Fluorescein-guided resection of cerebral metastases is associated with greater tumor resection

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:451–457

Sodium fluorescein (fluorescein) crosses a disrupted blood-brain barrier similarly to gadolinium contrast in contrast-enhancing cerebral tumors. When exposed to light with 560 nm wavelength during surgery, fluorescein emits a yellow-green fluorescent light that can be visualized through an operating microscope equipped with an appropriate emission filter. The distribution of the fluorescence correlates with the contrast on a gadolinium contrast-enhanced MRI.

Objective The objective of this single-center retrospective study was to investigate if the use of fluorescein would increase the extent of resection and to examine if fluorescein guided resection influences postoperative neurological status.

Methods During the study period from August 2014 to August 2018, 117 patients were operated for cerebral metastases. Of these, 56 operations were guided by fluorescein and 61 by traditional white light. All patients had an early postoperative MRI within 72 h after surgery.

Results The use of fluorescein increased the extent of resection in patients with cerebral metastases. The use of fluorescein was not associated with increased postoperative sequelae or neurological damage regardless of underlying primary cancer.

Conclusion Fluorescein is a helpful supplement in the neurosurgical treatment of cerebral metastases.

Fluorescein sodium-guided resection of cerebral metastases

Acta Neurochir (2017) 159:363–367

Cerebral metastasis (CM) is the most common malignancy affecting the brain. In patients eligible for surgery, complete tumor removal is the most important predictor of overall survival and neurological outcome. The emergence of surgical microscopes fitted with a fluorescein-specific filter have facilitated fluorescein-guided microsurgery and identifi- cation of tumor tissue. In 2012, we started evaluating fluores- cein (FL) with the dedicated microscope filter in cerebral me- tastases (CM). After describing the treatment results of our first 30 patients, we now retrospectively report on 95 patients.

Methods: Ninety-five patients with CM of different primary cancers were included (47 women, 48 men, mean age, 60 years, range, 25–85 years); 5 mg/kg bodyweight of FL was intrave- nously injected at induction of anesthesia. A YELLOW 560-nm filter (Pentero 900, ZEISS Meditec, Germany) was used for microsurgical tumor resection and resection control. The extent of resection (EOR) was assessed by means of early postoperative contrast-enhanced MRI and the grade of fluorescent staining as described in the surgical reports. Furthermore, we evaluated information on neurological outcome and surgical complications as well as any adverse events.

Results: Ninety patients (95%) showed bright fluorescent staining that markedly enhanced tumor visibility. Five patients (5%); three with adenocarcinoma of the lung, one with melanoma of the skin, and one with renal cell carcinoma) showed insufficient FL stain- ing. Thirteen patients (14%) showed residual tumor tissue on the postoperative MRI. Additionally, the MRI of three patients did not confirm complete resection beyond doubt. Thus, gross-total resection had been achieved in 83% (n = 79) of patients. No adverse events were registered during the postoperative course.

Conclusions: FL and the YELLOW 560-nm filter are safe and feasible tools for increasing the EOR in patients with CM. Further prospective evaluation of the FL-guided technique in CM-surgery is in planning.

Fluorescein sodium-guided resection of cerebral metastases — experience with the first 30 patients

Fluorescein sodium-guided resection of cerebral metastases — experience with the first 30 patients

Acta Neurochir (2015) 157:899–904

Surgical resection is a key element of the multidisciplinary treatment of cerebral metastases (CMs). Recent studies have highlighted the importance of complete resection of CMs for improving recurrence-free and overall survival rates. This study presents the first data on the use of fluorescein sodium (FL) under the dedicated surgical microscope filter YELLOW560 nm (ZeissMeditec, Germany) in patients with CM.

Methods Thirty patients with CMs of different primary cancers were included (15 females, 15 males; mean age 61.1 years); 200 mg of FL was intravenously injected directly before CM resection. A YELLOW560 nm filter was used for microsurgical tumor resection and resection control. Surgical reports were evaluated regarding the degree of fluorescent staining, postoperative MRIs regarding the extent of resection [gadolinium (Gd)-enhanced T1-weighted sequence] and the postoperative courses regarding any adverse effects.

Results Most patients (90.0 %, n=27) showed bright fluorescent staining, which markedly enhanced tumor visibility. Three patients (10.0 %) (two with adenocarcinoma of the lung and one with melanoma of the skin) showed no or only insufficient FL staining. Another three patients (10.0 %) showed residual tumor tissue in the postoperative MRI examination. In two other patients, radiographic examination could not exclude the possibility of very small areas of residual tumor tissue. Thus, gross-total resection was achieved in 83.3 % (n=25) of patients. No adverse effects were registered over the postoperative course.

Conclusions FL and the YELLOW560 nm filter are safe and practical tools for the resection of CM, but further prospective research is needed to confirm that this advanced technique will improve the quality of CM resection.

A comparison between surgical resection in combination with WBRT or hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation in the treatment of solitary brain metastases

Peter Lindvall & Per Bergström & Per-Olov Löfroth &A. Tommy Bergenheim

Acta Neurochir (2009) 151:1053-1059

The standard treatment of solitary brain metastases previously has been tumour resection in combination with whole-brain radiation therapy (WBRT). Stereotactic radiotherapy has emerged as a non-invasive treatment option especially for small brain metastases. We now report our results on resection + WBRT or hypofractionated stereotactic irradiation (HCSRT) in the treatment of solitary brain metastases.

Between 1993 and 2004 patients with metastatic cancer and solitary brain metastases were selected for surgical resection + WBRT or HCSRT alone at the Umeå University Hospital. Fifty-nine patients were treated with surgical resection + WBRT (34 male, 25 female, mean age 63.3 years). Forty-seven patients were treated with HCSRT alone (15 male, 32 female, mean age 64.9 years). Findings In patients followed radiologically, 28% treated with resection + WBRT showed a local recurrence after a median time of 8.0 months, whereas there was a lack of local control in 16% in the HCSRT group after a median time of 3.0 months. There was a significantly longer survival time for patients treated with resection + WBRT (median 7.9, mean 12.9 months) compared to HCSRT (median 5.0, mean 7.6 months). Even in patients with a tumour volume <10 cc, there was a significantly longer survival in favour of resection + WBRT (median 8.4, mean 17.4 months) compared to HCSRT (median 5.0, mean 7.9 months).

Conclusion This retrospective and non-randomised study indicates that surgical resection in combination with WBRT may be an option even for small brain metastases suitable for treatment with HCSRT. Since survival and local control following resection + WBRT was at least as favourable as compared to HCSRT alone, tumour location and expected neurological outcome may be the strongest aspect when selecting treatment modality.

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