Adult cervical deformity management is complex and is a growing field with many recent advancements. The cervical spine functions to maintain the position of the head plays a pivotal role in influencing subjacent global spinal alignment and pelvic tilt as compensatory changes occur to maintain horizontal gaze.
There are various types of cervical deformity and a variety of surgical options available. The major advancements in the management of cervical deformity have only been around for a few years and continue to evolve. Therefore, the goal of this article is to provide a comprehensive review of cervical alignment parameters, deformity classification, clinical evaluation, and surgical treatment of adult cervical deformity.
The information presented here may be used as a guide for proper preoperative evaluation and surgical treatment in the adult cervical deformity patient.
Imaging guidance using intraoperative CT (O-arm surgical imaging system) combined with a navigation system has been shown to increase accuracy in the placement of spinal instrumentation. The authors describe 4 complex upper cervical spine cases in which the O-arm combined with the StealthStation surgical navigation system was used to accurately place occipital screws, C-1 screws anteriorly and posteriorly, C-2 lateral mass screws, and pedicle screws in C-6. This combination was also used to navigate through complex bony anatomy altered by tumor growth and bony overgrowth.
The 4 cases presented are: 1) a developmental deformity case in which the C-1 lateral mass was in the center of the cervical canal causing cord compression; 2) a case of odontoid compression of the spinal cord requiring an odontoidectomy in a patient with cerebral palsy; 3) a case of an en bloc resection of a C2–3 chordoma with instrumentation from the occiput to C-6 and placement of C-1 lateral mass screws anteriorly and posteriorly; and 4) a case of repeat surgery for a non-union at C1–2 with distortion of the anatomy and overgrowth of the bony structure at C-2.
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