Safety and technical efficacy of early minimally invasive endoscopy‑guided surgery for intracerebral haemorrhage: the Dutch Intracerebral haemorrhage Surgery Trial pilot study

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:1585–1596

Previous randomised controlled trials could not demonstrate that surgical evacuation of intracerebral haemorrhage (ICH) improves functional outcome. Increasing evidence suggests that minimally invasive surgery may be beneficial, in particular when performed early after symptom onset. The aim of this study was to investigate safety and technical efficacy of early minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery in patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH.

Methods The Dutch Intracerebral Haemorrhage Surgery Trial pilot study was a prospective intervention study with blinded outcome assessment in three neurosurgical centres in the Netherlands. We included adult patients with spontaneous supratentorial ICH ≥10mL and National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score ≥2 for minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery within 8 h after symptom onset in addition to medical management. Primary safety outcome was death or increase in NIHSS ≥4 points at 24 h. Secondary safety outcomes were procedure-related serious adverse events (SAEs) within 7 days and death within 30 days. Primary technical efficacy outcome was ICH volume reduction (%) at 24 h.

Results We included 40 patients (median age 61 years; IQR 51–67; 28 men). Median baseline NIHSS was 19.5 (IQR 13.3–22.0) and median ICH volume 47.7mL (IQR 29.4–72.0). Six patients had a primary safety outcome, of whom two already deteriorated before surgery and one died within 24 h. Sixteen other SAEs were reported within 7 days in 11 patients (of whom two patients that already had a primary safety outcome), none device related. In total, four (10%) patients died within 30 days. Median ICH volume reduction at 24 h was 78% (IQR 50–89) and median postoperative ICH volume 10.5mL (IQR 5.1–23.8).

Conclusions Minimally invasive endoscopy-guided surgery within 8 h after symptom onset for supratentorial ICH appears to be safe and can effectively reduce ICH volume. Randomised controlled trials are needed to determine whether this intervention also improves functional outcome.

Trial registration Clinicaltrials. gov: NCT03608423, August 1st, 2018.

Comparison of Single-Session, Neoadjuvant, and Adjuvant Embolization Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Arteriovenous Malformation

Neurosurgery 92:986–997, 2023

The purpose of intracranial arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) treatment is to prevent bleeding or subsequent hemorrhage with complete obliteration. For large, difficult-to-treat AVMs, multimodal approaches including surgery, endovascular embolization, and gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) are frequently used.

OBJECTIVE: To analyze the outcomes of AVMs treated with single-session, neoadjuvant, and adjuvant embolization GKRS.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed a database of 453 patients with AVMs who underwent GKRS between January 2007 and December 2017 at our facility. The obliteration rate, incidence of latent period bleeding, cyst formation, and radiation-induced changes were compared among the 3 groups, neoadjuvant-embolized, adjuvant-embolized, nonembolized group. In addition, the variables predicting AVM obliteration and complications were investigated.

RESULTS: A total of 228 patients were enrolled in this study. The neoadjuvant-embolized, adjuvant-embolized, and nonembolized groups comprised 29 (12.7%), 19 (8.3%), and 180 (78.9%) patients, respectively. Significant differences were detected among the 3 groups in the history of previous hemorrhage and the presence of aneurysms (P < .0001). Multivariate Cox regression analyses revealed a significant inverse correlation between neoadjuvant embolization and obliteration occurring 36 months after GKRS (hazard ratio, 0.326; P = .006).

CONCLUSION: GKRS with either neoadjuvant or adjuvant embolization is a beneficial approach for the treatment of AVMs with highly complex angioarchitectures that are at risk for hemorrhage during the latency period. Embolization before GKRS may be a negative predictive factor for late-stage obliteration (>36 months). To confirm our conclusions, further studies involving a larger number of patients and continuous follow-up are necessary.

Early diffusion-weighted MRI lesions after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms:

J Neurosurg 126:1070–1078, 2017

Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to assess periprocedural lesion load after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) by microsurgical clipping (MC) and endovascular coiling (EC).

METHODS Patients with UIA were assigned to undergo MC or EC according to interdisciplinary consensus and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 1 day before and 1 day after aneurysm treatment. Newly detected lesions by DWI after treatment were the primary end point of this prospective study. Lesions detected by DWI were categorized as follows: A) 1–3 DWI spots < 10 mm, B) > 3 DWI spots < 10 mm, C) single DWI lesion > 10 mm, or D) DWI lesion related to surgical access.

RESULTS Between 2010 and 2014, 99 cases were included. Sixty-two UIA were treated by MC and 37 by EC. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, aneurysm size, occurrence of multiple aneurysms in 1 patient, or presence of lesions detected by DWI before treatment. Aneurysms treated by EC were significantly more often located in the posterior circulation (p < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted MRI detected new lesions in 27 (43.5%) and 20 (54.1%) patients after MC and EC, respectively (not significant). The pattern of lesions detected by DWI varied significantly between groups (p < 0.001). Microembolic lesions (A and B) found on DWI were detected more frequently after EC (A, 14 cases; B, 5 cases) than after MC (A, 5 cases), whereas C and D were rare after EC (C, 1 case) and occurred more often after MC (C, 12 cases and D, 10 cases). No procedure-related unfavorable outcomes were detected.

CONCLUSIONS According to the specific techniques, lesion patterns differ between MC and EC, whereas the frequency of new lesions found on DWI is similar after occlusion of UIA. In general, the lesion load was low in both groups, and lesions were clinically silent. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01490463 (clinicaltrials.gov)