Delayed coil migration into oropharynx following endovascular coiling of a traumatic carotid cavernous fistula

Acta Neurochirurgica (2022) 164:1287–1292

Carotid-cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal vascular shunts between the carotid artery and the cavernous sinus.

A 37-year-old male presented with a traumatic CCF and basal skull fracture extending through the medial wall of the cavernous sinus and sphenoid sinus. The CCF was treated with endovascular coiling.

Three months after this procedure, he was found to have coil migration through the traumatic sphenoid defect into the pharynx. He underwent urgent endonasal endoscopic surgery to disconnect and remove the extruded coil.

Post-operative coil migration is a rare but serious complication following endovascular treatment of traumatic CCF.

Safety, Efficacy, and Durability of Stent Plus Balloon-Assisted Coiling for the Treatment of Wide-Necked Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 88:1028–1037, 2021

Wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms remain a challenge for endovascular surgeons. Dual-stent-assisted coiling techniques have been defined to treat bifurcation aneurysms with a complex neck morphology. However, there are still concerns about the safety of dual-stenting procedures. Stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a recently described endovascular technique that enables the coiling of wide-necked complex bifurcation aneurysms by implanting only a single stent.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the feasibility, efficacy, safety, and durability of this technique for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms.

METHODS: A retrospective review was performed of patients with wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with stent plus balloon-assisted coiling. The initial and follow-up clinical and angiographic outcomeswere assessed. Preprocedural and follow-up clinical statuses were assessed using modified Rankin scale.

RESULTS: A total of 61 patients (mean age: 54.6 ± 10.4 yr) were included in the study. The immediate postprocedural digital subtraction angiography revealed complete aneurysm occlusion in 86.9% of the cases. A periprocedural complication developed in 11.5% of the cases. We observed a delayed ischemic complication in 4.9%. There was no mortality in this study. The permanent morbidity rate was 3.3%. The follow-up angiography was performed in 55 of 61 patients (90.1%) (the mean follow-up period was 25.5 ± 27.3 mo). The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion at the final angiographic follow-up was 89.1%. The retreatment rate was 1.8%.

CONCLUSION: The results of this study showed that stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a feasible, effective, and relatively safe endovascular technique for the treatment of widenecked bifurcation aneurysms located in the posterior and anterior circulation.

Stent PlusBalloon-Assisted Coiling for the Treatment ofWide-Necked Intracranial Bifurcation Aneurysms

Neurosurgery 88:1028–1037, 2021

Wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms remain a challenge for endovascular surgeons. Dual-stent-assisted coiling techniques have been defined to treat bifurcation aneurysms with a complex neck morphology. However, there are still concerns about the safety of dual-stenting procedures. Stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a recently described endovascular technique that enables the coiling of wide-necked complex bifurcation aneurysms by implanting only a single stent.

OBJECTIVE:To investigate the feasibility, efficacy, safety, and durability of this technique for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms.

METHODS:A retrospective review was performed of patients with wide-necked intracranial bifurcation aneurysms treated with stent plus balloon-assisted coiling. The initial and follow-up clinical and angiographic outcomes were assessed. Preprocedural and follow-up clinical statuses were assessed using modified Rankin scale.

RESULTS:A total of 61 patients (mean age: 54.6±10.4 yr) were included in the study. The immediate postprocedural digital subtraction angiography revealed complete aneurysm occlusion in 86.9% of the cases. A periprocedural complication developed in 11.5% of the cases. We observed a delayed ischemic complication in 4.9%. There was no mortality in this study. The permanent morbidity rate was 3.3%. The follow-up angiography was performed in 55 of 61 patients (90.1%) (the mean follow-up period was 25.5±27.3 mo).The rate of complete aneurysm occlusion at the final angiographic follow-up was 89.1%. The retreatment rate was 1.8%.

CONCLUSION:The results of this study showed that stent plus balloon-assisted coiling is a feasible, effective, and relatively safe endovascular technique for the treatment of wide-necked bifurcation aneurysms located in the posterior and anterior circulation.

 

Early postmarket results with PulseRider for treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms: a multicenter experience

J Neurosurg 133:1756–1765, 2020

Traditionally, stent-assisted coiling and balloon remodeling have been the primary endovascular treatments for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with complex morphologies. PulseRider is an aneurysm neck reconstruction device that provides parent vessel protection for aneurysm coiling. The objective of this study was to report early postmarket results with the PulseRider device.

METHODS This study was a prospective registry of patients treated with PulseRider at 13 American neurointerventional centers following FDA approval of this device. Data collected included clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment details, and perioperative events. Follow-up data included degree of aneurysm occlusion and delayed (> 30 days after the procedure) complications.

RESULTS A total of 54 aneurysms were treated, with the same number of PulseRider devices, across 13 centers. Fourteen cases were in off-label locations (7 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, and 1 A1 segment anterior cerebral artery aneurysms). The average dome/neck ratio was 1.2. Technical success was achieved in 52 cases (96.2%). Major complications included the following: 3 procedure-related posterior cerebral artery strokes, a devicerelated intraoperative aneurysm rupture, and a delayed device thrombosis. Immediately postoperative Raymond-Roy occlusion classification (RROC) class 1 was achieved in 21 cases (40.3%), class 2 in 15 (28.8%), and class 3 in 16 cases (30.7%). Additional devices were used in 3 aneurysms. For those patients with 3- or 6-month angiographic follow-up (28 patients), 18 aneurysms (64.2%) were RROC class 1 and 8 (28.5%) were RROC class 2.

CONCLUSIONS PulseRider is being used in both on- and off-label cases following FDA approval. The clinical and radiographic outcomes are comparable in real-world experience to the outcomes observed in earlier studies. Further experience is needed with the device to determine its role in the neurointerventionalist’s armamentarium, especially with regard to its off-label use.

PulseRider for treatment of wide-necked intracranial aneurysms: a multicenter experience

J Neurosurg 133:1756–1765, 2020

Traditionally, stent-assisted coiling and balloon remodeling have been the primary endovascular treatments for wide-necked intracranial aneurysms with complex morphologies. PulseRider is an aneurysm neck reconstruction device that provides parent vessel protection for aneurysm coiling. The objective of this study was to report early postmarket results with the PulseRider device.

METHODS This study was a prospective registry of patients treated with PulseRider at 13 American neurointerventional centers following FDA approval of this device. Data collected included clinical presentation, aneurysm characteristics, treatment details, and perioperative events. Follow-up data included degree of aneurysm occlusion and delayed (> 30 days after the procedure) complications.

RESULTS A total of 54 aneurysms were treated, with the same number of PulseRider devices, across 13 centers. Fourteen cases were in off-label locations (7 anterior communicating artery, 6 middle cerebral artery, and 1 A1 segment anterior cerebral artery aneurysms). The average dome/neck ratio was 1.2. Technical success was achieved in 52 cases (96.2%). Major complications included the following: 3 procedure-related posterior cerebral artery strokes, a devicerelated intraoperative aneurysm rupture, and a delayed device thrombosis. Immediately postoperative Raymond-Roy occlusion classification (RROC) class 1 was achieved in 21 cases (40.3%), class 2 in 15 (28.8%), and class 3 in 16 cases (30.7%). Additional devices were used in 3 aneurysms. For those patients with 3- or 6-month angiographic follow-up (28 patients), 18 aneurysms (64.2%) were RROC class 1 and 8 (28.5%) were RROC class 2.

CONCLUSIONS PulseRider is being used in both on- and off-label cases following FDA approval. The clinical and radiographic outcomes are comparable in real-world experience to the outcomes observed in earlier studies. Further experience is needed with the device to determine its role in the neurointerventionalist’s armamentarium, especially with regard to its off-label use.

Is 3 years adequate for tracking completely occluded coiled aneurysms?

J Neurosurg 133:758–764, 2020

The authors conducted a study to ascertain the long-term durability of coiled aneurysms completely occluded at 36 months’ follow-up given the potential for delayed recanalization.

METHODS In this retrospective review, the authors examined 299 patients with 339 aneurysms, all shown to be completely occluded at 36 months on follow-up images obtained between 2011 and 2013. Medical records and radiological data acquired during the extended monitoring period (mean 74.3 ± 22.5 months) were retrieved, and the authors analyzed the incidence of (including mean annual risk) and risk factors for delayed recanalization.

RESULTS A total of 5 coiled aneurysms (1.5%) occluded completely at 36 months showed recanalization (0.46% per aneurysm-year) during the long-term surveillance period (1081.9 aneurysm-years), 2 surfacing within 60 months and 3 developing thereafter. Four showed minor recanalization, with only one instance of major recanalization. The latter involved the posterior communicating artery as an apparent de novo lesion, arising at the neck of a firmly coiled sac, and was unrelated to coil compaction or growth. Additional embolization was undertaken. In a multivariate analysis, a second embolization for a recurrent aneurysm (HR = 22.088, p = 0.003) independently correlated with delayed recanalization.

CONCLUSIONS Almost all coiled aneurysms (98.5%) showing complete occlusion at 36 months postembolization proved to be stable during extended observation. However, recurrent aneurysms were predisposed to delayed recanalization. Given the low probability yet seriousness of delayed recanalization and the possibility of de novo aneurysm formation, careful monitoring may be still considered in this setting but at less frequent intervals beyond 36 months.

Outcomes of Retreatment for Intracranial Aneurysms—A Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery. 2019 Dec 1;85(6):750-761

Long-term results from the International Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Trial (ISAT) and Barrow Ruptured Aneurysm Trial (BRAT) indicate considerably higher retreatment rates for aneurysms treated with coiling compared to clipping, but do not report the outcome of retreatment.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate retreatment related outcomes.

METHODS: A meta-analysis in accordance with PRISMA guidelines was conducted using Medline search engines PubMed and EMBASE to identify articles describing outcomes after retreatment for intracranial aneurysms. Pooled prevalence rates for complete occlusion rate and mortality were calculated. Outcomes of different treatment and retreatment combinations were not compared because of indication bias.

RESULTS: Twenty-five articles that met the inclusion criteria were included in the metaanalysis. Surgery after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 91.2% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 87.0-94.1) and a pooled mortality rate of 5.6% (95% CI: 3.7-8.3). Coiling after coiling had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 51.3% (95% CI: 22.1-78.0) and a pooled mortality rate of 0.8% (95% CI: 0.15-3.7). Surgery after surgery did not provide a pooled estimate for complete occlusion as only one study was identified but had a pooled mortality rate of 5.9% (95% CI: 3.1-11.2). Coiling after surgery had a pooled complete occlusion rate of 56.1% (95% CI: 11.4-92.7) and a pooled mortality rate of 9.3% (95% CI: 4.1- 19.9). All pooled incidence rates were produced using random-effect models.

CONCLUSION: Surgical retreatment was associated with a high complete occlusion rate but considerable mortality. Conversely, endovascular retreatment was associated with low mortality but also a low complete occlusion rate.

Management of recurrent intracranial aneurysms after coil embolization: a novel classification scheme based on angiography

J Neurosurg 131:1455–1461, 2019

Recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization remain a challenging issue. The goal of the present study was to report the authors’ experience with recurrent aneurysms after coil embolization and to discuss the radiographic classification scheme and recommended management strategy.

METHODS Aneurysm treatments from a single institution over a 6-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Ninetyseven aneurysms that recurred after initial coiling were managed during the study period. Recurrent aneurysms were classified into the following 5 types based on their angiographic characteristics: I, pure recanalization inside the aneurysm sac; II, pure coil compaction without aneurysm growth; III, new aneurysm neck formed without coil compaction; IV, new aneurysm neck formed with coil compaction; and V, newly formed aneurysm neck and sac.

RESULTS Aneurysm recurrences resulted in rehemorrhages in 6 cases (6.2%) of type III–V aneurysms, but in none of type I–II aneurysms. There was a significantly higher proportion of ophthalmic artery aneurysms and complex internal carotid artery aneurysms presenting as types I and II than presented as the other 3 types (63.3% vs 16.4%, p < 0.001). In contrast, for posterior communicating artery aneurysms and anterior communicating artery aneurysms, a higher proportion of type III–V aneurysms was observed than for the other 2 types, but without a significant difference in the multivariate model (56.7% vs 23.3%). In addition, giant (> 25 mm) aneurysms were more common among type I and II lesions than among type III and IV aneurysms (36.7% vs 9.0%, p = 0.001), which exhibited a higher proportion of small (< 10 mm) lesions (65.7% vs 13.3%, p < 0.001). A single reembolization procedure was sufficient to occlude 80.0% of type I recurrences and 83.3% of type II recurrences from coil compaction but only 65.6% of type III–V recurrences from aneurysm regrowth.

CONCLUSIONS Aneurysm size and location represent the determining factors of the angiographic recurrence types. Type I and II recurrences were safely treated by reembolization, whereas type III–V recurrences may be best managed surgically when technically feasible.

Neck Remnants and the Risk of Aneurysm Rupture After Endovascular TreatmentWith Coiling or Stent-Assisted Coiling

Neurosurgery 84:421–427, 2019

Neck remnants are not uncommon after endovascular treatment of cerebral aneurysms. Critics of endovascular treatments for cerebral aneurysms cite neck remnants as evidence in favor of microsurgical clipping. However, studies have failed to evaluate the true clinical significance of aneurysm neck remnants following endovascular therapies.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the clinical significance of residual aneurysm necks and to determine the rate of subsequent rupture following coiling or stent-assisted coiling of cerebral aneurysms.

METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 1292 aneurysm cases that underwent endovascular treatment at 4 institutions. Aneurysms treated by primary coiling or stent-assisted coiling were included in the study; those treated by flow diversion were excluded Aneurysms with residual filling (i.e., Raymond–Roy Occlusion Classification II, neck remnant; or III, residual aneurysm filling) were assessed for their risk of subsequent rupture.

RESULTS: A total of 626 aneurysms were identified as having residual filling immediately posttreatment. Of these, 13 aneurysms (2.1%) ruptured during the follow-up period (mean 7.3 mo; range 1-84 mo). Eleven of the 13 (84.6%) were ruptured at presentation. Rupture at presentation, the size of the aneurysm, and the increasing age of the patient were predictive of posttreatment rupture.

CONCLUSION: We found that unruptured aneurysms with residual necks following endovascular treatment posed a very low risk of rupture (0.6%). However, patients presenting with ruptured aneurysms had a higher risk of rerupture from a neck remnant (3.4%). These results highlight the importance of achieving complete angiographic occlusion of ruptured aneurysms.

Coiling Versus Microsurgical Clipping in the Treatment of Unruptured Middle Cerebral Artery Aneurysms: A Meta-Analysis

Neurosurgery 83:879–889, 2018

Open microsurgical clipping of unruptured intracranial aneurysms has long been the gold standard, yet advancements in endovascular coiling techniques have begun to challenge the status quo. OBJECTIVE: To compare endovascular coiling with microsurgical clipping among adults with unruptured middle cerebral artery aneurysms (MCAA) by conducting a meta-analysis.

METHODS: A systematic search was conducted from January 2011 to October 2015 to update a previous meta-analysis. All studies that reported unruptured MCAA in adults treated by microsurgical clipping or endovascular coiling were included and cumulatively analyzed.

RESULTS: Thirty-seven studies including 3352 patients were included. Using the randomeffects model, pooled analysis of 11 studies of microsurgical clipping (626 aneurysms) revealed complete aneurysmal obliteration in 94.2% of cases (95% confidence interval [CI] 87.6%-97.4%). The analysis of 18 studies of endovascular coiling (759 aneurysms) revealed complete obliteration in 53.2% of cases (95% CI: 45.0%-61.1%). Among clipping studies, 22 assessed neurological outcomes (2404 aneurysms), with favorable outcomes in 97.9% (95% CI: 96.8%-98.6%). Among coiling studies, 22 examined neurological outcomes (826 aneurysms), with favorable outcomes in 95.1% (95% CI: 93.1%-96.5%). Results using the fixed-effect models were not materially different.

CONCLUSION: This updated meta-analysis demonstrates that surgical clipping for unruptured MCAA remains highly safe and efficacious. Endovascular treatment for unruptured MCAAs continues to improve in efficacy and safety; yet, it results in lower rates of occlusion.

 

Early diffusion-weighted MRI lesions after treatment of unruptured intracranial aneurysms:

J Neurosurg 126:1070–1078, 2017

Diffusion-weighted MRI was used to assess periprocedural lesion load after repair of unruptured intracranial aneurysms (UIA) by microsurgical clipping (MC) and endovascular coiling (EC).

METHODS Patients with UIA were assigned to undergo MC or EC according to interdisciplinary consensus and underwent diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) 1 day before and 1 day after aneurysm treatment. Newly detected lesions by DWI after treatment were the primary end point of this prospective study. Lesions detected by DWI were categorized as follows: A) 1–3 DWI spots < 10 mm, B) > 3 DWI spots < 10 mm, C) single DWI lesion > 10 mm, or D) DWI lesion related to surgical access.

RESULTS Between 2010 and 2014, 99 cases were included. Sixty-two UIA were treated by MC and 37 by EC. There were no significant differences between groups in age, sex, aneurysm size, occurrence of multiple aneurysms in 1 patient, or presence of lesions detected by DWI before treatment. Aneurysms treated by EC were significantly more often located in the posterior circulation (p < 0.001). Diffusion-weighted MRI detected new lesions in 27 (43.5%) and 20 (54.1%) patients after MC and EC, respectively (not significant). The pattern of lesions detected by DWI varied significantly between groups (p < 0.001). Microembolic lesions (A and B) found on DWI were detected more frequently after EC (A, 14 cases; B, 5 cases) than after MC (A, 5 cases), whereas C and D were rare after EC (C, 1 case) and occurred more often after MC (C, 12 cases and D, 10 cases). No procedure-related unfavorable outcomes were detected.

CONCLUSIONS According to the specific techniques, lesion patterns differ between MC and EC, whereas the frequency of new lesions found on DWI is similar after occlusion of UIA. In general, the lesion load was low in both groups, and lesions were clinically silent. Clinical trial registration no.: NCT01490463 (clinicaltrials.gov)

Comparison of clipping and coiling in elderly patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms

J Neurosurg 126:811–818, 2017

The comparative effectiveness of the 2 treatment options—surgical clipping and endovascular coiling—for unruptured cerebral aneurysms remains an issue of debate and has not been studied in clinical trials. The authors investigated the association between treatment method for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and outcomes in elderly patients.

METHODS The authors performed a cohort study of 100% of Medicare fee-for-service claims data for elderly patients who had treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms between 2007 and 2012. To control for measured confounding, the authors used propensity score conditioning and inverse probability weighting with mixed effects to account for clus- tering at the level of the hospital referral region (HRR). An instrumental variable (regional rates of coiling) analysis was used to control for unmeasured confounding and to create pseudo-randomization on the treatment method.

RESULTS During the study period, 8705 patients underwent treatment for unruptured cerebral aneurysms and met the study inclusion criteria. Of these patients, 2585 (29.7%) had surgical clipping and 6120 (70.3%) had endovascular coiling. Instrumental variable analysis demonstrated no difference between coiling and clipping in 1-year postoperative mortality (OR 1.25, 95% CI 0.68–2.31) or 90-day readmission rate (OR 1.04, 95% CI 0.66–1.62). However, clipping was associ- ated with a greater likelihood of discharge to rehabilitation (OR 6.39, 95% CI 3.85–10.59) and 3.6 days longer length of stay (LOS; 95% CI 2.90–4.71). The same associations were present in propensity score–adjusted and inverse probability–weighted models.

CONCLUSIONS In a cohort of Medicare patients, there was no difference in mortality and the readmission rate between clipping and coiling of unruptured cerebral aneurysms. Clipping was associated with a higher rate of discharge to a rehabilitation facility and a longer LOS.

A new comorbidities index for risk stratification for treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms

Aneurysm surgery

J Neurosurg 125:713–719, 2016

Comorbidities have an impact on risk stratification for outcomes in analyses of large patient databases. Although the Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) and the Elixhauser Comorbidity Index (ECI) are the most commonly used comorbidity indexes, these have not been validated for patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysms; therefore, the authors created a comorbidity index specific to these patients.

Methods The authors extracted all records involving unruptured cerebral aneurysms treated with clipping, coiling, or both from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (2002–2010). They assessed the effect of 37 variables on poor outcome and used the results to create a risk score for these patients. The authors used a validation data set and bootstrapping to evaluate the new index and compared it to CCI and ECI in prediction of poor outcome, mortality, length of stay, and hospital charges.

Results The index assigns integer values (-2 to 7) to 20 comorbidities: neurological disorder, renal insufficiency, gastrointestinal bleeding, paralysis, acute myocardial infarction, electrolyte disorder, weight loss, metastatic cancer, drug abuse, arrhythmia, coagulopathy, cerebrovascular accident, psychosis, alcoholism, perivascular disease, valvular disease, tobacco use, hypothyroidism, depression, and hypercholesterolemia. Values are summed to determine a patient’s risk score. The new index was better at predicting poor outcome than CCI or ECI (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC] 0.814 [95% CI 0.798–0.830], vs 0.694 and 0.712, respectively, for the other indices), and it was also better at predicting mortality (AUC 0.775 [95% CI 0.754–0.792], vs 0.635 and 0.657, respectively, for CCI and ECI).

Conclusions This new comorbidity index outperforms the CCI and ECI in predicting poor outcome, mortality, length of stay, and total charges for patients with unruptured cerebral aneurysm. Reevaluation of other patient cohorts is warranted to determine the impact of more accurate patient stratification.

A Reappraisal of Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms: A Case for Stent-Assisted Embolization

Anterior Communicating Artery Aneurysms- A Case for Stent-Assisted Embolization

Neurosurgery 78:200–207, 2016

Wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms represent a subset of lesions with challenging endovascular treatment despite new endoluminal and intrasaccular devices.

OBJECTIVE: To assess the long-term clinical and angiographic outcomes of stentassisted embolization for wide-necked anterior communicating artery aneurysms.

METHODS: Between March 2008 and March 2014, 32 patients with unruptured widenecked AComm aneurysms were treated using stent-assisted embolization. The Glasgow Outcome Scale was reviewed at the time of discharge and at latest follow-up. Ischemic and hemorrhagic events were also recorded and analyzed. Aneurysm occlusion was evaluated post-intervention and on subsequent follow-up evaluations.

RESULTS: Successful stent deployment was achieved in all cases, but in 1 patient the coils could not be contained inside the aneurysm, and the procedure was aborted without complications. The distal segment of the stent was positioned in the ipsilateral A2 in 16 patients, in the contralateral A2 in 15 patients, and in the contralateral A1 in 1 patient. There were no periprocedural thromboembolic or hemorrhagic complications. The rate of major complications was 6%. One patient developed intracranial hemorrhage related to antiplatelet therapy and another had ischemic events due to in-stent stenosis. Angiographic follow-up was available for 26 aneurysms and during a mean follow-up of 22 months, 81% of the lesions were completely occluded and 8% had a small residual neck. The retreatment rate for residual aneurysms was 3%.

CONCLUSION: Our long-term results suggest that stent-assisted embolization for anterior communicating artery aneurysms may be considered an excellent treatment option with an adequate combination of safety profile and effectiveness.

Cost Comparison of Surgical and Endovascular Treatment of Unruptured Giant Intracranial Aneurysms

Virtual planning of different possible approaches for the surgical treatment of a giant carotid-ophthalmic aneurysm

Neurosurgery 77:733–743, 2015

Giant intracranial aneurysms (GIAs), which are defined as intracranial aneurysms (IAs) with a diameter of $25 mm, are most likely associated with the highest treatment costs of all IAs. However, the treatment costs of unruptured GIAs have so far not been reported. OBJECTIVE: To examine direct costs of endovascular and surgical treatment of unruptured GIAs.

METHODS: We retrospectively examined 55 patients with unruptured GIAs treated surgically (37 patients) or endovascularly (18 patients) between April 2004 and March 2014. We analyzed the costs of all hospital stays, interventions, and imaging with a median follow-up of 46 months.

RESULTS: There was no difference in the costs of hospital stay between surgical and endovascular treatment groups ($10 565 vs $14 992; P = .37). Imaging costs were significantly higher in the surgical group than in the endovascular treatment group ($2890 vs $1612; P < .01), as were the costs of the intervention room and personnel involved in the intervention ($5566 vs $1520; P < .01). Implants used per patient were more expensive in the endovascular group than in the surgical treatment group ($20885 vs $167). The total direct treatment costs were higher in the endovascular group ($52325) than in the surgical treatment group ($20619; P < .01). Treatment costs were associated with the type of treatment and GIA location but not with patient age, sex, or GIA size.

CONCLUSION: Endovascular GIA treatment produced higher direct costs than surgical GIA treatment mainly due to higher implant costs. Reducing endovascular implant costs may be the most effective tool to decrease direct costs of GIA treatment.

Long-term Functional Outcomes and Predictors of Shunt-Dependent Hydrocephalus After Treatment of Ruptured Intracranial Aneurysms in the BRAT Trial: Revisiting the Clip vs Coil Debate

Hydrocephalus

Neurosurgery 76:608–615, 2015

Acute hydrocephalus is a well-known sequela of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Controversy exists about whether open microsurgical methods serve to reduce shunt dependency compared with endovascular techniques.

OBJECTIVE: To determine predictors of shunt-dependent hydrocephalus and functional outcomes after aneurysmal SAH.

METHODS: A total of 471 patients who were part of a prospective, randomized, controlled trial from 2003 to 2007 were retrospectively reviewed. All variables including demographic data, medical history, treatment, imaging, and functional outcomes were included as part of the trial. No additional variables were retrospectively collected.

RESULTS: Ultimately, 147 patients (31.2%) required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) in our series. Age, dissecting aneurysm type, ruptured vertebrobasilar aneurysm, Fisher grade, Hunt and Hess grade, admission intraventricular hemorrhage, admission intraparenchymal hemorrhage, blood in the fourth ventricle on admission, perioperative ventriculostomy, and hemicraniectomy were significant risk factors (P < .05) associated with shunt-dependent hydrocephalus on univariate analysis. On multivariate analysis, intraventricular hemorrhage and intraparenchymal hemorrhage were independent risk factors for shunt dependency (P< .05). Clipping vs coiling treatment was not statistically associated with VPS after SAH on both univariate and multivariate analyses. Patients who did not receive a VPS at discharge had higher Glasgow Outcome Scale and Barthel Index scores and were more likely to be functionally independent and to return to work 72 months after surgery (P < .05).

CONCLUSION: There is no difference in shunt dependency after SAH among patients treated by endovascular or microsurgical means. Patients in whom shunt-dependent hydrocephalus does not develop after SAH tend to have improved long-term functional outcomes.

Endovascular and Surgical Treatment of Internal Carotid Bifurcation Aneurysms: Comparison of Results, Outcome, and Mid-Term Follow-up

Categorization of aneurysms by their origin and projection

Neurosurgery 76:540–551, 2015

Aneurysms of the internal carotid artery (ICA) bifurcation are rare, and no studies have compared patient outcomes after endovascular vs surgical treatment.

OBJECTIVE: To report the safety, efficacy, and follow-up outcome of these 2 treatment options for patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms.

METHODS: Patient and aneurysm characteristics, treatment results, and follow-up outcomes (at 30 months) were analyzed from patient records and review of imaging findings.

RESULTS: A total of 58 patients with ICA bifurcation aneurysms were treated. By interdisciplinary consensus, 30 aneurysms were assigned for coiling and 28 for clipping. Patients who underwent surgical clipping were younger and had larger aneurysms. More patients were assigned to coiling if their aneurysms originated only from the ICA bifurcation or projected superiorly. For the combined angiographic endpoint, complete and nearly complete occlusion (Raymond-Roy I + II), similar rates of 96% (coiling) or 100% (clipping) could be achieved. Raymond-Roy I occlusion occurred more often after clipping (79% vs 41% coiling). Follow-up of the endovascular group showed minor recanalization of the aneurysm neck (Raymond-Roy II) in 42%. One patient (4%) showed a major recanalization (Raymond-Roy III) and needed re-treatment. For incidental findings, no bleeding complications or new persistent neurological deficits occurred during follow-up.

CONCLUSION: Treatment of ICA bifurcation aneurysms after interdisciplinary assignment to clipping or coiling is effective and safe. Despite significantly more minor recanalizations after coiling, the re-treatment rate was very low, and no bleeding was observed during follow-up. Multivariate analysis revealed that origin only from the ICA bifurcation was an independent predictor of aneurysm recanalization after endovascular treatment.

High-Resolution Angioscopic Imaging During Endovascular Neurosurgery

High-Resolution Angioscopic Imaging During Endovascular Neurosurgery

Neurosurgery 75:171–180, 2014

Endoluminal optical imaging, or angioscopy, has not seen widespread application during neurointerventional procedures, largely as a result of the poor imaging resolution of existing angioscopes. Scanning fiber endoscopes (SFEs) are a novel endoscopic platform that allows high-resolution video imaging in an ultraminiature form factor that is compatible with currently used distal access endoluminal catheters.

OBJECTIVE: To test the feasibility and potential utility of high-resolution angioscopy with an SFE during common endovascular neurosurgical procedures.

METHODS: A 3.7-French SFE was used in a porcine model system to image endothelial disruption, ischemic stroke and mechanical thrombectomy, aneurysm coiling, and flowdiverting stent placement.

RESULTS: High-resolution, video-rate imaging was shown to be possible during all of the common procedures tested and provided information that was complementary to standard fluoroscopic imaging. SFE angioscopy was able to assess novel factors such as aneurysm base coverage fraction and side branch patency, which have previously not been possible to determine with conventional angiography.

CONCLUSION: Endovascular imaging with an SFE provides important information on factors that cannot be assessed fluoroscopically and is a novel platform on which future neurointerventional techniques may be based because it allows for periprocedural inspection of the integrity of the vascular system and the deployed devices. In addition, it may be of diagnostic use for inspecting the vascular wall and postprocedure device evaluation.

Early recurrent hemorrhage after coil embolization in ruptured intracranial aneurysms

Neuroradiology (2012) 54:719–726 DOI 10.1007/s00234-011-0950-3

The authors present a series of patients in whom early rebleeding occurred after coiling for ruptured aneurysms. We investigated the incidence and possible mechanisms of early rebleeding.

Methods This study consisted of 1,167 consecutive patients who underwent coiling for a ruptured saccular aneurysm. Clinical and radiological data were collected retrospectively from three institutions. Early rebleeding was defined as occurrence of further bleeding within 30 days after coiling with worsening of the patient’s condition. We divided early rebleeding into hyperacute, subacute, and delay groups depending on the timing of rebleeding after coil embolization.

Results Incidence of early rebleeding after coiling of a ruptured saccular aneurysm was 1.1% (13 of 1,167), and mortality was 31% (4 of 13) in our series. Out of ten patients in hyperacute group, three (30%) had incomplete occlusion result and six patients (60%) underwent intraarterial (IA) infusion of abciximab or tirofiban during the procedures. Seven patients (70%) had an intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) on initial computed tomography. Four patients died, another four sustained severe disabilities, and the others had good recovery. All three patients in subacute and delay group showed recanalization on post-rebleeding angiography and made an excellent recovery.

Conclusion Early rebleeding was associated with high mortality and morbidity. IA abciximab infusion or thrombolytic interventions during the procedure, maintenance of anticoagulation after the procedure, incomplete treatment of the aneurysms, and presence of ICH seemed to be related to hyperacute early rebleeding after coiling. Increased aneurysmal size and coil compaction could induce subacute and delayed early rebleeding.

Neuroembolization may expose patients to radiation doses previously linked to tumor induction

Acta Neurochir (2012) 154:33–41. DOI 10.1007/s00701-011-1209-9

Epidemiological studies indicate a link between low-dose irradiation (<10,000 mGy) to the head and the local occurrence of tumors after decades of delay. Comparable radiation doses can be reached during neuroendovascular procedures (NEP), but the incidence of similar exposures has not been completely delineated. We compared the levels of radiation to the head measured during NEP to those reported for patients developing radiation-induced cancers.

Methods In our prospective study we determined the cumulative maximum entrance skin doses (MESD) and the incidence of epilation in 107 consecutive patients submitted to NEP between 2003 and 2007. We also extensively searched the literature and compared our results with the data we found.

Results The cumulative MESD due to NEP was above 3,000 mGy (range 3,101–5,421 mGy) in 18 patients. In 22 we observed partial epilation within 10 weeks from the initial NEP. Sixty cases of epilation after NEP have been previously reported in the literature. The average of the reported MESD was 4,241 mGy (range 2,000–6,640 mGy).

Conclusion Physical dosimetry and the incidence of partial epilation indicate that about one fifth of the patients submitted to NEP received radiation doses comparable to those linked to the occurrence of tumors. The potential risks of developing tumors after a long delay, when compared to the immediate benefits of endovascular treatment of aneurysm and arteriovenous malformations (AVM) of the brain, do not counterindicate NEP, but increased awareness of the risk should help physicians and patients to make a fully informed decision when other treatments are available.