Intraoperative Flow Measurement by Microflow Probe During Surgery for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Intraoperative Flow Measurement by Microflow Probe During Surgery for Brain Arteriovenous Malformations

Operative Neurosurgery 11:268–273, 2015

Intraoperative quantitative flow measurement by a microvascular ultrasonic flow probe is an established methodology in aneurysm surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To test the present flow measurement procedure in brain arteriovenous malformation (AVM) surgery.

METHODS: Data from 25 patients with brain AVMs who consecutively underwent microsurgical resection with the assistance of flow measurement by a microflow probe were retrospectively analyzed. Flowmetry was performed on arterial feeders, potentially transit arteries, and venous drainage of AVM in different phases of resection.

RESULTS: A quantitative flow measurement was performed 203 times on 92 vessels. Flowmetry was able to define the flow direction of AVM vessels in all cases, thereby discriminating between arterial feeders and venous drainages, both superficially and deeply located. During AVM dissection, flowmetry identified a transit artery in 12% of cases by detecting a flow drop between 2 points of the same vessel. At the final stage of resection, a residual nidus, potentially missed at surgical dissection, was detected when the flow value of venous drainage was greater than 4 mL/min (20% of patients). Preresection microflow probe measurements were concordant with indocyanine green videoangiography data on AVM angioarchitecture in all cases. No microflow probe– induced AVM vessel injury was reported. Complete AVM resection was achieved in all cases with a low morbidity (modified Rankin Scale score #1).

CONCLUSION: Multistage intraoperative quantitative flow measurement proved to be a feasible, safe, repeatable, and reliable methodology to assist surgery in different phases of AVM resection. Further studies are needed to assess the impact of this approach on AVM patient outcomes.

Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms: An Anatomic Classification Scheme for Planning Optimal Surgical Strategies

Middle Cerebral Artery Bifurcation Aneurysms- An Anatomic Classification Scheme for Planning Optimal Surgical Strategies

Operative Neurosurgery 10:145–155, 2014

Changing landscapes in neurosurgical training and increasing use of endovascular therapy have led to decreasing exposure in open cerebrovascular neurosurgery. To ensure the effective transition of medical students into competent practitioners, new training paradigms must be developed.

OBJECTIVE: Using principles of pattern recognition, we created a classification scheme for middle cerebral artery (MCA) bifurcation aneurysms that allows their categorization into a small number of shape pattern groups.

METHODS: Angiographic data from patients with MCA aneurysms between 1995 and 2012 were used to construct 3-dimensional models. Models were then analyzed and compared objectively by assessing the relationship between the aneurysm sac, parent vessel, and branch vessels. Aneurysms were then grouped on the basis of the similarity of their shape patterns in such a way that the in-class similarities were maximized while the total number of categories was minimized. For each category, a proposed clip strategy was developed.

RESULTS: From the analysis of 61 MCA bifurcation aneurysms, 4 shape pattern categories were created that allowed the classification of 56 aneurysms (91.8%). The number of aneurysms allotted to each shape cluster was 10 (16.4%) in category 1, 24 (39.3%) in category 2, 7 (11.5%) in category 3, and 15 (24.6%) in category 4.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that through the use of anatomic visual cues, MCA bifurcation aneurysms can be grouped into a small number of shape patterns with an associated clip solution. Implementing these principles within current neurosurgery training paradigms can provide a tool that allows more efficient transition from novice to cerebrovascular expert.

Cotton-Clipping Technique to Repair Intraoperative Aneurysm Neck Tear: A Technical Note

Neurosurgery 68[ONS Suppl 2]:ons294–ons299, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31821343c6

Intraoperative rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a potentially devastating but avoidable and manageable complication of aneurysm surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To describe a surgical technique that the authors have used successfully to repair a tear at the neck of an intracranial aneurysm, as well as alternative options for managing this intraoperative complication.

METHODS: The tear on the neck of the aneurysm is covered with a small piece of free cotton and held in place with a suction device to clear the field of blood. The cotton is then clipped onto the tear with an aneurysm clip, using the cotton as a bolster to obliterate the tear. The cotton increases the surface area, allowing the clip to be placed more distally on the neck to preserve patency of the parent artery. Case examples are used to illustrate the technique.

RESULTS: Both authors independently have used this technique on several occasions to successfully repair tears at the neck of an aneurysm.

CONCLUSION: Intraoperative rupture of an intracranial aneurysm is a potentially devastating complication, particularly if a tear occurs at the neck. This simple yet effective method has been very useful in repairing a partial avulsion or tear of the neck of an aneurysm.

Robotic Digital Subtraction Angiography Systems Within the Hybrid Operating Room

Neurosurgery 68:1427–1433, 2011 DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31820b4f1c

Fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) within the operating room (OR) environment has emerged as a new trend in the fields of neurosurgery and vascular surgery.

OBJECTIVE: To describe initial clinical experience with a robotic DSA system in the hybrid OR.

METHODS: A newly designed robotic DSA system (Artis zeego; Siemens AG, Forchheim, Germany) was installed in the hybrid OR. The system consists of a multiaxis robotic C arm and surgical OR table. In addition to conventional neuroendovascular procedures, the system was used as an intraoperative imaging tool for various neurosurgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and spine instrumentation.

RESULTS: Five hundred one neurosurgical procedures were successfully conducted in the hybrid OR with the robotic DSA. During surgical procedures such as aneurysm clipping and arteriovenous fistula treatment, intraoperative 2-/3-dimensional angiography and C-arm-based computed tomographic images (DynaCT) were easily performed without moving the OR table. Newly developed virtual navigation software (syngo iGuide; Siemens AG) can be used in frameless navigation and in access to deep-seated intracranial lesions or needle placement.

CONCLUSION: This newly developed robotic DSA system provides safe and precise treatment in the fields of endovascular treatment and neurosurgery.

Postoperative Assessment of Clipped Aneurysms With 64-Slice Computerized Tomography Angiography

Neurosurgery 67:844-854, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000374684.10920.A2

Multidetector computerized tomography angiography (MDCTA) is now a widely accepted technique for the management of intracranial aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate its accuracy for the postoperative assessment of clipped intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS:We analyzed a consecutive series of 31 patients that underwent direct surgical clipping procedures of 38 aneurysms. A 64 slice MDCT scanner (Aquilion 64, Toshiba) was used and results were compared with digital subtraction angiographies (DSA). Two independent neuroradiologists analyzed the following data: examination quality, artifacts, aneurysm remnant, and patency of collateral branches. Interobserver agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Significant artifacts were found with multiple and cobalt-alloy clips. According to DSA, remnants >2 mm were found in 21% of the cases, and 2 patients had one collateral branch occluded. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of aneurysm remnants were 50% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of a significant remnant (>2 mm) and the detection of the occlusion of a collateral branch were, respectively, 67% and 100% and 50% and 100%. No relationship was found with the location, type, shape, size, or number of clips, but missed remnants tended to be larger with cobalt-alloy clips.

CONCLUSIONS: 64-MDCTA is a valuable technique to assess the presence of a significant postoperative remnant in single titanium clip application cases and might be useful for longterm follow-up. DSA remains the most accurate postoperative radiological examination.

Postoperative Assessment of Clipped Aneurysms With 64-Slice Computerized Tomography Angiography

Neurosurgery 00:000-000, 2010 DOI: 10.1227/01.NEU.0000374684.10920.A2

Multidetector computerized tomography angiography (MDCTA) is now a widely accepted technique for the management of intracranial aneurysms.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate its accuracy for the postoperative assessment of clipped intracranial aneurysms.

METHODS:We analyzed a consecutive series of 31 patients that underwent direct surgical clipping procedures of 38 aneurysms. A 64 slice MDCT scanner (Aquilion 64, Toshiba) was used and results were compared with digital subtraction angiographies (DSA). Two independent neuroradiologists analyzed the following data: examination quality, artifacts, aneurysm remnant, and patency of collateral branches. Interobserver agreement, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated.

RESULTS: Seventy-nine percent of the aneurysms were located in the anterior circulation. Significant artifacts were found with multiple and cobalt-alloy clips. According to DSA, remnants >2 mm were found in 21% of the cases, and 2 patients had one collateral branch occluded. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of aneurysm remnants were 50% and 100%, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of 64-MDCTA for the detection of a significant remnant (>2 mm) and the detection of the occlusion of a collateral branch were, respectively, 67% and 100% and 50% and 100%. No relationship was found with the location, type, shape, size, or number of clips, but missed remnants tended to be larger with cobalt-alloy clips.

CONCLUSIONS: 64-MDCTA is a valuable technique to assess the presence of a significant postoperative remnant in single titanium clip application cases and might be useful for longterm follow-up. DSA remains the most accurate postoperative radiological examination.