ≥ 75°), a posterior-only or multistage anterior-posterior approach provided major curve correction of 66% and significant improvements in global coronal and sagittal spinopelvic alignment. Significant improvements were also demonstrated in HRQL measures (SRS pain, SRS appearance, and SF-12/SF-36 PCS). Complications and revisions were comparable to those of other reports involving less severe scoliosis. The results of this study warrant future prospective multicenter studies to further delineate outcomes and complication risks for severe adult scoliosis correction.

Is achieving optimal spinopelvic parameters necessary to obtain substantial clinical benefit?

J Neurosurg Spine 30:833–838, 2019

It is now well accepted that spinopelvic parameters are correlated with clinical outcomes in adult spinal deformity (ASD). The purpose of this study was to determine whether obtaining optimal spinopelvic alignment was absolutely necessary to achieve a minimum clinically important difference (MCID) or substantial clinical benefit (SCB).

METHODS A multicenter retrospective review of patients who underwent less-invasive surgery for ASD was conducted. Inclusion criteria were age ≥ 18 years and one of the following: coronal Cobb angle > 20°, sagittal vertical axis (SVA) > 5 cm, pelvic tilt (PT) > 20°, or pelvic incidence to lumbar lordosis (PI-LL) mismatch > 10°. A total of 223 patients who were treated with circumferential minimally invasive surgery or hybrid surgery and had a minimum 2-year follow-up were identified. Based on optimal spinopelvic parameters (PI-LL mismatch ± 10° and SVA < 5 cm), patients were divided into aligned (AL) or malaligned (MAL) groups. The primary clinical outcome studied was the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) score.

RESULTS There were 74 patients in the AL group and 149 patients in the MAL group. Age and body mass index were similar between groups. Although the baseline SVA was similar, PI-LL mismatch (9.9° vs 17.7°, p = 0.002) and PT (19° vs 24.7°, p = 0.001) significantly differed between AL and MAL groups, respectively. As expected postoperatively, the AL and MAL groups differed significantly in PI-LL mismatch (-0.9° vs 13.1°, p < 0.001), PT (14° vs 25.5°, p = 0.001), and SVA (11.8 mm vs 48.3 mm, p < 0.001), respectively. Notably, there was no difference in the proportion of AL or MAL patients in whom an MCID (52.75% vs 61.1%, p > 0.05) or SCB (40.5% vs 46.3%, p > 0.05) was achieved for ODI score, respectively. Similarly, no differences in percentage of patients obtaining an MCID or SCB for visual analog scale back and leg pain score were observed. On multivariate analysis controlling for surgical and preoperative demographic differences, achieving optimal spinopelvic parameters was not associated with achieving an MCID (OR 0.645, 95% CI 0.31–1.33) or an SCB (OR 0.644, 95% CI 0.31–1.35) for ODI score.

CONCLUSIONS Achieving optimal spinopelvic parameters was not a predictor for achieving an MCID or SCB. Since spinopelvic parameters are correlated with clinical outcomes, the authors’ findings suggest that the presently accepted optimal spinopelvic parameters may require modification. Other factors, such as improvement in neurological symptoms and/or segmental instability, also likely impacted the clinical outcomes.

Sagittal radiographic parameters demonstrate weak correlations with pretreatment patient-reported health-related quality of life measures in symptomatic de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis

J Neurosurg Spine 28:573–580, 2018

Previous studies have demonstrated that among patients with adult spinal deformity (ASD), sagittal plane malalignment is poorly tolerated and correlates with suboptimal patient-reported health-related quality of life (HRQOL). These studies included a broad range of radiographic abnormalities and various types of ASD. However, the clinical and radiographic characteristics of de novo degenerative lumbar scoliosis (DNDLS), a subtype of ASD, may influence previously reported correlation strengths. The aim of this study was to correlate sagittal radiographic parameters with pretreatment HRQOL in patients with symptomatic DNDLS.

METHODS In this multicenter retrospective study of prospectively collected data, 74 patients with symptomatic DNDLS were enrolled based on anteroposterior and lateral 36-inch standing radiographs. Measurements included Cobb angle, coronal imbalance, pelvic incidence (PI), pelvic tilt (PT), lumbar lordosis (LL), sagittal vertical axis (SVA), thoracic kyphosis, pelvic incidence minus lumbar lordosis (PI-LL), T1-pelvic angle, and global tilt. HRQOL questionnaires included the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), Scoliosis Research Society (SRS-22r), 36-item Short-Form Health Survey, and numeric rating scale (NRS) for back and leg pain. Correlations between radiographic parameters and HRQOL were assessed. Finally, HRQOL and increasing severity of sagittal modifiers (SVA, PI-LL, and PT) were evaluated.

RESULTS Weak correlations were found between SVA and ODI (r = 0.296, p < 0.05) and PT with NRS back pain and the SRS pain domain (r = -0.260, p < 0.05, and r = 0.282, p < 0.05, respectively). Other sagittal radiographic parameters did not show any significant correlation with HRQOL. No significant differences in HRQOL were found concerning the increasing severity of PT, PI-LL, and SVA.

CONCLUSIONS While DNDLS is a severe disabling condition, no noteworthy association between clinical and sagittal radiographic parameters was found through this study, demonstrating that sagittal radiographic parameters should not be considered the unique predictor of pretreatment suboptimal health status in this specific group of patients. Future studies addressing classification and treatment algorithms will have to take into account the existing subgroups of ASD.

Relative lumbar lordosis and lordosis distribution index

Neurosurg Focus 43 (6):E5, 2017

The subtraction of lumbar lordosis (LL) from the pelvic incidence (PI) offers an estimate of the LL required for a given PI value. Relative LL (RLL) and the lordosis distribution index (LDI) are PI-based individualized measures. RLL quantifies the magnitude of lordosis relative to the ideal lordosis as defined by the magnitude of PI. LDI defines the magnitude of lower arc lordosis in proportion to total lordosis. The aim of this study was to compare RLL and PI – LL for their ability to predict postoperative complications and their correlations with health-related quality of life (HRQOL) scores.
METHODS Inclusion criteria were ≥ 4 levels of fusion and ≥ 2 years of follow-up. Mechanical complications were proximal junctional kyphosis/proximal junctional failure, distal junctional kyphosis/distal junctional failure, rod breakage, and implant-related complications. Correlations between PI – LL, RLL, PI, and HRQOL were analyzed using the Pearson correlation coefficient. Mechanical complication rates in PI – LL, RLL, LDI, RLL, and LDI interpreted together, and RLL subgroups for each PI – LL category were compared using chi-square tests and the exact test. Predictive models for mechanical complications with RLL and PI – LL were analyzed using binomial logistic regressions.
RESULTS Two hundred twenty-two patients (168 women, 54 men) were included. The mean age was 52.2 ± 19.3 years (range 18–84 years). The mean follow-up was 28.8 ± 8.2 months (range 24–62 months). There was a significant correlation between PI – LL and PI (r = 0.441, p < 0.001), threatening the use of PI – LL to quantify spinopelvic mismatch for different PI values. RLL was not correlated with PI (r = -0.093, p > 0.05); therefore, it was able to quantify divergence from ideal lordosis for all PI values. Compared with PI – LL, RLL had stronger correlations with HRQOL scores (p < 0.05). Discrimination performance was better for the model with RLL than for PI – LL. The agreement between RLL and PI – LL was high (k = 0.943, p < 0.001), moderate (k = 0.455, p < 0.001), and poor (k = -0.154, p = 0.343), respectively, for large, average, and small PI sizes. When analyzed by RLL, each PI – LL category was further divided into distinct groups of patients who had different mechanical complication rates (p < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Using the formula of PI – LL may be insufficient to quantify normolordosis for the whole spectrum of PI values when applied as an absolute numeric value in conjunction with previously reported population-based average thresholds of 10° and 20°. Schwab PI – LL groups were found to constitute an inhomogeneous group of patients. RLL offers an individualized quantification of LL for all PI sizes. Compared with PI – LL, RLL showed a greater association with both mechanical complications and HRQOL. The use of RLL and LDI together, instead of PI – LL, for surgical planning may result in lower mechanical complication rates and better long-term HRQOL.

A Staged Protocol for Circumferential Minimally Invasive Surgical Correction of Adult Spinal Deformity

Neurosurgery 81:733–739, 2017

Minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques used for management of adult spinal deformity (ASD) aim to decrease the physiological demand on patients and minimize postoperative complications. A circumferential MIS (cMIS) protocol offers the potential to maximize this advantage over standard open approaches, through the concurrent use of multiple MIS techniques.

OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate through a case example the execution of a cMIS protocol for management of an ASD patient with severe deformity.

METHODS: Thorough preoperative assessment, surgical planning, and medical optimization were completed. Deformity correction was performed over 2 stages. During the first stage, interbody fusion was performed via an oblique lateral approach at all levels of the lumbar spine intended to be included in the final construct. The patient was kept as an inpatient and mobilized postoperatively. They were then re-imaged with standing films. The second stage occurred after 3 d and involved percutaneous instrumentation of all levels. Posterior fusion of the thoracic levels was achieved through decortication of pars and facets. These areas were accessed through the intermuscular plane established by the percutaneous screws. The patient was mobilizing on their first postoperative day.

RESULTS: In a 66-yr-old female with severe sagittal imbalance and debilitating back pain, effective use of this cMIS protocol allowed for correction of the Cobb angle from 52◦ to 4◦ correction of spinopelvic parameters and 13 cm of sagittal vertical axis improvement. No complications were identified by 2 yr postoperative.

CONCLUSION: As a systematization of multiple MIS techniques combined, in a specific and staged manner, this cMIS protocol could provide a safe and effective approach to the management of ASD.

 

Does MIS Surgery Allow for Shorter Constructs in the Surgical Treatment of Adult Spinal Deformity?

Neurosurgery 80:489–497, 2017

The length of construct can potentially influence perioperative risks in adult spinal deformity (ASD) surgery. A head-to-head comparison between open and minimally invasive surgery (MIS) techniques for treatment of ASD has yet to be performed.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of MIS approaches on construct length and clinical outcomes in comparison to traditional open approaches when treating similar ASD profiles.

METHODS: Two multicenter databases for ASD, 1 involving MIS procedures and the other open procedures, were propensity matched for clinical and radiographic parameters in this observational study. Inclusion criteria were ASD and minimum 2-year follow-up. Independent t-test and chi-square test were used to evaluate and compare outcomes.

RESULTS: A total of 1215 patients were identified, with 84 patients matched in each group. Statistical significance was found for mean levels fused (4.8 for circumferential MIS [cMIS] and 10.1 for open), mean interbody fusion levels (3.6 cMIS and 2.4 open), blood loss (estimated blood loss 488 mL cMIS and 1762 mL open), and hospital length of stay (6.7 days cMIS and 9.7 days open). There was no significant difference in preoperative radiographic parameters or postoperative clinical outcomes (Owestry Disability Index and visual analog scale) between groups. There was a significant difference in postoperative lumbar lordosis (43.3◦ cMIS and 49.8◦ open) and pelvic incidence-lumbar lordosis correction (10.6◦ cMIS and 5.2◦ open) in the open group. There was no significant difference in reoperation rate between the 2 groups.

CONCLUSION: MIS techniques for ASD may reduce construct length, reoperation rates, blood loss, and length of stay without affecting clinical and radiographic outcomes when compared to a similar group of patients treated with open techniques.

Different Risk Factors of Proximal Junctional Kyphosis and Proximal Junctional Failure Following Long Instrumented Fusion to the Sacrum for Adult Spinal Deformity

Neurosurgery 80:279–286, 2017

The failure modes, time to development, and clinical relevance are known to differ between proximal junctional kyphosis (PJK) and proximal junctional failure (PJF). However, there are no reports that study the risk factors of PJK and PJF separately.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors for PJK and PJF separately.

METHODS: A retrospective study of 160 consecutive patients who underwent a long instrumented fusion to the sacrum for adult spinal deformity with a minimum follow-up of years was conducted. A separate survivorship analysis of PJK and PJF was performed using the Cox proportional hazards model for the 3 categorical parameters of surgical, radiographic, and patient factors.

RESULTS: PJK developed in 27 patients (16.9%) and PJF in 29 patients (18.1%). The median survival time was 17.0 months for PJK and 3.0 months for PJF. Multivariate analyses revealed that a high body mass index was an independent risk factor for PJK (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.179), whereas the significant risk factors for PJF were older age, the presence of osteoporosis, the uppermost instrumented vertebra level at T11-L1, and a greater preoperative sagittal vertical axis (HR = 1.082, 6.465, 5.236, and 1.017, respectively). A large correction of sagittal deformity was shown to be a risk factor for PJF on univariate analyses, but not on multivariate analyses.

CONCLUSION: PJK developed at a median of 17 months and PJF at a median of 3 months. A high body mass index was an independent risk factor for PJK, whereas older age, osteoporosis, uppermost instrumented vertebra level at the thoracolumbar junction, and greater preoperative sagittal vertical axis were risk factors for PJF.