COveRs to impRove EsthetiC ouTcome after Surgery for Chronic subdural hemAtoma by buRr hole trepanation—Results of a Swiss Single-Blinded, Randomized Controlled Trial

Neurosurgery 94:955–965, 2024

Burr hole trepanation to evacuate chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) results in bony skull defects that can lead to skin depressions. We intend to study the effect of burr hole covers to prevent skin depressions and improve the esthetic result.

METHODS: In a randomized trial, we enrolled adult patients with symptomatic cSDH. Patients received burr hole trepanation with (intervention) vs without burr hole covers (control) in a 1:1 ratio. Patients requiring evacuation of bilateral cSDHs served as their internal control. Primary outcome was satisfaction with the esthetic result of the scar, measured from 0 (dissatisfied) to 10 (very satisfied) on the Esthetic Numeric Analog (ANA) scale at 90 days. Secondary outcomes included ANA scale, rates of skin depression, complications, as well as neurological, disability, and healthrelated quality of life outcomes until 12 months.

RESULTS: We included 78 patients (55 with unilateral and 23 with bilateral cSDH; median age 78 years, 83% male) between 03/2019 and 05/2021, 50 trepanations for the intervention and 51 for the control group. In an intention-to-treat analysis, the ANA scale scores were 9.0 (intervention) and 8.5 (control arm) at 90 days (P = .498). At 12 months, the ANA scale scores were 9.0 and 8.0 for the intervention and control groups, respectively (P = .183). Skin depressions over the frontal burr hole were noted by 35% (intervention) and 63% (control) of patients at 90 days (P = .009) and by 35% and 79% (P < .001) at 12 months, respectively. There were no differences in complications, neurological, disability, and healthrelated quality of life outcomes.

CONCLUSION: Satisfaction with the esthetic result of the scar was inherently high. This study does not show evidence for improvement on the ANA scale by applying a burr hole cover. The application of burr hole covers resulted in less skin depressions and did not negatively affect complication rates or outcomes.

Automated Preoperative and Postoperative Volume Estimates Risk of Retreatment in Chronic Subdural Hematoma

Neurosurgery 94:317–324, 2024

Several neurosurgical pathologies, ranging from glioblastoma to hemorrhagic stroke, use volume thresholds to guide treatment decisions. For chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH), with a risk of retreatment of 10%–30%, the relationship between preoperative and postoperative cSDH volume and retreatment is not well understood. We investigated the potential link between preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes and retreatment.

METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients operated for unilateral cSDH from 4 level 1 trauma centers, February 2009–August 2021. We used a 3-dimensional deep learning, automated segmentation pipeline to calculate preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes. To identify volume thresholds, we constructed a receiver operating curve with preoperative and postoperative volumes to predict cSDH retreatment rates and selected the threshold with the highest Youden index. Then, we developed a light gradient boosting machine to predict the risk of cSDH recurrence.

RESULTS: We identified 538 patients with unilateral cSDH, of whom 62 (12%) underwent surgical retreatment within 6 months of the index surgery. cSDH retreatment was associated with higher preoperative (122 vs 103 mL; P < .001) and postoperative (62 vs 35 mL; P < .001) volumes. Patients with >140 mL preoperative volume had nearly triple the risk of cSDH recurrence compared with those below 140 mL, while a postoperative volume >46 mL led to an increased risk for retreatment (22% vs 6%; P < .001). On multivariate modeling, our model had an area under the receiver operating curve of 0.76 (95% CI: 0.60-0.93) for predicting retreatment. The most important features were preoperative and postoperative volume, platelet count, and age.

CONCLUSION: Larger preoperative and postoperative cSDH volumes increase the risk of retreatment. Volume thresholds may allow identification of patients at high risk of cSDH retreatment who would benefit from adjunct treatments. Machine learning algorithm can quickly provide accurate estimates of preoperative and postoperative volumes.

Reducing morbidity associated with subdural drain placement after burr‑hole drainage of unilateral chronic subdural hematomas

Acta Neurochirurgica (2023) 165:3207–3215

Placement of a subdural drain after burr-hole drainage of chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH) significantly reduces risk of its recurrence and lowers mortality at 6 months. Nonetheless, measures to reduce morbidity related to drain placement are rarely addressed in the literature. Toward reducing drain-related morbidity, we compare outcomes achieved by conventional insertion and our proposed modification.

Methods In this retrospective series from two institutions, 362 patients underwent burr-hole drainage of unilateral cSDH with subsequent subdural drain insertion by conventional technique or modified Nelaton catheter (NC) technique. Primary endpoints were iatrogenic brain contusion or new neurological deficit. Secondary endpoints were drain misplacement, indication for computed tomography (CT) scan, re-operation for hematoma recurrence, and favorable Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) score (≥ 4) at final follow-up.

Results The 362 patients (63.8% male) in our final analysis included drains inserted in 56 patients by NC and 306 patients by conventional technique. Brain contusions or new neurological deficits occurred significantly less often in the NC (1.8%) than conventional group (10.5%) (P = .041). Compared with the conventional group, the NC group had no drain misplacement (3.6% versus 0%; P = .23) and significantly fewer non-routine CT imaging related to symptoms (36.5% versus 5.4%; P < .001). Re-operation rates and favorable GOS scores were comparable between groups.

Conclusion We propose the NC technique as an easy-to-use measure for accurate drain positioning within the subdural space that may yield meaningful benefits for patients undergoing treatment for cSDH and vulnerable to complication risks.

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization in Adjunction to Surgical Evacuation for Treatment of Subdural Hematomas

Neurosurgery 93:1082–1089, 2023

Surgical evacuation is the standard treatment for chronic subdural hematomas (CSDHs) but is associated with a high risk of recurrence and readmission. Middle meningeal artery embolization (MMAE) is a novel treatment approach which could be performed upfront or in adjunction to surgical evacuation. MMAE studies are limited by small sample sizes. This study aimed to describe and compare outcomes of MMAE in adjunction to surgery with those of surgery alone on a national level.

METHODS: The national Vizient Clinical Database was queried by use of a specific validated set of International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision codes (October 2018-June 2022). Patients with the diagnosis of nontraumatic CSDH who received MMAE and surgical drainage in the same hospitalization were identified, and their outcomes were compared with isolated surgical drainage.

RESULTS: A total of 606 subjects from 156 institutes and 6340 subjects from 369 institutes were included in the MMAE plus surgery (M&S) and surgery groups, respectively. Average length of stay was significantly longer in the M&S group (9.87 vs 7.53 days; P < .01). There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality rate (2.8% vs 2.9%), but the complication rate was significantly higher in the M&S group (8.7% vs 5.5%; P < .01). Complications that were significantly more common in the M&S group included aspiration pneumonia, postoperative sepsis, and anesthesia-related. Mean direct costs were significantly higher in the M&S group (28 834 vs 16 292 US dollars; P < .01). The 30-day readmission rate was significantly lower in the M&S group compared with the surgery group (4.2% vs 8.0%; P < .01).

CONCLUSION: This analysis of large-scale national data indicates that MMAE performed in adjunction to surgery for treatment of CSDH is associated with higher direct costs, higher complication rates, and longer length of stay but lower readmission rates compared with surgical evacuation alone.

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization Versus Conventional Management for Patients With Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery 92:1142–1154, 2023

The results from studies that compare middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization vs conventional management for patients with chronic subdural hematoma are varied.

OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review and meta-analysis on studies that compared MMA embolization vs conventional management.

METHODS: Medline, PubMed, and Embase databases were searched. Primary outcomes were treatment failure and surgical rescue; secondary outcomes were complications, follow-up modified Rankin scale > 2, mortality, complete hematoma resolution, and length of hospital stay (day). The certainty of the evidence was determined using the GRADE approach.

RESULTS: Nine studies yielding 1523 patients were enrolled, of which 337 (22.2%) and 1186 (77.8%) patients received MMA embolization and conventionalmanagement, respectively.MMA embolization was superior to conventional management for treatment failure (relative risk [RR] = 0.34 [0.14-0.82], P = .02), surgical rescue (RR = 0.33 [0.14-0.77], P = .01), and complete hematoma resolution (RR = 2.01 [1.10-3.68], P = .02). There was no difference between the 2 groups for complications (RR= 0.93 [0.63-1.37], P = .72), follow-up modified Rankin scale >2 (RR= 0.78 [0.449-1.25], P= .31), mortality (RR= 1.05 [0.51-2.14], P = .89), and length of hospital stay (mean difference = 0.57 [ 2.55, 1.41], P = .57). ForMMAembolization, the number needed to treat for treatment failure, surgical rescue, and complete hematoma resolution was 7, 9, and 3, respectively. The certainty of the evidence was moderate to high for primary outcomes and low to moderate for secondary outcomes.

CONCLUSION: MMA embolization decreases treatment failure and the need for surgical rescue without furthering the risk of morbidity and mortality. The authors recommend considering MMA embolization in the chronic subdural hematoma management.

Management of Chronic Subdural Hematoma: A Systematic Review and Component Network Meta-analysis of 455 Studies With 103 645 Cases

Neurosurgery 91:842–855, 2022

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common neurosurgical condition with a high risk of recurrence after treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To assess and compare the risk of recurrence, morbidity, and mortality across various treatments for CSDH.

METHODS: A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed. PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, SCOPUS, and Web of Science were searched from January 01, 2000, to July 07, 2021. The primary outcome was recurrence, and secondary outcomes were morbidity and mortality. Component network meta-analyses (CNMAs) were performed for surgical and medical treatments, assessing recurrence and morbidity. Incremental risk ratios (iRRs) with 95% CIs were estimated for each component.

RESULTS: In total, 12 526 citations were identified, and 455 studies with 103 645 cases were included. Recurrence occurred in 11 491/93 525 (10.8%, 95% CI 10.2-11.5, 418 studies) cases after surgery. The use of a postoperative drain (iRR 0.53, 95% CI 0.44-0.63) and middle meningeal artery embolization (iRR 0.19, 95% CI 0.05-0.83) reduced recurrence in the surgical CNMA. In the pharmacological CNMA, corticosteroids (iRR 0.47, 95% CI 0.36- 0.61) and surgical intervention (iRR 0.11, 95% CI 0.07-0.15) were associated with lower risk. Corticosteroids were associated with increased morbidity (iRR 1.34, 95% CI 1.05-1.70). The risk of morbidity was equivalent across surgical treatments.

CONCLUSION: Recurrence after evacuation occurs in approximately 10% of cSDHs, and the various surgical interventions are approximately equivalent. Corticosteroids are associated with reduced recurrence but also increased morbidity. Drains reduce the risk of recurrence, but the position of drain (subdural vs subgaleal) did not influence recurrence. Middle meningeal artery embolization is a promising treatment warranting further evaluation in randomized trials.


Randomized Trial Comparing Burr Hole Craniostomy, Minicraniotomy, and Twist Drill Craniostomy for Treatment of Chronic Subdural Hematoma

Neurosurgery 91:304–311, 2022

The mainstay of treatment for symptomatic or large chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is surgery, but controversy still exists regarding the best surgical technique. Three different techniques are commonly used: burr hole craniostomy (BHC), minicraniotomy (MC), and twist drill craniostomy (TDC).

OBJECTIVE: To determine which surgical technique for drainage of CSDH offers best results.

METHODS: We set up a multicenter prospective randomized trial (Comparison of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Treatment [COMPACT] trial) comparing BHC, MC, and TDC for the surgical treatment of CSDH. The primary end point was reoperation rate, and secondary end points included complication rates and clinical outcome. Patients were considered to have good outcome when they did not undergo reoperation, suffered no surgical or medical complication, and had no related mortality. Clinical outcome was also evaluated by evolution of the Markwalder score and the modified Rankin score.

RESULTS: Two-hundred forty-five patients were included in the final analysis: 79 BHC, 84 MC, and 82 TDC. Mean duration of surgery was shorter for TDC than for BHC and MC (P < .001). Reoperation rate was 7.6% for BHC, 13.1% for MC, and 19.5% for TDC (P = .07). This trend toward better results for BHC was not statistically significant in logistic regression analysis. The proportion of patients with good outcome was 78.5% for BHCgroup, 76.2% for MC, and 69.5% for TDC (P = .4). Evolution of the Markwalder score and modified Rankin score were not significantly different between treatment groups.

CONCLUSION: All 3 techniques are effective at treating patients with CSDH with eventual 6-month outcome being similar. Although not reaching statistical significance in our study, BHC offers the lowest recurrence rate combined with manageable complication rate.

Risk factors of recurrence in chronic subdural hematoma and a proposed extended classification of internal architecture as a predictor of recurrence

Neurosurgical Review (2022) 45:2777–2786

Chronic subdural hematomas (cSDHs) constitute one of the most prevalent intracranial disease entities requiring surgical treatment. Although mostly taking a benign course, recurrence after treatment is common and associated with additional morbidity and costs.

Aim of this study was to develop hematoma-specific characteristics associated with risk of recurrence. All consecutive patients treated for cSDH in a single university hospital between 2015 and 2019 were retrospectively considered for inclusion. Size, volume, and midline shift were noted alongside relevant patient-specific factors. We applied an extended morphological classification system based on internal architecture in CT imaging consisting of eight hematoma subtypes. A logistic regression model was used to assess the classification’s performance on predicting hematoma recurrence.

Recurrence was observed in 122 (32.0%) of 381 included patients. Apart from postoperative depressed brain volume (OR 1.005; 95% CI 1.000 to 1.010; p = 0.048), neither demographic nor factors related to patient comorbidity affected recurrence. The extended hematoma classification was identified as a significant predictor of recurrence (OR 1.518; 95% CI 1.275 to 1.808; p < 0.001). The highest recurrence rates were observed in hematomas of the homogenous (isodense: 41.4%; hypodense: 45.0%) and sedimented (50.0%) types.

Our results support that internal architecture subtypes might represent stages in the natural history of chronic subdural hematoma. Detection and treatment at a later stage of spontaneous repair can result in a reduced risk of recurrence. Based on their high risk of recurrence, we advocate follow-up after treatment of sedimented and homogenous hematomas.

Middle Meningeal Artery Embolization Versus Conventional Treatment of Chronic Subdural Hematomas

Neurosurgery 89:486–495, 2021

Middle meningeal artery (MMA) embolization is an emerging minimally invasive endovascular technique for chronic subdural hematoma (cSDH). Currently, limited literature exists on its safety and efficacy compared with conventional treatment (open- surgical-evacuation-only).

OBJECTIVE: To compare MMA embolization to conventional treatment.

METHODS: Retrospective analysis of patients with cSDHs treated with MMA embolization in a single center from 2018 to 2019 was performed. Comparisons were made with a historical conventional treatment cohort from 2006 to 2016. Propensity score matching analysis was used to assemble a balanced group of subjects.
RESULTS: A total of 357 conventionally treated cSDH and 45 with MMA embolization were included. After balancing with propensity score matching, a total of 25 pairs of cSDH were analyzed. Comparing the embolization with the conventional treatment group yielded no significant differences in complications (4% vs 4%; P > .99), clinical improvement (82.6% vs 83.3%; P = .95), cSDH recurrence (4.3% vs 21.7%; P = .08), overall re-intervention rates (12% vs 24%; P = .26), modified Rankin scale >2 on last follow-up (17.4% vs 32%; P = .24), as well as mortality (0% vs 12%; P = .09). Radiographic improvement at last follow-up was significantly higher in the open surgery cohort (73.9% vs 95.6%; P = .04). However, there was a trend for lengthier last follow-up for the historical cohort (72 vs 104 d; P = .07).

CONCLUSION: There was a trend for lower recurrence and mortality rates in the embolization era cohort. There were significantly higher radiological improvement rates on last follow-up in the surgical only cohort era. There were no significant differences in complications and clinical improvement.

Risk factors for developing subdural hematoma: a registry-based study in 1457 patients with shunted idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus

J Neurosurg 134:668–677, 2021

Subdural hematomas and hygromas (SDHs) are common complications in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) patients with shunts. In this registry-based study, patients with shunted iNPH were screened nationwide to identify perioperative variables that may increase the risk of SDH.

METHODS The Swedish Hydrocephalus Quality Registry was reviewed for iNPH patients who had undergone shunt surgery in Sweden in 2004–2014. Potential risk factors for SDH were recorded preoperatively and 3 months after surgery. Drug prescriptions were identified from a national pharmacy database. Patients who developed SDHs were compared with those without SDHs.

RESULTS The study population consisted of 1457 patients, 152 (10.4%) of whom developed an SDH. Men developed an SDH more often than women (OR 2.084, 95% CI 1.421–3.058, p < 0.001). Patients on platelet aggregation inhibitors developed an SDH more often than those who were not (OR 1.733, 95% CI 1.236–2.431, p = 0.001). At surgery, shunt opening pressures had been set 5.9 mm H2O lower in the SDH group than in the no-SDH group (109.6 ± 24.1 vs 115.5 ± 25.4 mm H2O, respectively, p = 0.009). Antisiphoning devices (ASDs) were used in 892 patients but did not prevent SDH. Mean opening pressures at surgery and the follow-up were lower with shunts with an ASD, without causing more SDHs. No other differences were seen between the groups.

CONCLUSIONS iNPH patients in this study were diagnosed and operated on in routine practice; thus, the results represent everyday care. Male sex, antiplatelet medication, and a lower opening pressure at surgery were risk factors for SDH. Physical status and comorbidity were not. ASD did not prevent SDH, but a shunt with an ASD allowed a lower opening pressure without causing more SDHs.

Assessment of drainage techniques for evacuation of chronic subdural hematoma

J Neurosurg 133:1113–1119, 2017

Surgery for chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is one of the most common neurosurgical procedures. The benefit of postoperative passive subdural drainage compared with no drains has been established, but other drainage techniques are common, and their effectiveness compared with passive subdural drains remains unknown.

METHODS In Scandinavian population-based cohorts the authors conducted a consecutive, parallel cohort study to compare different drainage techniques. The techniques used were continuous irrigation and drainage (CID cohort, n = 166), passive subdural drainage (PD cohort, n = 330), and active subgaleal drainage (AD cohort, n = 764). The primary end point was recurrence in need of reoperation within 6 months of index surgery. Secondary end points were complications, perioperative mortality, and overall survival. The analyses were based on direct regional comparison (i.e., surgical strategy).

RESULTS Recurrence in need of surgery was observed in 18 patients (10.8%) in the CID cohort, in 66 patients (20.0%) in the PD cohort, and in 85 patients (11.1%) in the AD cohort (p < 0.001). Complications were more common in the CID cohort (14.5%) compared with the PD (7.3%) and AD (8.1%) cohorts (p = 0.019). Perioperative mortality rates were similar between cohorts (p = 0.621). There were some differences in baseline and treatment characteristics possibly interfering with the above-mentioned results. However, after adjusting for differences in baseline and treatment characteristics in a regression model, the drainage techniques were still significantly associated with clinical outcome (p < 0.001 for recurrence, p = 0.017 for complications).

CONCLUSIONS Compared with the AD cohort, more recurrences were observed in the PD cohort and more complications in the CID cohort, also after adjustment for differences at baseline. Although the authors cannot exclude unmeasured confounding factors when comparing centers, AD appears superior to the more common PD.

The Danish Chronic Subdural Hematoma Study—comparison of hematoma age to the radiological appearance at time of diagnosis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:2007–2013

Chronic subdural hematomas (CSDH) show different radiological characteristics on CT scans at the time of diagnosis. The reason for this is largely unknown. We hypothesize that the imaging characteristics reflect a time-linked pathophysiological evolution. We therefore conducted a retrospective study to examine a possible relation between the hematoma age and the radiological subtype of a CSDH.

Methods Demographic data on patients with CSDH were retrieved from a Danish national cohort from 2010 to 2012. CT scans obtained on admission to a neurosurgical department were categorized as homogenous, separated, mixed, or membranous hematoma subtypes. The time from a known date of head injury to time of diagnostic CT was defined as hematoma age. The hematoma age was correlated to radiological hematoma subtype at the time of diagnosis by analysis of variance testing.

Results In total, 543 patients were analyzed for hematoma age and classified in the following hematoma subtypes: 231 homogenous, 44 separated, 119 mixed, and 149 membranous. Patients with homogenous, separated, mixed, and membranous hematoma subtypes had a median interval of 37, 36, 40, and 60 days from head injury to diagnostic CT. We found that membranous hematoma is significantly older than other subtypes. Comparison between the other radiological subtypes showed no statistical hematoma age difference. The distribution of radiological subtypes in 590 patients without a known head injury was similar to that of patients with a known head injury. Additionally, we found that hematoma age was significantly younger for patients on antiplatelet medication.

Conclusion In this large national cohort, patients with membranous CSDH had a significantly longer interval between head injury and diagnosis compared to other radiological subtypes. This indicates that the radiological appearance of CSDH evolves over time, causing an alteration from different early radiological subtypes to a radiological subtype with membranes.

Clinical trial registration number The study was approved by the Danish Data Protection Agency (journal no.30-1145).

Embolization of the middle meningeal artery in patients with chronic subdural hematoma—a systematic review and meta-analysis

Acta Neurochirurgica (2020) 162:777–784

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) remains a neurosurgical condition with high recurrence rate after surgical treatment. The primary pathological mechanism is considered to be repeated microbleedings from fragile neo-vessels within the outer hematoma membrane. The neo-vessels are supplied from peripheral branches of the middle meningeal artery, and embolization of MMA (eMMA) has been performed to prevent re-bleeding episodes and thereby CSDH recurrence.

Objective To evaluate the published evidence for the effect of eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH. Secondarily, to investigate the effect of eMMA as an alternative to surgery for primary treatment of CSDH. Method A systematic review of the literature on eMMA in patients with recurrent CSDH was conducted. PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases were reviewed using the search terms: Embolization, Medial Meningeal Artery, Chronic Subdural Haematoma, and Recurrence. Furthermore, the following mesh terms were used: Chronic Subdural Haematoma AND embolization AND medial meningeal artery AND recurrence. Eighteen papers were found and included. No papers were excluded. The number of patients with primary CSDH and the number of patients with recurrent CSDH treated with eMMA were listed. Furthermore, the number of recurrences in both categories was registered.

Results Eighteen papers with a total of 191 included patients diagnosed with CSDH treated with eMMA for primary and recurrent CSDH were identified. Recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMA for recurrent CSDH was found to be 2.4%, 95%CI (0.5%; 11.0%), whereas the recurrence rate for patients treated with eMMAfor primary CSDH was 4.1%, 95%CI (1.4%; 11.4%).

Conclusion eMMA is a minimally invasive procedure for treatment of CSDH. Although this study is limited by publication bias, it seems that this procedure may reduce recurrence rates compared with burr hole craniostomy for both primary and recurrent hematomas. A controlled study is warranted.

Does Drain Position and Duration Influence Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Burr-Hole Evacuation of Chronic Subdural Hematoma?

Neurosurgery, Volume 85, Issue 4, October 2019, Pages 486–493

Drain insertion following chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) evacuation improves patient outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: To examine whether this is influenced by variation in drain location, positioning or duration of placement.

METHODS: We performed a subgroup analysis of a previously reported multicenter, prospective cohort study of CSDH patients performed between May 2013 and January 2014. Data were analyzed relating drain location (subdural or subgaleal), position (through a frontal or parietal burr hole), and duration of insertion, to outcomes in patients aged >16 yr undergoing burr-hole drainage of primary CSDH. Primary outcomes comprised modified Rankin scale (mRS) at discharge and symptomatic recurrence requiring redrainage within 60 d.

RESULTS: A total of 577 patients were analyzed. The recurrence rate of 6.7% (12/160) in the frontal subdural drain group was comparable to 8.8% (30/343) in the parietal subdural drain group. Only 44/577 (7.6%) patients underwent subgaleal drain insertion. Recurrence rates were comparable between subdural (7.7%; 41/533) and subgaleal (9.1%; 4/44) groups (P = .95). We found no significant differences in discharge mRS between these groups. Recurrence rates were comparable between patients with postoperative drainage for 1 or 2 d, 6.4% and 8.4%, respectively (P = .44). There was no significant difference in mRS scores between these 2 groups (P = .56).

CONCLUSION: Drain insertion after CSDH drainage is important, but position (subgaleal or subdural) and duration did not appear to influence recurrence rate or clinical outcomes. Similarly, drain location did not influence recurrence rate nor outcomes where both parietal and frontal burr holes were made. Further prospective cohort studies or randomized controlled trials could provide further clarification.

The Danish chronic subdural hematoma study—predicting recurrence of chronic subdural hematoma

Acta Neurochirurgica (2019) 161:885–894

An increasing incidence of chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) and an unchanging high recurrence rate of 10–20% call for individualized treatment. The aim of this study was to establish individualized prediction models for the risk of recurrence treating death as a competing risk.

Methods A retrospective national cohort of unilateral CSDH was included for analysis. Using competing risk survival analysis, we tested whether available covariates were associated with the risk of recurrence. We further established a preand a postoperative prediction model, where predictors were chosen using a LASSO approach. The models were visualized in nomograms. Predictive performance was evaluated by c index and calibrations plots.

Results A total of 763 patients with surgically evacuated unilateral CSDH were included for analysis. The recurrence rate was 14% while 12% of patients died during follow-up (1 year). In our association model, hematoma size, drain type, drainage time, presence of complications, and Glasgow Coma Score were significantly associated to recurrence. Subdural drain was associated with a lower recurrence risk than subgaleal drain. The preoperative model included hematoma size, hematoma density, and history of hypertension. The postoperative model included further drain type, drainage time, and surgical complications.

Conclusion The nomograms allow easy assessment of the recurrence risk for the individual patient, providing a better possibility for individual adjustment of treatment and follow-up. The predictive performance indicates that significant unaccounted or unknown factors still remain. The association test found passive subdural drain superior to passive subgaleal drain in minimizing the risk of CSDH recurrence

Improving the aesthetic outcome with burr hole cover placement in chronic subdural hematoma evacuation

Acta Neurochirurgica (2018) 160:2129–2135

The aesthetic outcome after burr hole trepanation for the evacuation of chronic subdural hematomas (cSDH) is often unsatisfactory, as the bony skull defects may cause visible skin depressions. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of burr hole cover placement to improve the aesthetic outcome.

Methods We reviewed consecutive patients treated by burr hole trepanation for cSDH with or without placement of burr hole covers by a single surgeon between October 2016 and May 2018. The clinical data, including complications, were derived from the institution’s prospective patient registry. The primary endpoint was the aesthetic outcome, as perceived by patients on the aesthetic numeric analog (ANA) scale, assessed by means of a standardized telephone interview. Secondary endpoints were skin depression rates and wound pain, as well as complications.

Results From n = 33, outcome evaluation was possible in n = 28 patients (n = 24 male; mean age of 70.4 ± 16.1 years) with uni- (n = 20) or bilateral cSDH (n = 8). A total of 14 burr hole covers were placed in 11 patients and compared to 50 burr holes that were not covered. Patient satisfaction with the aesthetic outcome was significantly better for covered burr holes (mean ANA 9.3 ± 0.74 vs. 7.9 ± 1.0; p < 0.001). Skin depressions occurred over 7% (n = 1/14) of covered and over 92%(n = 46/50) of uncovered burr holes (p < 0.001). There was no difference in wound pain (p = 0.903) between covered and uncovered sites. No surgical site infection, cSDH recurrence, or material failure was encountered in patients who had received a burr hole plate.

Conclusions In this retrospective series, placement of burr hole covers was associated with improved aesthetic outcome, likely due to reduction of skin depressions. A randomized controlled trial is developed to investigate whether adding burr hole covers results in superior aesthetic outcomes, without increasing the risk for complications.

A Reliable Grading System for Prediction of Chronic Subdural Hematoma Recurrence Requiring Reoperation After Initial Burr-Hole Surgery

Neurosurgery 81:752–760, 2017

There is no widely adopted grading system for the prediction of postoperative recurrence requiring reoperation (RrR) in patients with chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH).

OBJECTIVE: We developed a CSDH grading system to predict RrR based on predictive characteristics that can be objectively assessed at the time of first presentation and initial surgery.

METHODS: Prospectively collected data from 107 consecutive surgical patients with CSDH were reviewed. Predictors of RrR were identified via logistic and lasso regression analyses. A prognostic CSDH grading system was proposed, with the weighing of predictors based on strength of association. The scoring systemwas then applied to the same set of patients in our database for internal validation.

RESULTS: The strongest predictors of RrR were an isodense or hyperdense lesions and laminar or separated lesions, and a postoperative CSDH cavity volume greater than 200 mL. The moderate predictors of RrR were a postoperative CSDH cavity volume of 80 to 200 mL and a preoperative CSDH volume greater than 130 mL. According to the prognostic CSDH grading system, no patients with a score of 0 points had RrR. RrR was observed in 6% of patients with a score of 1 to 2 points, 30% of patients with a score of 3 to 4 points, and 63% of patients with a score of 5 points (ie, the maximum score). The rate of RrR increased steadily with increases in the prognostic CSDH grading score (P < .001).

CONCLUSION: The prognostic CSDH grading system is an applicable tool for RrR risk stratification in patients with CSDH.


Predictive factors for recurrence and clinical outcomes in patients with chronic subdural hematoma

J Neurosurg 127:1117–1125, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common type of intracranial hemorrhage in elderly patients. Many studies have suggested various factors that may be associated with the recurrence of CSDH. However, the results are inconsistent. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations among patient factors, recurrence, and clinical outcomes of CSDH after burr hole surgery performed during an 11-year period at twin hospitals.

METHODS Kaplan-Meier analysis was performed to evaluate the risk factors for CSDH recurrence. Univariate and multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analyses were used to calculate hazard ratios with 95% CIs for CSDH recurrence based on many variables. One-way repeated-measures ANOVA was used to assess the differences in the mean modified Rankin Scale score between categories for each risk factor during each admission and at the last follow-up.

RESULTS This study was a retrospective analysis of 756 consecutive patients with CSDH who underwent burr hole surgery at the Hanyang University Medical Center (Seoul and Guri) between January 1, 2004, and December 31, 2014. During the 6-month follow-up, 104 patients (13.8%) with recurrence after surgery for CSDH were identified. Independent risk factors for recurrence were as follows: age > 75 years (HR 1.72, 95% CI 1.03–2.88; p = 0.039), obesity (body mass index ≥ 25.0 kg/m2), and a bilateral operation.

CONCLUSIONS This study determined the risk factors for recurrence of CSDH and their effects on outcomes. Further studies are needed to account for these observations and to determine their underlying mechanisms.

The management and outcome for patients with chronic subdural hematoma: a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study in the United Kingdom

J Neurosurg 127:732–739, 2017

Symptomatic chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) will become an increasingly common presentation in neurosurgical practice as the population ages, but quality evidence is still lacking to guide the optimal management for these patients. The British Neurosurgical Trainee Research Collaborative (BNTRC) was established by neurosurgical trainees in 2012 to improve research by combining the efforts of trainees in each of the United Kingdom (UK) and Ireland’s neurosurgical units (NSUs). The authors present the first study by the BNTRC that describes current management and outcomes for patients with CSDH throughout the UK and Ireland. This provides a resource both for current clinical practice and future clinical research on CSDH.

METHODS Data on management and outcomes for patients with CSDH referred to UK and Ireland NSUs were collected prospectively over an 8-month period and audited against criteria predefined from the literature: NSU mortality < 5%, NSU morbidity < 10%, symptomatic recurrence within 60 days requiring repeat surgery < 20%, and unfavorable functional status (modified Rankin Scale score of 4–6) at NSU discharge < 30%.

RESULTS: Data from 1205 patients in 26 NSUs were collected. Bur-hole craniostomy was the most common procedure (89%), and symptomatic recurrence requiring repeat surgery within 60 days was observed in 9% of patients. Criteria on mortality (2%), rate of recurrence (9%), and unfavorable functional outcome (22%) were met, but morbidity was greater than expected (14%). Multivariate analysis demonstrated that failure to insert a drain intraoperatively independently predicted recurrence and unfavorable functional outcome (p = 0.011 and p = 0.048, respectively). Increasing patient age (p < 0.00001), postoperative bed rest (p = 0.019), and use of a single bur hole (p = 0.020) independently predicted unfavorable functional outcomes, but prescription of high-flow oxygen or preoperative use of antiplatelet medications did not.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the largest prospective CSDH study and helps establish national standards. It has confirmed in a real-world setting the effectiveness of placing a subdural drain. This study identified a number of modifiable prognostic factors but questions the necessity of some common aspects of CSDH management, such as enforced postoperative bed rest. Future studies should seek to establish how practitioners can optimize perioperative care of patients with CSDH to reduce morbidity as well as minimize CSDH recurrence. The BNTRC is unique worldwide, conducting multicenter trainee-led research and audits. This study demonstrates that collaborative research networks are powerful tools to interrogate clinical research questions.

Hematoma growth after unilateral drainage of bilateral CSDH

J Neurosurg 126:755–759, 2017

Chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) is a common form of intracranial hemorrhage with a recurrence rate of 9.2%–26.5% after bur hole surgery. Occasionally patients with bilateral CSDH undergo unilateral surgery because the contralateral hematoma is deemed to be asymptomatic, and in some of these patients the contralateral hematoma may subsequently enlarge, requiring additional surgery. The authors investigated the factors related to the growth of these hematomas.

METHODS Ninety-three patients with bilateral CSDH who underwent unilateral bur hole surgery at Aizu Chuo Hospital were included in a retrospective analysis. Findings on preoperative MRI, preoperative thickness of the drained hema-toma, and the influence of antiplatelet or anticoagulant drugs were considered and evaluated in univariate and multivari-ate analyses.

RESULTS The overall growth rate was 19% (18 of 93 hematomas), and a significantly greater percentage of the hematomas that were iso- or hypointense on preoperative T1-weighted imaging showed growth compared with other hematomas (35.4% vs 2.3%, p < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that findings on preoperative T1-weighted MRI were the sole significant predictor of hematoma growth, and other factors such as antiplatelet or anti-coagulant drug use, patient age, patient sex, thickness of the treated hematoma, and T2-weighted MRI findings were not significantly related to hematoma growth. The adjusted odds ratio for hematoma growth in the T1 isointense/hypointense group relative to the T1 hyperintense group was 25.12 (95% CI 3.89–51.58, p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS The findings of preoperative MRI, namely T1-weighted sequences, may be useful in predicting the growth of hematomas that did not undergo bur hole surgery in patients with bilateral CSDH.